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---=== Ideas 1-20 ===---


    1. There are a number of ways that employment can be created by government. The most obvious is to embark upon a series of public works programmes. Repairing and modernizing sewers, building a water national grid system based upon the existing redundant natural gas pipelines, new airports, more motorways, alternative electricity generation by wind, wave, tidal, fusion and solar energy, etc. Many of these projects it can be argued are from an economic point of view unnecessary. Tidal projects on the River's Severn and Mersey may well go the same way as the abandoned project for the Wash, on the east coast. A reawakening of the need for non-polluting energy may make these projects, plus the scheme for obtaining electricity from Icelandic geothermal energy, transmitted to the UKGB by superconductors, look not only attractive but essential programmes in the fight to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from power stations. They would provide further employment whilst improving the environment. The British Government's policy since 1979 has however been one of not financing large projects, the Channel Tunnel included. I personally preferred the multi-stay road & rail bridge project, since it would have been a visible high tech example of British supremacy in civil engineering. There is not much prestige to be gained by building a hole in the ground, since both the Swiss and the Japanese had already admirably demonstrated their capabilities in that field.

    2. images my ideas/shut employment sea current generators.jpg
      SHUT: Sea current generators
    3. The British Government's refusal to build a national cable TV network using fibre optics, was in my opinion a short sighted decision. To leave it to private enterprise was a disgrace. The export potential for fibre optics, in which the UK led the world, would have been enormous. The social impact of having a cable TV network was almost incalculable. It would further the establishment of a cashless society via video shopping, which in turn would cut down shop lifting and other overheads, resulting in cheaper goods. It would also lead of course to more redundancies in banking and the retail trade. There are unfortunately disadvantages to most advances in technology, usually leading to less demand on manpower. A cable TV network would however make general elections and referendums possible by electronic means. Outdated electoral registers would no longer exist. Greater democracy would be established. Maybe that is why Mrs GG effectively torpedoed the project. As it was, only Westminster and a few other places would benefit from it. With any luck it would not be too long before this technology was superseded by ground to satellite to Earth laser communications, which would permit a higher data rate than that possible with radio frequencies, placing it on a par with fibre optics.

    4. Even toady the UK's internet network is still a whipping post for politicians. As of 2019 HMG still wants to bring about a fibre network, whilst Virgin Media have other ideas with the introduction of VIVID 500, that's 500Mb/s download and 35Mb/s upload using copper cable.

    5. Advances being made in superconductivity research at this time, would no doubt make magnetically levitated trains a practical proposition. Such mag-lev trains would be more comfortable to travel in, be faster and cost less to operate. The construction of such a rail network would meaningfully employ many thousands of people. Researched in the 1970s by scientist Eric Braithwaite in the UK, maglev trains are considered a status symbol, the only maglev link being in Shanghai. The cost of elevated track and rare earth magnet being considerable. It was he, in 1974, who first proposed anti-gravity propulsion in a Royal Institute lecture, later published as 'Engineer Through The Looking Glass. This theory was patented in 1999. In 1990 he worked on the PRT maglev rocket launch assist system for NASA. Today, 2019, most of us are still waiting for maglev trains and anti-gravity. It would appear that the future of trains, assuming that they are still economical, in the face of air taxis, lies in fuel cell technology. By swopping over cryogenic fuel cell modules at the end of a trip, it is possible to power an electric train where an overhead pantograph & power system is absent.

    6. In a country such as Great Britain, whose future depends upon competing in high technology on an international basis, the government should ensure that the latest ideas in research receive immediate financial support leading to full scale manufacture in as short a period of time as possible. Developments in new materials such as hydraulic cement, new modes of transport such as tilt rotor VTOL (Vertical Take-Off & Landing) aircraft, and above all interactive video disc and erasable disc technology (something which the Japanese excel at), are projects which require determined government support in order to ensure that high levels of employment are maintained. We no longer live in societies where individuals alone can create substantial jobs. It is governments through grants to industries and universities, and through the control of import tariffs, who effectively control the number of people in work.

    7. What is becoming abundantly clear is the pointlessness of handing out grants and tax incentives to companies engaged in the manufacture of traditional products, who when established, compete with and hence undermine established industry engaged in providing a similar product or service. The courting of Nissan to Tyne & Wear, to compete against the nationalised Austin Rover car manufacturer at a time when there was already gross over capacity of automobile manufacture in the EEC, demonstrates how little thought goes into the spending of tax payer's money. Nissan's project although scheduled to expand further, is in the long term unlikely to create more jobs and increase government revenue overall. From the trade union movement's point of view, Nissan was a Trojan horse, designed to force workers into becoming slitty eyed workaholics. The Ford UK strike in February 1988 highlighted this problem. As with so many engineering companies, Ford was to see its workforce cut in half over a ten year period, in the quest to retain a competitive edge through greater automation. One has to ask therefore whether there are more important reasons for handing out grants.

    8. Most of what you read here was written years ago. Whilst proof reading this redundancies at Nissan are in the air. In December 2015 Nissan unveiled its smart-home. I thought at the time that five of these inside a biome could be the basis for a truly zero carbon home.

    9. The establishment of an industry which does not already exist, within the nation to any extent, and which furthers high technology, is one which in my opinion should receive greater priority. Such an industry is space research and development. Whether we like it or not the world is becoming more science orientated. The Japanese Government's commitment to building a series of science cities across the nation, and the PRC's declaration to build its own space station and explore the Moon, are clear indicators of the way ahead for mankind. The UK already has established centres of scientific research. The building of science cities in the UK is therefore not essential, but the building of space orientated satellite towns in areas of high unemployment would help to rejuvenate many cities that have lost their traditional industries.

    10. Further details into economic and social issues in the UK can be found on the following websites:

    11. The British Government's refusal to increase the British National Space Centre's, now the United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA), budget from one hundred and twenty million pounds to three hundred million pounds to part finance the European Space Agency's (ESA) manned space programme, was by many considered unbelievable. The amount asked for was about a third of what France spent on space at this time in late 1987. To many the price was already being paid in unemployment and supplementary benefits, wasted regional grants and tax incentives, plus the increased cost to the nation's prison and health systems. The spin-offs of employment in space related industries could be measured in a lower crime rate, better industrial relations and better health resulting from the generation of a sense of purpose and the creation of an esprit de corps, not to mention advances in technology itself. At one time people use to say that the money spent on space would be better used in building hospitals, etc.

    12. In 1984 the British Government under PM Margaret Thatcher decided to do neither. Instead it handed the money back to the affluent by reducing the top rate of taxation from 83% to 60% per cent. Then two years later it was reduced again to 40%. During the second world war it stood at a loyal 99.25%, stepping down to 90% in the 1950s and 1960s, causing the Beatles to write the song Mister Taxman. We have now had thirty years of low income tax for the rich. One of the main causes of the financial down turn we are experiencing today in the early twenty-first century. The top rate of income tax was possible since the sale of nationalised assets financed the scheme, but that money soon dissipated, leaving a huge national debt. It was a huge con which political parties have failed to reverse. The money should have gone into a Sovereign Wealth Fund to finance new industries such as space research and micro-electronics to build communication, weather, navigation and Earth resources satellites, but HMG couldn't see this in 1971 when it scrapped the Black Arrow rocket immediately after it launched Prospero from Woomera in South Australia. In 1988 HMG closed the Skillcentres when it should have upgraded them to train IT workers. The younger generation are expected to endure the repercussions of this for most of their lives. HMG has no vision and no business sense, just a mindless beaucracy infested with apathy. Just how can a space industry survive in such an environment?

    13. ESA's space programme has evolved in recent decades from Ariane 5 to a more competitive Ariane 6, and not the British reusable single stage to orbit Skylon spaceplane. HMG's stance against man in space has isolated it from ESA members, who through the manned Columbus module are participating with NASA over the ISS. Alienation from other ESA members has resulted in the UK being thrown out of the Galileo satellite navigation project, due to Brexit, with threats from HMG that it will develop a competing system, as if we needed anymore? Will HMG partake in ESA's Gateway contribution to NASA's manned space program back to the Moon?

    14. In addition to collaboration with ESA and other space agencies, the UK did have the capability to go it alone in certain areas. The potential of the world renown BBC World Service transmitting in video from direct broadcast satellites to the world would be enormous. It would provide a major contribution in understanding between nations, acting as a catalyst for world peace. It would also increase British prestige around the world and British exports, since the system should be financed by a compulsory advertising levy on British industry. It would act as a guiding light as far as programme quality was concerned, in a field already saturated by cheap commercialization.

    15. The move towards a science orientated society would place additional strain on the education system. Science not only requires scientists, but also engineers and technicians. In a global high tech world where millions of graduates are produced each year, drastic action is necessary. Our higher education system should be replaced by specific job training, carried out by professional guilds, after successful completion of national service. Each apprentice, having signed a life contract with an employer/HMG. They would be paid directly by HMG, but the company that trains them would have first say in where they are employed. Breaking a contract, by either side, would be illegal, although employees could be contracted out to another organisation, if all parties are willing. This method ensures that capabilities were not wasted, and that an employer's needs are satisfied. The number of apprentices a company was required to take on would be determined by the amount of profit that company was making, and as laid out in government legislation and economic plans. Advances in AI, thereby eliminating jobs that compose mainly of repetitive tasks, would greatly influence how long the working week would be.

    16. For the unemployed the system of short TOPS courses like the ones I went on, should be replaced by two year courses leading to recognised qualifications in up to date employment orientated subjects, again sponsored by industry. This would be similar to the scheme that existed at this time in Germany. In order to keep costs down whilst at the same time maintaining a high standard, a standardized approach to education using expert systems stored on interactive compact and video discs is preferred. Classes could be monitored by prefects, since teachers would be in greater demand for practical lessons, the arts, sport, entertainment, etc. It maybe possible to engage in most interactive computer based education and training at home. Each profession would have a job description laid down by British Standards, in collaboration with employers and HMG. As a former industrial engineer and engineering draughtsman, I know that in order for things to work well, it is necessary for the existence of specific instructions. Success is in the detail.

    17. images my ideas/shut employment wind turbine at low tide.jpg
      SHUT: Wind turbine at low tide
    18. Governments can create demand through legislation, such as increasing pollution controls for farms and power stations. The construction of the necessary equipment to do this would generate jobs. Employment demand could also be generated by banning automobiles, buses and taxis over ten years old from public highways, and replacing them with British built electric hire cars, driven by AI. Jobs in the construction industry could be created by demolishing buildings over fifty years of age, except those of architectural and historical importance, and replacing them with environmentally friendly homes for extended families. However, the environmental cost could prove to be unacceptable.

    19. Grants to industry which lead to a reduction in the nation's import bill, should receive top priority. The manufacture of articles made from hydraulic cement instead of imported steel and aluminium, is one such example. Hydraulic cement was demonstrated on BBC's Tomorrow's World decades ago. The manufacture of plastic substitutes derived from indigenously produced timber, is another means of reducing imports, in this case oil and its associated pollution.

    20. Hopefully arms reduction talks between the super powers would lead eventually to meaningful reductions in defence expenditure all round, providing the opportunity for greater foreign aid, which in turn would stimulate and enlarge the world's free trade area, creating more jobs. Many third world countries are impeded from developing quickly, due to high energy costs. Building ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and geothermal energy power stations, whilst tapping into other sources of renewable energy, as part of a foreign aid programme, therefore makes sense. Converting the world's stockpile of thermonuclear warheads into fuel for fast breeder nuclear reactors for the third world, is an option which should not be ignored.

    21. With the Russian invasion of Ukraine in March 2022, hopeful arms reduction talks appeared a long way off. Trade embargoes against Russia as a result, led to a global crisis in energy, since Russia was a major exporter. The UK prime minister was unable to get his energy plan approved by cabinet and treasury in late March 2022.

    22. With the cost of energy going through the roof in the UK, one assumes that HMG has a secret plan of action. So what could it contain? Will it be a windfall tax on energy companies as the Labour Party promotes? Such a plan has the benefit of being instantaneous. Construction projects however take years, but they do create jobs for people who can then pay their energy bills, but of course not everyone will get a job. Take me for instance. I'm retired on basic state pension. I will sit at home and watch my savings slowly disappear in energy bills. There is no support from HMG for me. And for how long will this go on for. If it's linked to the war in the Ukraine, then it's likely to go on for as long as the civil war in Syria......eleven years. So what construction projects could HMG put the nation to?

    23. Off the north coast of Scotland there are presently three sea current generators under test. When will they be put into mass production? Surely HMG has the necessary performance data by now? Then there is micro hydro electric on rivers and mountain streams. A geothermal project is underway in Cornwall I believe, whilst there are numerous plans for coastal tidal barrages, going back half a century to one across the Wash. The largest proposed Severn Barrage across the Bristol Channel would take about 4 years to build and generate 15GW of electrical energy, much of which would be stored in a reservoir on Exmoor for use when needed. On the other hand, Sizewell C will only generate 3.2MW, creating loads of radioactive waste in the process, and take three times longer to build. The Mulberry Harbours for D-Day took less than 2 years to build. So why is it that such technology is as illusive as photo-voltaic production and the insulation of UK homes?

    24. As for on-shore wind farms, I remember seeing such magnificence near my mother's home at Finedon, Northants. The windiest parts of the UK are Pembrokeshire and Anglesey, the latter where I use to live. I'm sure there are plenty of people there who would dearly love to be in employment due to the closure of Anglesey Aluminium and Wylfa nuclear power station. So why is HMG dithering? Is Boris deliberately making hard work for his successor, or is there a secret plan that only the Royal Navy with its bean weapons is privy to. I of course refer to HB11. What is HB11? Has it ever been debated in the House of Commons? Just how far is HMG supporting this programme with the EU? When will it become a reality, by producing electricity at every one of the world's sub-stations? It is the only green energy technology that could be mass produced in the millions to combat global warming on schedule........if only someone could get it to work. Have they?

    25. Images Wikimedia Commons/1 Vitafougue Makai's_Ocean_Thermal_Energy_Conversion_Scale_Up.jpg
      WC: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    26. So assuming we could get all these green energy plants to work, what do we then do with this energy. Well electric cars will need it, as will electric central heating, but right now there is an even greater need. Has it occurred to anyone in HMG that the EU is now desperate for a replacement for Russian gas, just as British workers are desperate for real jobs? It was the Conservative government under PM Margaret Thatcher that scrapped engineering and manufacturing in the UK by telling firms to relocate to eastern Europe and the Far East. It's time that that mistake was rectified, and with any luck we can then pay off our debts.

    27. As for restoring the top rate of income tax to pre Thatcher era, somehow I don't think any political party has the honesty to do it, because to do it at a time when we are 2 to 4 trillion pounds in debt would require a rate of at least 90%.


    1. Reducing the hours in a week that an individual works, thereby ensuring that everyone remains in employment, can be achieved in a variety of ways. HMG could vary the hours on an annual basis according to the demands of employers. To do this the government would have to apply the techniques of production engineering to the management of society. It would be necessary to obtain the total annual standard minutes, from employers, each employed person was required to perform. This would also lead to better management, plus the employment of industrial engineers in all concerns, including government.

    2. images my ideas/shut Clock Prague.jpg
      SHUT: It's time the working week was reduced
    3. The introduction of a more meaningful and non-brutalizing national service (conscription) of say two years training followed by one months service each year, is not only a way of reducing working time thereby creating a demand for workers, but also a way of instilling discipline and a sense of belonging back into society. National service should not just be military in nature. It should include work on farms and in hospitals, to counter staff shortages, plus maintenance to homes occupied by the elderly and disabled.

    4. By making higher education compulsory and free, the number of years a person was actually engaged in the productive part of their working life span would be greatly reduced.

    5. Longer holidays and more bank holidays is another way of reducing actual working time, as would the banning of overtime. Part time jobs, contracts and self employment should not be allowed either. Companies would have to employ a minimum of one thousand people, as smaller concerns would not be able to accommodate training courses, social club and canteen facilities, for their work force. Inventors would be 'employed' along with their research staff, by the Department of Trade & Industry (DTI).

    6. My mother's parents, pictured here, lived together from marriage to death, through thick and thin. Through shear luck they lived in a society based upon traditional values, in harmony with one another and their environment. It's time to restore those values, creating a higher level of civilisation in the process.

    7. images my ideas/1915 typed 1 George & Hilda's marriage certificate.jpg
      1915 George & Hilda Millard's marriage certificate

      images my ideas/1915-9 Goerge & Hilda Millard in wedding 008.jpg
      1915 George & Hilda Millard's wedding

    8. A person should be entitled by law to go on a qualification course of say one year every ten. This would become all too necessary as industry evolved rapidly as technology advanced, in order to counter the threat of competition.

    9. Employment is important not just for financial reasons but also to give a person an identity in society, a purpose in life, a reason for getting about and making friends. It would promote the human interactions necessary for good mental health. As automation advances, the working week would be progressively reduced, to a minimum of say ten hours per week. For psychological reasons it cannot approach zero.

    10. To make marriage more attractive and employment arrangements more secure, the male breadwinner working away from home should be encouraged. The housewife would be paid to have a child, look after it and educate it until the age of seven years. This would create the incentive for people to get married and stay married. Also, flexitime should be universal, to allow for leisure activities. Marriage for the procreation of children, should be promoted, in order to ensure that there are sufficient people to maintain and protect our civilisation. One of the reasons why the Roman empire collapsed. In the distant future, even with the growth of a fetus within an artificial womb, its development after birth, will still require a stable family background in order to ensure further development. Children would look after the medical needs of the elderly, whilst the elderly would teach the young social qualities. Education via PC linked to the Internet, would be in street classes, moving from house to house on a weekly basis, accompanied by the elderly, in order to promote community spirit. There would be no primary schools. Secondary schools would be replaced by residential military academies, culminating in national service and job training. The military academies would be centred upon stately homes and other buildings of historical importance, designed to instil excellence.

    11. Until SPEVs (Specific Person Electronic Vouchers) comes along, it will be necessary to ensure that you receive the full amount of benefits entitle d to you. With the advancement of automation and artificial intelligence, it's obvious that wages will have to be supplemented by benefits. Here are listed links to some organisations in the UK that advise in this respect. When you work National Insurance is deducted from your earnings, to the government, by your employer. It is only right therefore that you claim back what is due to you. When not employed you must register immediately as unemployed or sick, as not to do so will reduce your pension entitlement and other benefits.


      images my ideas/shut Trio in wood.jpg
      SHUT: A walk in the woods
    1. In a highly automated society, insufficient job satisfaction and inadequate purposeful employment will be apparent. The creation of a leisure orientated society which would instil feelings of purpose and satisfaction, thereby maintaining a civilised cohesive entity, is essential if the human race is to survive into the foreseeable future. Creating a leisure orientated society will not only cost an enormous amount of money to establish, but will also require drastic fundamental changes in the way society operates, and more importantly in the way people view work and reward.

    2. Artificial Intelligence and androids will be introduced into the workplace by 2030, although expert systems software is likely to replace jobs in call centres and concessions areas in stores before then. Amazon Fresh opened the UK's first automated concessions system in March 2021 in west London. Just load the app onto your cell phone at the entrance and as you walk out with your groceries you are automatically charged for them. There are hundreds of thousands of people working in concessions (behind the till) in the UK, many of them young with few employment prospects. The pace of change depends largely upon government policy. The policy in the UK is one not of a science based economy, but instead that of a quick fix, where graduates having spent ten years in higher education are employed on a project related basis only, whilst many of them are recruited from abroad. As for the pace of change, it is much swifter in the PRC than the UK, but with the introduction of AI into government and company planning, the pace is likely to pick up just about everywhere. Will the human race be able to cope?

    3. People would still have a job, although the number of hours actually worked would probably be around ten hours per week, and would consist mainly of supervising the supervisors, and attending meetings related to company policy and future planning. The importance of keeping people occupied in order to keep crime rates low, is the fundamental reason for having people engaged in leisure activities. The relief of stress whilst raising the quality of life through active participation in sport, is justification enough for the expenditure of huge sums of money to finance the building of huge sport and leisure centres.

    4. In a leisure orientated society, people would be paid to pursue sport and leisure activities in addition to receiving their company wage, company annual profits bonus, company share dividend and state universal benefit. It was a pity that at this time the British Government was not creating worker co-operatives out of state owned assets, since many of the workers from these once nationalised industries would later be made redundant with nothing but the dole to fall back on. Instead, most of the shares in the sale of nationalised industries, would be bought by wealthy institutions.

    5. Images Wikimedia Commons/Anne Burgess Gliding_Competition_at_Aboyne_Airfield_-_geograph.org.uk_-_4832.jpg
      WC: Gliding

    6. At the very least, payments for sport and leisure involvement would be necessary in order to overcome people's resigned acceptance of their otherwise imposed sedentary lifestyle. To be paid for pursuing sport and leisure activities may sound ridiculous, but the reasons are obvious even as I write this. With the growth of television in the 196Os, British society became far more introverted, whilst the sale of alcohol in supermarkets coupled with the fear of crime on the streets speeded up this trend. Being propositioned by female and gay prostitutes, resulted in people going out less in the evenings, and speaking to one another less, even within the family. Lack of sufficient human interaction is a major cause of mental illness and crime. Advances in information technology will increase this trend if it is not counteracted by the creation of an attractive alternative, such as sport and leisure employment.

    7. Images Wikimedia Commons/Eric Hackathorn Sl_scuba.jpg
      WC: Scuba Diving

    8. Leisure centres and amusement - theme parks have been around for many years in Great Britain and elsewhere. As in many other countries the main stumbling block to their utilization has been afford ability of access by visitors, and the weather. Access would be free. Hopefully technology will be able to solve the weather problem by building huge domes possibly a kilometre in diameter, which will enable an hospitable artificial environment to be created, including wave generators and wind machines for surfing, sailing and parachuting, etc. Similar structures for sport already exist in Japan, Dubai, Germany, etc.

    9. Each sport and leisure complex would serve roughly one hundred thousand people, located where good communications by road and rail existed. Given the necessary encouragement, by government, the necessary finance could be found by private enterprise.

    10. Images Wikimedia Commons/Tropical Islands Resort Wasserfall-Lodge_im_Tropical_Islands.jpg
      WC: Waterfall Lodges at Tropical Islands, Germany

    11. Many sports such as rock climbing, gliding, scuba diving, micro light flying, motor racing and ballooning, etcetera, carry a certain amount of risk. Hopefully an enlightened general public will see the long term benefits of such risky pastimes, and consider it justified. In a controlled environment these risks would be kept to a minimum. With increasing age, people become less adventurous and able. For senior citizens and the disabled, lighter pursuits such as gardening and collecting, would be considered acceptable alternatives, for which monetary reward would be given. Only approved activities involving human interaction and skill would be eligible for financial reward. For those considered physically fit, human effort would also be considered a requirement. A programme of sport and leisure activities would therefore be drawn up to suit each individual, with emphasis on mental as well as physical capabilities and needs.

    12. The average British family watched twenty-seven hours of television per week in the 1980s, whilst the main participating sports were darts and snooker at the local public house or working men's club. As for Birmingham, hardly any pub had games facilities. For the population as a whole, gardening and attending sports matches as a spectator were less actively pursued. Improving the quality of people's lives should be the main priority of any government. At this time British sport was confined to drab Victorian stadiums, since rebuilt, with many of those people present, merely spectators. Whilst Dubai can have a minister for happiness, the average UK citizen gets a one hundred and twenty year old Victorian hovel, and the drab British climate, to dampen any feelings of healthy longevity. So much for twenty-first century sci-fi.

    13. Images Wikimedia Commons/Iamthanes Summit_of_peak_Kyungya_Ri_(6506m).jpg
      WC: Mountaineering

    14. In a leisure orientated society, retirement is meaningless, since the number of hours worked would be only that necessary to give an individual an identity. The replacement of retirement with paid leisure, would add quality to the lives of senior citizens, who under the present system feel rejected and forgotten.

4...Employment, Getting A Job

    1. Lets take a look at the present system:

      There are numerous reasons why I and most people in the UK cannot get a worthwhile job. Some of those reasons are as follows:

    2. Images Wikimedia Commons/4 Lime Bye Monorail_Lime_and_Spaceship_Earth_(3775235515).jpg
      WC: Be A Ticket Inspector On An Automated Train

    3. 1 The 1974 Rehabilitation of Offenders Act (ROOA). This denies ex-cons the opportunity to work in the transport sector, emergency services, civil service such as Highways Agency, education, health, lorry driver, Royal Mail, etc. As a draughtsman and building services engineer I am not allowed to work on defence, law court and prison contracts. I am also not allowed to work in many countries outside the European Union. Without CRB (Criminal Records Bureau) clearance, employment in this part of the country is almost impossible. According to the media, one can get around this problem by changing ones identity by deed poll on the internet, something which I refuse to do. The number of national insurance numbers wildly exceeds the number of people working in the UK, suggesting that a huge number are working here illegally, many of whom probably work in the NHS (National Health Service) where foreigners abound. The ROOA encourages people to steal the identity of someone alive or dead if they do not want to spend the rest of their lives on welfare. It is too easy to steal someone's details from computer databases, particularly as HMG does not police the Internet effectively. They could then become a security risk when working in HMG departments or on HMG projects. This is probably the reason why HMG abandoned the smart national identity card system. It cannot be secure if you cannot determine who someone really is in the first place. As the human race becomes more mobile, this problem will become more apparent.

    4. 2 In a world of AI, where much of the management of the economy is transferred from capitalist organisations to government, because to leave AI in the hands of commerce would create an IT based disaster, how will governments be able to manage people directly if they do not know who they really are, nor even that they exist? It's thought that there are one million illegal immigrants in the UK, living with false identities. This is particularly important when the National CV Centre and SPEVs (Specific Person Electronic Vouchers) are created.

    5. 3 Under this Act of Parliament (ROOA) I am not permitted to work with vulnerable people, which could include just about anyone, including a nervous PM at an OPEC meeting in Jeddah. This Act of Parliament has inflicted billions of pounds worth of damage to the British economy. There is no rehabilitation in this legislation.

    6. 4 The quality of our education system is suspect, with one in seven children using English as a second language. There are no training courses to supplement educational courses. Government Training Centres and Skillcentres, which provided full time practical courses of 37 hours per week for 5 to 11 months, were shut down in 1988. The government does promote Learndirect, which I regard as nothing more than a means of getting ethnic minorities to learn English, and to get the long term unemployed back onto JSA (Job Seekers Allowance). Learndirect provides short courses in basic read / write, IT, business & management and languages. As for me doing a one year Masters of Business Administration....forget it, no chance. The technology taught on higher education courses tends to be decades out of date, whilst the courses are too short. They do not satisfy employers demands to be employment specific and multi-skilled. Many lecturers only teach a quarter of the syllabus, the part that their students will be examined on. The lecturer sets the exam, not the examining body. Its a system open to corruption, at the expense of the student. It's designed to ensure the job security of the lecturer, not the lasting career of the student.

    7. 5 There is a distinct lack of government vision and investment in science, technology, engineering and manufacturing (STEM). The Bank of England's call, in January 2008, to export more and import less, appears to have fallen on deaf ears. HMG has failed to create a science based society (despite my letters of insistence), and neither does it invest enough in major construction projects abroad designed to employ UK citizens. The global economy appears to be all one way, with our sea ports not being large enough to accommodate container ships. Upon leaving university most young people find themselves in the 'graduates grave', a soul destroying office environment that does anything but tax their brains. Many of the jobs I have done have been financed by regional aid. They are anything but demanding. The money would have been better spent employing the likes of me in research. In a world of AI where will we be? In the cages? Human mentality has to improve, and in the very short space of time now available.

    8. 6 It is a well known fact that your success or failure in life is greatly influenced by the advice and help that one gets from your parents. My parents spent so much time arguing amongst themselves that I could not find the courage to ask them, never mind seek financial support from them in order to go into higher education. They were both machine operators in the long since deceased, boot and shoe industry, and knew nothing about higher education anyway. For a career, I went into the merchant navy, whilst my brother went into the army, for some peace and quiet. Any entrepreneurial spirit one may have had, is simply beaten out of you at school. For most people, success in life is merely a matter of luck or class, not effort.

    9. 7 The apprenticeship appears to be a thing of the past, with companies now tightening their belt even further, with middle management becoming a distant memory. With the commercialization of higher education, courses will not take place without at least seven students. Since apprentices formed the core of these courses, most subjects in engineering and construction are no longer covered.

    10. 8 I was a navigating apprentice for four years with Shell Tankers. I took the job very seriously. It consisted of one year at college and two years at sea. There are two incidents I remember, apart from the inevitable trips with the officers to the local brothel that is. During my engine room watch experience, my personally owned new boiler suit was stencilled across the back with the words DUREX FITTER, presumably by the forth engineer, who had recently spent his shore leave in Manila having sex with eight year old girls in a Manila brothel. When we were not covered in steam from spraying the condensers with a hose to remove salt encrustation, I was assisting the fifth engineer to pack grease boxes on top of the boiler in 140°F temperatures, which we could only stand for five minutes at a time. I was the victim of hostility on three of the five ships I sailed on. Unfortunately it is not much better ashore.

    11. 9 At the end of my apprenticeship I had to take my Board of Trade exam. The third part consisted of an orals exam. I had been told at college that I would not be asked about sailing ships, so I looked at them suspiciously when they did precisely that. I answered all the questions correctly but the two examiners would repeatedly move the goal posts until I ran out of answers. Since you had to wait two months before sitting it again, I assume it was their way of ensuring their job security, not mine. I failed it three times then gave up in disgust. Until then I thought my apprenticeship had been good, but I later realised that all that time spent running the obligatory cross-country course across the moors and sailing cutters in Plymouth Sound should have been better spent. Such as how to deploy and sail a lifeboat, together with survival techniques. We should also have spent time doing Board of Trade mock exams. We never did one. Neither did we learn how to use ship's equipment, except radar.

    12. Images Wikimedia Commons/4 Pafcool2 RAC_Van.jpg
      WC: Fix Vehicles In All Weathers In The Dark

    13. About twenty years later I asked a solicitor whether I could sue Shell over the quality of my apprenticeship, but was told that I should have done it within six years of leaving my employer. At that stage of my life, I had no comprehension of the financial damage that had been inflicted, and of course I knew nothing about employment law, and know very little now. Employment law should be taught to every new company recruit, plus at least a mandatory fifteen minute private chat with the boss each month. That would solve an awful lot of problems in a nation where management does not like talking to its employees, preferring instead to hand out dismissal notices. In the case of Shell, its management were too remote from their workers, in a company where, if you did not have a degree you were simply not worth knowing. At the end of my apprenticeship I was called in for interview at Shell Centre. They wanted to know whether I would continue employment with them. I said,"No." The interviewer made some remark about me not looking as smart as my passport photograph. He also referred to pay and conditions without giving me any details. Never once had the company contacted me on the subject, nor had they asked me how I was getting on. The interview was then terminated. It lasted no more than five minutes. I thought they would show some interest in me and ask my why I would not continue with them, but they never did, and I was too young to be assertive.

    14. 10 During my apprenticeship I knew of two third officers given official warnings, one for falling asleep whilst on watch, and the other for doing his homework on the bridge, instead of keeping a look-out. I also recall an incident in Europort whilst on my last ship, the Naticina. I was working on deck, cargo handling at the time. It was daylight, and I noticed a slick of oil growing from the side of a Dutch M boat, 220,000 ton deadweight, berthed opposite us. I shouted and gesticulated to the officer on deck, who after running to the side to see the crude oil, dashed down into the pump room in his number one uniform to shut the sea valve. If the incident had happened at night, I shudder to think of the consequences. I recall another incident on my second ship, the Hemifusus, where on sailing from Manila to the Panama Canal, we had to divert to Honolulu, because half way across the Pacific Ocean, the chief engineer suddenly realised that we had insufficient fuel to reach our destination. In another incident, I was standing by the telegraph as the ship approached Stanlow or Tranmere oil terminal, when the pilot said, "full ahead." One of the two jetties was badly damaged. I froze. The order was given again. "Did he say full ahead," I asked the helmsman. He said nothing. I repeated the order and put the telegraph to full ahead. The captain then came in from the bridge wing and shouted,"slow ahead!" So if you employ personnel in your telephone support centre who have broad local accents, don't be surprised if your customers transfer their accounts.

    15. Since it's so easy to get fired, is it really worth spending years studying for a profession. Generally speaking, employers do not provide a contract of employment, plus written instructions on how to do the job, including a list of misdemeanors for which you can be fired. It's all hire, fire and forget. Years of training down the drain, as other companies refuse to take you on without a job reference. My cousin, who was an accountant, fell into this trap when he was caught having an affair with the director's wife. For most people it does not pay to become a professional in this country.

    16. 11 At the time, I thought my apprenticeship was great. When it came to looking for another job however, it became a handicap. Interviewers thought I had a girl in every port, when in reality it was more likely to be a buoy, with no shore leave, and a months voyage to the next buoy. limey he's not likely to stay here long, was the expression on their faces. In the end I left my apprenticeship off my cv.

    17. 12 Ageism. I know of no companies that have been prosecuted for contravening the EU law on ageism. If you are over forty you are regarded as senile sedentary, resistant to new ideas, are constantly tired and you simply do not fit in with the corporate image. Companies are not charities, they recruit the best of the best, assuming they have someone in management capable of doing it. HMG has failed to allow elderly workers to have a reduced working week, to compensate for the stress in the workplace, etc. Despite a preference for youth, there are an estimated half a million young people (16 to 24) not in employment in the UK. HMG has kept the youth unemployment figures down in recent years by raising the school leaving age for 16 to 18. And they don't get trained for a job in that time.

    18. 13 Race. If you are an immigrant, you are probably more likely to get a low paid insecure job, particularly in agriculture or construction, with common deductions consuming most of your earnings. Till discrepancies, being late, and training costs also get deleted by some employers. 52% of new job vacancies have gone to foreigners since 1997. 713,000 foreigners registered for work in 2006. 90,000 of the 210,000 doctors in the NHS are foreign. In August 2007 the Office of National Statistics reported that in one year 574,000 people migrated to UK, whilst 385,000 migrated from UK including 187,000 immigrants. 80% of UK citizens who leave the UK usually return when they realise that the economic situation is even worse abroad, with no welfare state to rely on, UK qualifications not recognised abroad, negative equity, the prickly heat, racial abuse, etc. are all deciding factors.

    19. 14 There is no professional system for getting a job. No one stop shop enshrined by law. Jobcentre officials are more concerned with gathering statistics. Where do you get the addresses of the top fifty employers in your area? I do not know. The only advice I received from them was, "If you turn up early again to sign on, we'll stop your benefit." Job seekers can use computer terminals to search a database of national vacancies, and then use free telephone facilities to call up prospective employers. I could not find any construction vacancies abroad on this database, the only job I stood any chance of getting.

    20. images my ideas/wtn Birmingham Jobcentre Plus Broad Street.jpg
      WTN: Birmingham Jobcentre Plus Broad Street
    21. 15 Many employers have nothing to do with Jobcentres, as they do not fit in with the corporate image or do not know how to contact them, whilst employment agencies are considered untrustworthy. Agencies modify Cc's, often passing them to another distant office where the staff do not realise the CV has been doctored. That counters the use of stress analysis techniques over the phone, employed by the employer. It can however put the applicant in a tight spot if it is realised by both parties at an interview that the CV has been altered, as has happened to me. A snooty mentality by employers can extend to only employing people whose postal code (property value) looks right, or you drive the right make of car. I once turned up at an interview by bus......I stood no chance. Few civil servant vacancies are advertised.

    22. 16 Many advertised vacancies require you to have a car even though the job only pays subsistence wages. Needless to say, many apply, since the stigma of being classed unemployed is simply too great. This is a nation with a history of not rewarding effort adequately. Some job descriptions are in-house and have no meaning to most job seekers. HMG has failed to provide recognised job descriptions for each profession, compiled by British Standards with assistance from professional bodies such as CIBSE in the construction industry.

    23. 17 Agencies prefer a brief CV, whilst employers prefer the opposite, often for security reasons. One never knows what to provide, until the day of rejection. Many interviewers cannot read a CV, especially of someone who has done a lot of contracting, as it is too complicated. Mine is a classic example. "You've worked at a lot of places," is a common remark from interviewers who have no understanding of contracting, usually thinking to themselves 'well he's not going to stay here long'. The older you are the more complicated your CV becomes, owing to the increasing number of companies you have worked for. Hence the HR Manager doesn't understand it, so the less likely it is that the applicant will get an interview, never mind a job.

    24. 18 Education and training content is usually a reflection of the availability and affordability of courses and the quality of the lecturer / instructor. Low attainment levels on education courses can be a reflection of the quality of teaching, as in my case, not simply the capabilities of the candidate. Belonging to a profession that uses costly software can be a distinct disadvantage when searching for employment. "What software have you used?" is a frequent question. If you have not used that companies software, then they will not take you on. HMG has failed to rationalize the use of software in the UK, perhaps the EC can. e.g. Office, CAD, CAM, CFD, FEA, DNC, Accounts, Project, PLC. I did a training course in Computer Aided Design at Birmingham Skillcentre for three months full time. The course was very good, but the software, mld2, was not used in industry. A few years later I got a colleague to get me a copy of Autocad from a friend of his in the US, where it is not protected by a dongle. I bought a PC for about 1200 pounds in 1991 and installed the software. Unfortunately engineering was already in decline, and so it was of little use. I have only worked one year since.

    25. 19 Since many agencies cannot be trusted, it does make one wonder what happens to all those personal CVs. Are they, along with details of the clients criminal record, sold off to companies, including insurance companies. Since I have a criminal record, I am not allowed Home & home contents insurance. You can see the list of rejecting insurance companies on a price comparison website. With councils selling off electoral register details to companies, and people able to change their name at the drop of a hat, it does make one wonder how it is possible to guard against identity theft.

    26. 20 Application forms can be a minefield to fill in. Many employers want to know the reason why you left a company. Put on an application form or CV, ill health, fired or wanted a better paid job, and you are unlikely to get another. One person I knew left because he wanted a change of scene. A pretty neutral answer. Some application forms want to know the earnings at each place you worked at. An impossibility in my case. Others don't want details more that ten years old, in which case I would stand no chance. In the UK there is no standard layout for a CV / job application form. In the end it's easier to fill in the Jobcentre Plus application form for incapacity benefit, all forty pages of it.

    27. 21 After your CV has been accepted, the next step is the interview. Wrong! The next step is getting to the interview. Just finding the place can be a daunting challenge, with the vast majority of companies seemingly incapable of providing the candidate with a map showing the final 200m, usually the distance from a major road to the companies main gate, or car park, if it has one. On one occasion, the company had simply photocopied a page from a road atlas, without marking on it exactly where they were. I turned off the main road at the wrong junction, slowed down when I realised I was on a slip road, and was hit in the rear. That was the last job interview I went to.

    28. 22 Some job interviews can be a total waste of time, since they are based upon ulterior motives. I have been to interviews where I felt that I was being probed in order for the interviewer to find a solution to a technical problem. In one case I left the interview feeling certain that there was no vacancy, and that I had been interviewed simply to keep the interviewer occupied, on an otherwise boring day. There are of course recruitment bonuses to be considered. At one automotive manufacturer I was asked if I wanted to buy one of the company's cars. 'Rover...you must be joking', I thought.

    29. Images Wikimedia Commons/4 Fastway_Warehouse_Crick_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1248568.jpg
      WC: Work In The Low Wage Economy

    30. 23 Today there are six pages of recruitment consultancies listed in the Birmingham central Yellow Pages business telephone directory. About fifteen years ago there were sixteen pages of them. Then of course there is the Internet and newspaper advertisements, many of which are by agencies advertising the same job vacancy. Many are fly by night operations. Where does one start? Also, many of these web based agencies mean nothing to me. I do not know who they are, so it seems crazy to give them my personal details. The stress of hunting for a job can easily be increased when one's personal data is violated by such an agency.

    31. 24 Many unemployed cannot provide a job reference because the companies they have worked for no longer exist, whilst there is no law to compel existing companies to provide references or keep detailed employment records. Agencies, as a rule do not provide references, preferring to get one of their candidates in the job instead, preferably on a contract basis which can be more lucrative. As a draughtsman I often showed examples of my work and a folder full of qualifications, but apparently it all meant little compared to a reference. The interviewer needs a reference, so that if you get fired from your new job, the interviewer can say, "well the references appeared to be OK, you can't blame me."

    32. 25 Generally speaking it is not advisable to relocate for employment, as jobs are no longer secure and well paid, since the power of the trade union movement was undermined in the 1980s. One gets the impression that HMG hates manufacturing, since it is synonymous with politically damaging industrial actions of the past (seaman's strike 1966, three day week 1974, miner's strike 1984). If HMG thinks that the shop steward 'Red Robo' at British Leyland was too much to handle, I shudder to imagine how they will get on with 'Robo Asimo' from Honda, since it could already run rings around them, literally. Lack of trade union power in the UK means that two million people, including directors and managers do not take their full holiday entitlement for fear of loosing their job. The increasing spectre of zero hours contracting now dominates recruitment thinking.

    33. 26 For those with a gift for the gab and a degree in psychology, a job interview can be a doddle. Unfortunately I have neither. On one occasion I had two job interviews in one day. I waited for the second one in a pub. I didn't get the second job because I spoke so fast, it was obvious I was inebriated. On one occasion I was asked by an employer whether I had been there before. I replied honestly, "Yes." He went away for a few minutes. When he came back he said," Well I can't find your file, but you've got the job anyway." I thought he meant, 'have you been here for an interview before.' Once I was interviewed for the job of aircrew in the RAF at Biggin Hill. I did not get accepted, presumably because they thought I could never harm a soul. How wrong they were. My HND took two years, during which time I only went out in the evening no more than three times per year. That is the sort of commitment that does not come out at a job interview.

    34. 27 Some job interviews can turn out to be far more involved than anticipated. I was told it would take a couple of days, but I didn't find out why until I got there. "Tomorrow you'll do the assault course", the officer said. Assault course? I hadn't done anything physical for years. All the others in the group were from other army units. This was the parachute regiment at Aldershot. The obstacles towered over me, especially on the second and final lap, each one ending with a pool of muddy water. I didn't join up because I could not understand the language...Geordie.

    35. Images Wikimedia Commons/4 Au Morandarte Go_Ahead_London_Bus_route_68.jpg
      WC: Be A Bus Driver

    36. 28 There are few well paid jobs, as the wage's councils, which dictated what a profession should be paid, were scrapped in the 1980s. Companies now have no salary structure, which often results in asking for too much or too little financial reward. "So how much are you looking for", says the manager. "12,000 pounds per annum", says I in desperation. His expression is one of disgust. He thinks, 'Christ if all those under me work for so little, I'll soon be on the dole with my 30,000 pound salary. As a result, one in four Britons have no savings. Some people work for nothing, paid expenses from the petty cash, just to get away from the nagging misses. Others, unable to admit unemployment, spend their days surfing the internet in their local library, whilst some women are night nurses, standing on street corners.

    37. 29 With the rising cost of commuting, many people are now working there way into poverty, often financed by home equity withdrawal, or living with their parents, supported by the bank of mum and dad. I had no such advantage.

    38. 30 Money is of course, not the only incentive. Most men want to play their traditional role in society, through work in order to bring up a family. In a society dominated by women's lib, females do not want to get married and have a family, with many preferring instead to be wannabe whores in their spare time. In this fortieth anniversary year of the Homosexual Reform Act the number of lesbians openly active in society is also oppressive. It is now more common to see women wearing tattoos. The number of marriages performed is now at its lowest level since records began. Women now have direct access to welfare benefits and social housing, almost automatic access to a divorce where they can have automatic custody of their children, whilst men are bombarded with programmes on TV telling them of how brutal men are to women. In truth all the money that that man has invested in that marriage has now gone to waste. The overpowering feeling of rejection can result in a knee jerk act of violence. Much of the stress has been created at work, which HMG does nothing to eliminate. And any man who makes an advance towards a woman now runs the risk of being vilified, accused of sexual harassment. Men are now forced to live alone. Making friends in a world of state sponsored homosexuality is easier to reject. With no family, then upon their death their estate either goes to a distant relative or the tax man. UK society is a total disaster created by dumb dumb politically correct politicians. This disaster will never be corrected because no parliament will ever have the guts to admit its mistake and rectify it.

    39. Twenty million people in the UK now live with the effects of personal divorce or separation, whilst the rented housing waiting list is four million applicants long, as the number of homes built reaches a new low, as mortgage approvals fall 64% as house values fall eight months in a row by 6.3%, due to the credit crunch and the near collapse of Northern Rock Bank. House prices are from 200% to 300% over valued, leaping ahead of earnings to create another disincentive. In addition, the UK laws on rape, with no statute of limitations, and financially punitive maintenance payments for offspring, does not exactly encourage a man to go out and seek a mate of the opposite sex. Immigration laws prevent you from obtaining a wife from abroad. I got mine from Wales. Although written some years ago, all of these problems are still proving to be a major disincentive for men to work.

    40. 31 During an interview, you have about fifteen minutes to prove yourself, whilst the potential hoity-toity employer uses those fifteen minutes to prove to you that he is part of the elite. 'If you haven't done it before, then you can't do it' is the motto of most of British management. As a draughtsman, I was often told that if I had no prior experience of drawing the companies components, then I would not be taken on. Most companies in the UK are too small to provide even one day's training. As for what you did during all those years in higher education, in preparation for this interview, 'well that was one long drug induced psychedelic holiday, wasn't it?'

    41. 32 Many well paid jobs require the applicant to have had ten years in higher education, such as that of a chartered engineer, even though the unofficial retirement age is forty. This gives too little time for a graduate to recoup the cost and effort involved in becoming a professional. Slowly the nation is loosing its skilled workforce, alternatively providing jobs in telephone support centres, warehouses, civil servants and of course the delivery driver or self employed white van man.

    42. 33 Many interviewers will not accept qualifications done outside of an apprenticeship. This makes changing one's career virtually impossible.

    43. Images Wikimedia Commons/4 Finnish Government Hallitus.jpg
      WC: Be A Civil Servant

    44. 34 Wages in this country are so low, that in next to no time one can no longer afford a car, in order to commute to a new job. Some employers, enraged by our poor public transport system, and never ending excuses from their workers, will not recruit people who do not have a car. The cost of living in this country is too high, and if HMG's vision of an all electric society powered by wind turbines, photo-voltaics, fuel cells, nuclear fission and fusion becomes a reality, the cost of living may well sky rocket, leading to even greater personal debt, if the government doesn't get it right. To put it simply, people will be put off applying for jobs.

    45. 35 (Section 35 was written in 2008 approx, as was most of this subject of getting a job. Little has changed since.) As a result of my experiences in life, I hate capitalism and democracy, and as far as I'm concerned employers can get stuffed. And I speak for many people, who are sick of menial wages and benefits, whilst having to stomach the announcement of numerous fat cat company director's remuneration details exposed in the newspapers. Director's pay has doubled in five years to an average of 3 million pounds, presumably for FTSE 100 companies. BBC executives have recently been awarded salary rises of up to 107,000 pounds, after the BBC (not executives) were fined 400,000 pounds for five radio and TV scams involving rigged contests, plus an inexhaustible supply of repeat programmes, whilst three National Rail executives are now to get bonuses of 200,000 pounds each, despite rail maintenance personnel not turning up for work last Christmas. In a society where most people are earning 12,000 pounds per annum, this is blatant corruption sanctioned by the highest levels of government, in a society where political parties are financed by wealthy executives. Because it is all out in the open, psychology dictates that it is legal. Never in my book! Politicians never talk about imposing a national maximum wage, and it is easy to see why. One gets the impression that they are all worshipping that pagan idol capitalism, instead of promoting Christian values. The abolition of the ten pence tax rate, announced this year, is a clear indicator of the contempt HMG has for the grass roots of society. Genocide of the working class in the face of AI? Don't think it could never happen. I think the EC should compel all executives and politicians in the EU to use the TATA G-Wiz electric car and nothing else, when travelling within five miles of their office. Maybe then they will get the message about director's pay and global warming. For the average worker there are no exorbitant salaries, no huge bonuses and certainly no golden handshake.

    46. 36 Many job advertisements do not contain sufficient contact details, supplying an e-mail address only. Most agency advertisements do not even list the name of the employer. Most personnel departments do not send an applicant a map of the local area, radius 200 metres say. They are unable to provide you with an accurate description of the job, using in-house terms only. As far as I know there is nothing to stop someone putting a job advertisement into a newspaper with the intention of stealing your identity, or sexually assaulting you at an interview.

    47. 37 Some job interviews include technical questions, or worse. Some of these questions I find so mediocre that it puts me off wanting to be taken on. Some statements like, "we never advertise our services because we're so good we don't have to," I find off putting. Others employ psychology to get you to accept a salary much lower than you had in mind. They would ask you what your qualification is and then suggest that you go for something higher. At another place I was asked to spy on my colleagues and inform management if they were on drugs. I have no wish to work with such unprofessional people. They are pathetic. The assessor is in effect being assessed.

    48. 38 Many employers want to know the details of your criminal record, not simply whether you have CRB clearance. I cannot work in that kind of environment, as it is too stressful. It is obvious to me that HMG and employers are using CRBs as a means to divide and rule society through the work place.

    49. 39 Most work places are a source of intense stress, caused mainly by stressful commuting in overcrowded trains or stuck in traffic jams, poor working environment: outdated, noisy, cold; bad management often providing no written instructions, or no management at all; unrealistic deadlines and aggression.

    50. 40 Fear pervades many companies, and are not safe to work at as a result, including those that refuse to provide you with an employment contract stating hours to work, expecting you to work all hours of the day and night in unpaid overtime. In such an environment few superiors make decisions for fear of being sacked over it.

    51. 41 Whilst the National Health Service can provide prompt treatment for employment associated ills, it does not have the power to rectify the fundamental causes, i.e. depression and stress in the workplace caused by bad management, or poor diet, lack of exercise and poor hygiene resulting in absenteeism through poor physical health. Currently there are seven million people in the UK suffering from depression and other mental illnesses.

    52. 42 I cannot get a job because of stress. Whilst the brain wants to work, my heart says no. Every time I look at the job advertisements in the local newspaper my heart starts pounding. I only realised why when I watched a television programme which revealed that the heart, like the brain, also has neurones. It will accept just so much abuse. Politicians are right when they say that many people on incapacity benefit want to work, but the fact is that they cannot, until HMG dramatically improves working conditions.

    53. Images Wikimedia Commons/4 Graham Richardson Sainsburys_lorry_refrigerated_trailer.jpg
      WC: Be A Lorry Driver, before it's all automated

    54. Obtaining a job can be a financially dangerous act. Often companies, including employment agencies have no idea what is going on in the nation's economy, because the government is not telling the masses through the TV, TUC, CBI and Jobcentres. They therefore have little appreciation of what the client companies long term employment needs will be. When I did my BTEC NC Electrical Building Services course, one student changed employers and was made redundant when the company closed down just one month later. Because of that he left the course.

    55. 44 Searching for a job can be more pointless than you think. There is a growing tendency for companies to black list companies and individuals. I was once informed by an agency that I was banned from a company even though I had never worked there. Apparently another agency had arranged a contract for me, which I could not attend until the next day, because I had to buy a car in order to commute there. For being a day late I was banned. The agency could have sent me by taxi, but did not. I was left totally unaware of the urgency of the situation. On another occasion, upon arriving at an interview, I was told that the job was a contract, even though it had been advertised as permanent. I later wrote to the company, telling them exactly what I thought of them, knowing full well that they would ban me.

    56. 45 Contracting is little better than slavery, with 75% of the time spent looking for a new contract. When the telephone rings, you dread the thought that it might be from the agency. "But it could lead to something permanent" is often the 'catch' phrase. At one time the rate was substantially higher than for someone permanently employed in the same job, but that all disappeared in about 1982 when the 15% base rate of interest took its toll on businesses. Generally speaking you worked from clocking in to clocking off, with no time to chat with anyone. You were usually segregated from the women, and expected to prove yourself on every contract. If you failed those tests you were out and barred. On one occasion, at the end of the day, I found my car boxed in by a lorry on an industrial estate. Whilst attempting to move my car, some newly applied body work paint scrapped onto the battered wing of an adjacent vehicle. Needless to say someone saw it happen and the next day the owner was waiting for compensation. I paid him forty pounds, as hush money, but the management knew and booted me out, never to return. A few weeks later a colleague of mine went there and was booted out for spending too much time talking to other draughtsmen. Contracting becomes a curse because the longer you are in it, the more time you spend only doing rudimentary work, whilst your IT skills quickly become out of date due to no access to on-the-job training. It's no better for many scientists.

    57. 46 Do not believe for one moment that these companies will not ditch their work force the moment AI and androids arrive on the scene. The present sub-prime induced recession is nothing compared to what it will be like if governments do not manage economies and individuals directly. It appears that only technocracies will do that.

    58. 47 Birmingham is the most run down city in the UK as far as employment is concerned. Prior to the credit crunch the West Midlands was loosing jobs at the rate of 1000 net per week, mainly from engineering and manufacturing, the only part of the UK that had a net loss. It never ceases to amaze me, the sight of young couples coming to the city in search of employment, whilst being prepared to offer their bodies in return for shelter. They obviously have not done their homework.

    59. 48 Being long term unemployed, eventually means unemployable as your skills become out of date. With nothing to do, your brain deteriorates, constantly thinking of the same trivial thoughts, based upon early memory. Dreams about your apprenticeship, whilst being unable to recall words, as you watch news stories about medical advances in dementia. Every month I think about going back into prison just to get away from this lunatic society, as 7,900 pensioners are declared bankrupt in the past year compare to only 900 in 2002 (figures released 21-9-2007). Which nation will I select? HMPs are too overcrowded.

    60. 49 Assuming you can find employment that is legal, it does beggar the question, why work just to destroy the planet through global warming? We are constantly reminded of it by the media each day, and yet where are the jobs intended to defeat this trend?

    61. 50 I am now retired. Some people regard forced retirement as an act of ageism, whilst HMG wants to make people work till they drop, by raising the retirement age to 75. And yet the police can retire at fifty, strange? HMG ignores the fact that over the last fifty years jobs have been destroyed through automation. A process that is continuing. Clearly a new approach is needed. Thus far there has been no announcement from HMG, nor the EC, regarding what policy will be pursued when artificial intelligence performs the coup de grace on the working class.

    62. 51 With an imminent global banking collapse likely to result in the pound sterling becoming worthless, and properties unsaleable, what is the point of working? With global economics being far more complicated to manage than global warming, it is pretty obvious that governments are incapable of finding an acceptable solution to this problem. In 2016 Barclays and RBS banks were both facing difficulties.

    63. 52 And finally I wish to make it clear that I will in no way sell my body or pay bribes in order to obtain employment. The first mentality exists in the entertainment industry. As politicians turn a blind eye to the subject, it is only a matter of time before this mentality creates a third world nation morality, here in the UK.

    64. When you reach this high a number of reasons, it becomes plainly obvious that HMG is not only clueless, it is a liability in its present form. This political system must go.

    65. Now let's take a look at my proposed alternative:

    66. The UK has no National CV Centre. Because of this it is a nation of square pegs in round holes. It is grossly irresponsible to spend up to ten years educating and training someone for employment, only to fail to provide a professional job recruitment system. This system would operate at every level of society, economy and within every organisation including government. The NCVC would operate as follows:

    67. When an organisation has a job vacancy the requirement details would be sent to the nearest Jobcentre. Every profession would have a reference number linked to a professional guild, so there would be no ambiguity as to what was required. The Jobcentre would interrogate the NCVC database. The database would contain records of everyone, even children. Education, training and annual employee reports from the organisations people actually worked at, would be interrogated by staff after initial review by AI's criteria. It would provide three suitable candidates who would be interviewed, one from the relevant professional guild, another from the employer and a staff member working for the Jobcentre. The candidate would be required to undergo an interactive examination, on a computer, compiled by the employer and marked by the relevant professional guild. This is to find out whether the candidate has the necessary up to date knowledge, and if not, what HMG financed training is required, should that person turn out to be the best applicant.

    68. Images Wikimedia Commons/4 Helitak430 NSW_Ambulance_361.jpg
      WC: Be An Ambulance Driver or Paramedic

    69. The NCVC would also serve as a dating agency and calculate SPEV (Specific Person Electronic Voucher) payments, paid into your account and accessed from your mobile phone's electronic wallet.

    70. So you still want a secure well paid job in the big bad world of capitalism. The following is my cv (curriculum vitae) and is a glowing example of what not to send to an employer, since it's too complicated':

    71. ***MY POSTAL ADDRESS***

      ***MY EMAIL ADDRESS***




    72. ***BUSINESS ADDRESS***

    73. Dear sir or madam,

      In answer to your advertisement, please note that I am presently seeking permanent employment.

      Due to company closures in engineering and manufacturing, I can no longer provide a job reference.

      I am available for interview at any time. I will bring along examples of my work, certificates, etc.

      I enclose my CV, and look forward to hearing from you.

      Yours faithfully,

      Mr. Nigel S. Allen

      ...---=== CURRICULUM VITAE ===---...

    74. ***PHOTO OF APPLICANT***

    75. name: ***YOUR FULL NAME & NICKNAME***

    76. address: ***FULL POSTAL ADDRESS***

    77. phone numbers: ***FIXED LINE & MOBILE NUMBER***

    78. web site: ***LIST YOUR WEB SITE & EMAIL ADDRESS

    79. driving licence: ***TYPES OF VEHICLE, EXPIRY DATE***

    80. personality: ***INTROVERT OR EXTROVERT***

    81. health: ***SMOKER OR VEGETARIAN***

    82. hobbies: ***LIST ALL RELEVANT HOBBIES***


    84. Dept. of Maritime Studies, Plymouth College (now University)

    85. Sandwich course in nautical studies: 9/65 to 4/66 and 9/67 to 4/68 52 weeks

    86. Studied maths, ship construction, ship propulsion, chartwork, navigation, meteorology, oceanography, first aid, fire fighting, seamanship. Awarded two prizes for dissertations on the subjects of rocket research, and oceanography.

    87. Correspondence course in Industrial Engineering (Work Study)

    88. Government Training Centre, Handsworth, Birmingham

    89. Full time course in engineering draughting from 9/72 to 8/73 44 weeks

    90. Multi skilled engineering & draughtsmanship course, including workshop experience on lathes and milling machines, welding, sheet metal, instrumentation repair, machine repair, precision grinding, capstans. Drawings to (British Standards) BS308 Pt. 3 involving geometric tolerancing, weld symbols (BS499), limits & fits (BS4500) and surface texture symbols. Design and detail drawings of automotive components, structural steelwork, jigs & fixtures, machine parts. Calculations on springs, levers, bearings, centroids, volumes, weights, beams, cantilevers, hydraulics & pneumatics, velocity and belt drives, electrical.

    91. Sandwell College, West Bromwich Campus

    92. Full time non-destructive testing course from 9/82 to 1/83 14 weeks. Passed ASNT in X-ray, gamma ray, dye penetrant, magnetic particle and ultrasonic inspection of castings, plate and fabricated components.

    93. Skillcentre, Handsworth, Birmingham

    94. Full time Computer Aided Design course from 5/88 to 8/88 14 weeks

    95. Trained on mld2 parameterization software. Also used Edlin and Wordstar.

    96. Cadbury College, Kings Norton, Birmingham

    97. Evening class in DeskTop Publishing (Pagemaker) from 9/92 to 2/93

    98. Kalamazoo, Northfield, Birmingham

    99. Full time course in computer maintenance from 1/93 to 3/93 8 weeks

    100. Bournville College Business School, Bristol Road, Birmingham.

    101. Course in Business Information Technology 9/93 to 12/93 12 weeks. Trained in accountancy, RDBMS and presentations on Microsoft Office Pro.

    102. Sandwell College, Smethwick Campus, CAE Dept., Smethwick

    103. BTEC HND Engineering course:1/94 to 6/95 60 weeks

    104. Course included the following modules:

    105. Computer Numerical Control of machine tools M (City & Guilds 9403 - double module)

    106. Engineering Instrumentation and Control M (strain gauges, thermistors)

    107. Computer Aided Design 5 P (dogs, duct, Autocad)

    108. Computer Aided Manufacture 5 P (DNC, PEPS, GNC plus)

    109. Computer Aided Engineering 4 D (college computer network plan)

    110. Engineering Design 4 (A) D (limits & fits, geometric tolerancing)

    111. Engineering Design 4 (B) M (man. costs, production control)

    112. Computer Aided Drawing 3 M (2D, 3D, solid and surface models)

    113. Engineering Design 4 (B) M (parameterised drawings)

    114. Project (CAD) D (material handling, attributes & BOM)

    115. Computer Applications in Control D (SAIA program. logic controllers)

    116. Animation & Graphics (not BTEC approved) (3D Studio and Animator Pro)

    117. Multimedia D (Creative Labs. Soundblaster HSC)

    118. Metrology 4 M (Mitutoyo CMM, optical comparison)

    119. Industrial Studies M (shares, patents, company structure)

    120. Software Design Methods M (Microsoft Qbasic and VisualBasic)

    121. Quality Assurance A M (SPC, Taguchi, BS 5750)

    122. Mathematics for Engineering 4 M (diff., integrals, Fast Fourier Transform)

    123. Mechanical Science A M (stress/strain, beams, dynamics& vibration)

    124. Computer Aided Manufacturing Systems 5 M (automation methodology)

    125. Manufacturing Technology A M (production cost estimating)

    126. This is a total of twenty-two modules.

    127. I have worked on the following software at education establishments and in industry:

    128. Autodesk Autosketch, Autocad for DOS and Windows. Bentley Systems / Intergraph Microstation 5. Delcam International's DUCT, Pafec's DOGS, SDRC I-DEAS, Applicon Bravo 3. Computervision's DesignView, calculation & kinematics design software & Computervision's CADDS 5. Camtek's PEPS for Windows and GNC Plus, Camtek Director 3000 DNC software linked to 2 axis lathes and 2.5 axis millers, including Berox machining centre. Mathsoft's Mathcad. Microsoft Windows, Works, Qbasic and Visual Basic. PLC software SAIA and Toshiba (Windows and LCD based) and Plant Management System MMI. Toshiba PLC programming via Cleveland Open Learning Unit in 1998. e.g. latching circuits, cascade timers and counters, multiple motor timed interval starts, etc.

    129. Matthew Boulton College, Division of Engineering, Highgate, Birmingham.

    130. BTEC NC Electrical Installation Building Services Engineering course from 9/95 to 6/96 36 weeks

    131. Course included the following modules:

    132. Mathematics 2 P

    133. Computer Applications / Common Skills M Microsoft Office, Autocad

    134. Applied Services Science 2 D heat loss, illumination and pump power calculations.

    135. Electrical Installation (A) 2 M single phase cable calculations, safety, conduit, fuses.

    136. The Built Environment 2 D company structure, visual communication

    137. Electrical Services Detailing 2 D luminaire arrangements, cable/trunking routes

    138. Electrical Electronic Principles 3 M Transients, Thevenins, Norton's, PID, AC PF

    139. Administration 3 D contracts, estimating, accounts, tariffs

    140. Electrical Installation (B) 3 M three phase cable calculations, tests, special sites, IP.

    141. Electronics/Microprocessor Control 2 M PLCs, Electro Magnetic Compatibility

    142. Design Principles 2 D Projects: garden centre, village hall, bungalow

    143. Printed Circuitry Systems 2 M PCB circuit principles, build, fault diagnosis

    144. This is a total of twelve units (10 points).

    145. I am familiar with the following:

    146. IEE On Site Guide and BS 7671 (16th ed. of IEE wiring regulations for Electrical Installations 1992)

    147. Health & Safety at Work Act 1974 and Electricity at Work Regulations 1989.

    148. BS 5839 Fire Alarm Systems, Security Alarms, Building Management Systems, Electrical Man. Systems

    149. Autocad 12 for Windows, Luckin's Tracer estimator, Cablemaster, BS7671 in Microsoft Excel

    150. Matthew Boulton College, Division of Engineering, Highgate, Birmingham.

    151. Internet course from 9/99 to 11/99 8 weeks

    152. Learned to create web sites using HTML computer language. Course included European driving licence for information technology.

    153. EEF Training Centre, Reddings Lane, Tyseley, Birmingham

    154. NVQ 2 Electrical Engineering Installation & Maintenance from June 2001 to August 2001

    155. Course included, Continuity testing, Insulation testing, Wiring plugs, House wiring circuits and Three phase electric motor start control circuits


    157. Mavitta Ltd., 8 Furnace Lane, Moira, Swadlincote, Derbyshire DE12 6AT

    158. formerly at 1 St. Michael's Court, Victoria Street, West Bromwich

    159. I worked for this agency as an engineering CAD technician (Autocad) & design draughtsman at:

    160. Ultraseal Ltd., Coleshill, nr. Birmingham, engaged in process plant design, in 1998.

    161. It was a small company that made equipment that coated castings, thereby preventing creeping stress fractures. I was only there a couple of weeks, mainly doing clerical work. About two years later Mavitta asked me to work for a car sun roof manufacturer. I turned it down because of the difficulty in signing back on benefits. I never worked again. Instead I created my own work. This web site. Mentally it proved far more rewarding. One more word of advice. At the end of each employment session I went straight around to the Jobcentre to sign on as unemployed. If you don't do that, you not only don't get welfare benefits, but also you are not registering ultimately for your state pension. I worked for about forty companies over a twenty year period. My state pension comes to £172-21 per week, plus £200 winter fuel allowance. Looking back upon my life, I can't help thinking that it's all a con. Success in life is by pure chance, not simply effort.

    162. Chinal Management Services Ltd., King Charles House, Castle Hill, Dudley DY1 4PS

    163. I worked for this agency as an engineering computer aided design technician (CADDS 5 on Sun Microstation), at Rover Group Powertrain, Longbridge, Birmingham, West Midlands., in 1997.

    164. I worked on just one drawing, a building services plan of east works, Longbridge. I was never told what it was for. A department meeting would be held on Friday mornings. I only attended the first one. I sat there for ages waiting for the manager to begin. I wondered why his second in command was grinning. I leaned forward, and to my amazement the manager's laptop screen showed an airliner making a death plunge. About ten people worked in the department, only two of which permanently. I got the feeling that someone was out to bankrupt the company. I was therefore glad when I had completed the six month contract.

    165. DRB Engineering Ltd., (Holloway Tool Company), Birmingham

    166. I worked as a CAD technician (Autocad), at Holloway Tool Company, engaged in progressive press tool design and detailing, in 1997.

    167. I only worked there for one month, during which time two other draughtsmen were fired by a psycho-manager, who plainly enjoyed his power. I was the third victim. I complained to the directors about my treatment, but got nowhere. The factory was later demolished, the land becoming part of a luxury Sheepcote Street canalside housing development.

    168. KNS Industrial Services Ltd., Edgbaston

    169. I worked as a CAD technician (Autocad), at KNS engaged in building services design and detailing, in 1997.

    170. I worked on building services drawings for a sport centre in north London. I took two days off work due to sickness, during which time the company found a replacement CAD technician. It was over one month before I received my final pay and P64 tax statement, by which time I had already left my next employer. Don't work for a small company.

    171. Nova Design Ltd., Pensnett Industrial Estate, Kingswinford, Dudley

    172. Worked at Simon Dudley on telescopic hydraulic platform design, in 1992.

    173. I was only there for one week, as the manager got a student in to do the rest of the work for nothing.

    174. Telford Management Services Technologies Ltd., Church Lane, Wolverhampton

    175. Worked at GEC Alsthom on channel tunnel project, in 1992.

    176. I worked there for three weeks. Went off sick due to allergy caused by ten holly trees in neighbour's garden. My contract was terminated by GEC and I never got paid for my final week there.

    177. P-E International Ltd., (Mavitta Ltd.), 1 St. Michael's Court, Victoria Rd, West Bromwich

    178. Worked at Tudor Webasto Ltd., on Sinclair Zike electric bicycle project, in 1992.

    179. A modern factory. Good working environment. Worked on a drawing board producing drawings of bicycle components for quality assurance purposes. Worked there about two months, paid directly by Mavitta, who were represented to the contracts manager at Tudor Webasto by P-E International. Evidently my boss had forgotten to provide TW with draughtsmen for an earlier project, so Mavitta got banned. So a director at TW fixed it so that his mate would get the contract anyway. It's all hire, fire, forget and banned. There's no love in the capitalist world. It's not exactly an easy thing to explain on a cv, is it? You get all these HR managers looking at this, and they haven't got a clue what's going on, nor whom to write to for a reference.

    180. Stuart Martin Ltd., Hagley , Hereford & Worcester

    181. I worked for this agency as an engineering draughtsman, engaged in building services design and detailing, at DGI International Ltd., Stoneleigh Deer Park, Kenilworth in 1991. (DGI Head office is in Kenilworth)

    182. This was a six month contract in a prefabricated WWII hut, that was originally used as a Venereal Disease hospital. Although it was some way from where I lived, it was a real pleasure to drive out into the countryside. When the contract ended, I felt very depressed. I never got that feeling on any other contract I worked on. I worked there self employed, paying very little tax. Soon after I moved into my apartment in Edgbaston. If it had not been for that contract, I would not have been able to furnish it.

    183. J. Gater Designs Ltd., Tettenhall, Wolverhampton

    184. I never visited the offices as it was only an agency, on the other end of a phone line. I worked for them, in 1990, as an engineering draughtsman, on numerous contracts at:

    185. Electropaint Ltd., Lichfield, materials handling conveyors

    186. I worked there a week or two. I got about four hours notice of end of contract.

    187. Newton Collins Ltd., Acocks Green, Birmingham, building services

    188. This was a contract on the extract system for the health physics laboratory at Atomic Weapons Establishment Aldermaston, Berkshire. Since I was not permitted to work on a defence contract, due to my criminal record, I terminated the contract after about two weeks, mainly because I was pissed off sitting around waiting for information from DSSR, located in Manchester I believe.

    189. Birwelco Ltd., Halesowen, process plant

    190. I detailed up an incinerator, and a shell and tube heat exchanger whilst I was there. Whilst leaving work one day I found my car boxed in by a lorry. Whilst extracting my car it grazed the rusty wheel arch of another car. A 50mm strip of bodywork paint had rubbed onto his car wing, because I had recently had my wing repaired after a car backed into it. I didn't find out about this mark until the next day, when I met the owner. Some people had seen the incident and reported it. I paid the owner twenty pounds compensation. My contract was terminated because of it. I worked there only two weeks. He could have rubbed the paint off with a scouring pad.

    191. Meads Handling Ltd., Aldridge, materials handling

    192. The materials handling at Meads was the only interesting work that I ever did. It was what I had been trained to do almost twenty years before. There were about six draughtsmen there working back to back in a room, more like a submarine than an office. The working conditions were deplorable, insulting. The permanent draughtsman rabbited on about how the director and salesman conspired to turn down contracts, to devalue the company, because they were afraid of losing their jobs in a take over. After that he went on and on and on about his sexual conquests. I couldn't get out of the contract fast enough.

    193. All in the West Midlands in 1990.

    194. Mavitta Ltd., 1 St. Michael's Court, Victoria Street, West Bromwich

    195. There offices were immaculate, since the previous owners had specialised in office furniture. I worked for this agency as an engineering draughtsman, on numerous contracts in the West Midlands, from 1988 to 1990 at:

    196. Flakt Environmental Ltd., Five Ways, building services

    197. The company made large air handling units for office blocks, installing them with associated ductwork. I worked on a number of projects, including Thomas Moore Street, now HQ for News International, and Canada Tower, Canary Wharf. I probably worked for them for about four months.

    198. Tudor Webasto Ltd., Minworth, car sun roof

    199. The best technical illustration I did was that of an exploded perspective drawing of a car sun roof. The handle took most of the Friday to draw, only to be told by the manager that it was not needed. I had to go back on the Monday to add the parts list, in German. I worked there just six days.

    200. Britax Weathershield Ltd., Birmingham, car sun roof in 1992.

    201. I was only there about one week. I dimensioned one drawing.

    202. Crane Heatex Ltd., Minworth, heat exchangers

    203. Detailed heat exchangers on a drawing board. The contract lasted about one month.

    204. Rolls Royce & Associates Ltd., control systems

    205. This consisted of checking CAD drawings of control systems, which I assume were for nuclear submarines. This was a defence contract done at Mavitta's office on their Schlumberger bravo CAD system. The work lasted a day or two as my boss hunted around for another contract for me.

    206. GEC Electromotors Ltd., Blackheath, factory layout

    207. Most of the large factory was idle, and would eventually be closed down. Only there about one month.

    208. Birwelco furnaces induction furnace detailing

    209. I'm not sure if I've got the company name right, and like many of these contracts, I have no idea where it was located. The huge furnaces were impressive. The contract lasted about one week.

    210. E.D.Hinchliffe & Son Ltd., West Bromwich

    211. Employed as CAD technician (Norsk Data Technovision), on glazing contracts for the construction industry, in 1988.

    212. It was a permanent job, but I sensed aggro from the chief draughtsman, so I left after one month. I had suffered enough

    213. Mavitta Ltd., 1 St. Michael's Court, Victoria Street, West Bromwich

    214. I worked for this agency as an engineering draughtsman, at TEK Group Ltd, King's Norton, Birmingham, engaged in aluminium louvre design (diffusers, louvre doors, penthouses and screens), in 1987.

    215. The office was cramped, floor covered in aluminium filings, and the office furniture was second hand, battered. I remember the back of one office swivel chair hanging upside down. The temporary typist left within a week.

    216. Rig Design Services Group Ltd., Sheldon, Birmingham

    217. I worked for this agency as an engineering draughtsman, at Kwikform Ltd, engaged in formwork design and detailing in 1981, on a building contract in Saudi Arabia.

    218. Allwood, Searle & Timney Ltd., Bath House, Bath Street, Walsall

    219. I worked for this agency as an engineering draughtsman, on numerous contracts in the West Midlands, from 1978 to 1981 at:

    220. Anglesey Aluminium Ltd., Holyhead was a huge aluminium smelter, employing hundreds of people. It was called Tinto by the locals, because it was owned by Rio Tinto Group & Kaiser Aluminium I was employed on contract as a draughtsman, mainly on materials handling, process plant projects.

    221. I was there about two years. The work was nothing more than a job creation exercise. It was boring. As a result I lost interest, and my proficiency. My personal problems stopped me from thinking straight. An electrical draughtsman talked me into switching agencies, which due to legal reasons didn't work out. That and my in-laws turning up at the main gate, ensured that my termination was assured. Anglesey Aluminium was shut down in 2009, whilst Wylfa nuclear power station, which supplied the electricity to the pots (electrolytic furnaces), was also closed. The future of the power station site is uncertain.

    222. Pipework Engineering Developments Ltd., Fuel system for airport

    223. I was only there two days. I was asked to produce preliminary drawings of a bowser refueling station for Queen Alia International Airport, Jordan. The manager then walked off into the distance. I never saw him again, since the drawing office was huge. I had only a written description on an A4 sheet of paper. This was a job for a project engineer, who could carry out the necessary research. I had never seen a refueling station, so after a couple of days I gave up and went back to the office. I had been offered a contract in north Wales a week before, so I decided to take it.

    224. GKN Birwelco Ltd., Water purification plant

    225. I spent the first day doing nothing except listening to the section leader gabble on about one thing and another. On the second day I learned that the disgruntled manager had cancelled the contract, due to my low productivity. I worked on one pipework drawing for the rest of the day, returning to the office the next.

    226. Harmo Industries Ltd., technical illustrating

    227. I produced many drawings of exhaust pipes for a sales catalogue. Boring stuff.

    228. Birmingham Mint Ltd., plant layout, tooling

    229. I designed and detailed materials handling equipment, and produced a ground floor plant of the entire works. Birmingham Mint produced coinage for mainly third world countries. The factory was build on the site of a monastery, parts of which were still visible in the factory. Located on the Roman road Icknield Street, it consisted of four continuous casting lines, three of which were subsiding. They were built over a sandstone quarry which had been filled with ash. This appears to have spontaneously combusted, and therefore had to be dug out and then filled with inert material. The most nerve racking moment I had was when measuring the underground bomb shelters, since this section had been excavated into the local Pitsford Street cemetery and catacombs. I worked there about six months. Like most of the factories I worked at, this one was later converted into apartments.

    230. Gibbons Bros. Ltd., Coke ovens for BSC Redcar

    231. I detailed up the coke oven parts drawing, for British Steel Corporation in Redcar. Good office giving an excellent view of the foxes on the railway embankment. I was there about one month. Whilst there I noticed a warehouse complex development being constructed. I didn't realise it then, but it was to be a sign of the times. Today all we seem to manufacture is junk food and foreign cars, importing and warehousing almost everything else.

    232. Serck Heat Transfer Ltd., Tubular Cooler Div., Warwick Road, Greet, Birmingham B11 2QY

    233. I worked for this company as an engineering design draughtsman, detailing process plant associated with heat exchangers, from 1974 to 1977. There was no training and no standards to work to. The drawing office consisted of a single storey pitched roof with conducting plates attached to a hot water pipe in the roof for heating. The lino tiled floor ensured that your feet were always cold, whilst your head was heated by the radiated heat. The only modern furniture was the AO sized draughting machine. Rumours of a new office block never materialized whilst I worked there. The conditions made me ill, and after receiving an official warning for being absent, after which the chief draughtsman refused to give me any interesting work to do, I left the company a few months later. I was then on the dole for six months, looking for a job.

    234. Keunen Bros. Ltd.,Station Road, Irthlingborough, Northants

    235. Employed as an industrial engineer in a leather tannery, in 1971 to 1972.

    236. Engaged in work study, time sheet calculations, batch production control, weekly and quarterly production cost reports.

    237. Compiled the following reports:

    238. Work study summary sheet, work study element description, work study time sheet, work measurement set-up sheet, rest allowance sheet, work study operation specification sheet, work study analysis sheet, cost centre sheet, cost centres summary sheet, labour cost budget form, labour cost comparison report, cost summary report, weekly labour expense control sheet, quarterly cost summary report, machine utilization sheet.

    239. The factory included a wet shop housing huge tanning drums. The place stank. The smell permeated your clothes and destroyed your sense of smell. During one half hour session on the shop floor, I saw two workers repeatedly put two leather sides through a water proofing machine, at a time. In another process I saw a man deliberately sabotage a machine with a scaffolding pole he kept in open display on the floor. This is because you get just as much money, if the machine doesn't work. All this in full view of supervisors, who were doing anything but. Later in my office, I checked the work sheets of employees who had left the company in the past twelve months. It amounted to a one hundred per cent turn over of labour. I decided that it was now my turn, and walked out, never to return.

    240. Nene Valley Caravans Ltd., Rushden, Northants

    241. Employed as production worker in 1971. Company made mobile homes and American style factory made bungalows (Elizabethan Homes).

    242. Worked there for two months. Got fired due to waiting to use a machine that someone else was using.

    243. Taylor Woodrow Anglian Ltd., Rushden, Northants

    244. Employed as production worker, making pre-cast concrete wall sections for London tower blocks of flats, in 1970.

    245. Worked there for six months as a labourer and fitter assistant. Helped weld rebars to floor slabs following the Ronan Point disaster, where 4 people were killed when a gas explosion caused part of a 22 storey tower block to collapse. Left due to lack of promotion prospects and the dangerous nature of the work. A few months later I met an ex-colleague who had broken his arm whilst slipping on an oil covered mold he was filling.

    246. Securicor Ltd., Northampton

    247. Employed as static and mobile guard in 1970.

    248. Left due to unsocial hours and low wages.

    249. Shell Tankers (UK) Ltd., Shell Centre, Waterloo, London. SE1

    250. Indentured Apprentice for four years. 9/65 to 9/69

    251. Served two years at sea on five oil tankers, plus one year at the Department for Maritime Studies, Plymouth College of Technology (now university). Duties at sea included process control (load , unload cargo, tank cleaning, gas freeing), ship maintenance to deck machinery (Hydraulic, pneumatic, electric, steam) and pipework systems, safety equipment testing and repair, use of Siebe Gorman breathing apparatus, Explosimeter and Drager tubes, engine room watches and maintenance to steam turbine and reciprocating engine propulsion systems. Dry dock supervision. Bridge watches, navigation and look out.

    252. Served on the following oil tankers as an apprentice for four years:

    253. Asprella, Hemifusus, Drupa, Opalia and Naticina.

    254. Upon completion of my apprenticeship, I decided not to remain at sea for the following reasons:

    255. 1...I failed my Board of Trade Foreign Going Certificate practical exams 3 times, and I realised that I would never pass. The training wasn't good enough.

    256. 2...I was sick of the aggression between ranks. There was no team work and no comradery, due to the wearing of uniforms. Whilst serving watches in the engine room the words DUREX FITTER were stenciled onto the back of the boiler suit my mum had bought me. The fifth engineer and I were then ordered to grease packing boxes above the boilers whilst at sea, in extremely high temperatures.

    257. 3...I was never asked directly by my employer what I thought of the apprenticeship. The only time they communicated with me, was to tell me what ship to join, when and where. I was never given any future earnings and tax advice. I felt unwanted.

    258. 4...There was insufficient leave, as a result I lost contact with all my friends. Refineries were in the middle of nowhere, whilst loading points consisted of offshore platforms or buoyed moorings.

    259. 5...It was too easy to make a mistake, thereby receiving an official warning (logged), or be fired. During my apprenticeship my first ship collided with the quayside at Swansea, during high winds, which the pilot appeared to ignore. My second ship almost ran out of fuel whilst crossing the Pacific Ocean, due to a fuel miscalculation by the chief engineer. We had to divert from Panama to refuel in Hawaii. On my final ship, it almost collided with a small vessel in the Mozambique Channel, because the second mate ordered me out of the wheelhouse and onto the port wing, whilst the other vessel approached abeam to starboard. Also on that ship, the Naticina, whilst on cargo watch during the day, I witnessed crude oil flowing from the side of a Dutch Shell M boat in Europort. I shouted and gesticulated to the officer on deck, who upon seeing the oil, dashed into the pumproom wearing his number one uniform, to shut the sea valve. I shudder to think what would have happened if it had occurred at night. You could spend many years getting the necessary qualifications, and within months be fired. There was no automation, no cargo control room with remotely operated valves. The valves would often be in a remote, dark location, jammed shut so that you needed a wheel spanner to turn them. There was no satellite navigation. That did not materialize until about 1985. The stress was enormous, with no way to relax. On the bridge, the back of my neck went rigged with pain, whilst carrying out lookout duties. The pay was crap, 16 pounds at start, and 32 pounds in the final year. The consensus was that we were just cheap labour. If you made a mistake and got fired, no one else would want to employ you in the profession, since you would not get a job reference. My apprenticeship was a total waste of time, and messed up my future, although I couldn't see it at the time.

    260. Capitalism tears communities apart, as people chase that rainbow. Under a technocracy, self fulfillment and happiness would be the priorities. The trouble with a failed apprenticeship, is that you don't realise the damage it has done to your life, until many years later. When I did approach a solicitor for compensation, I was told that I had left it too late, and should have done it within 3 years. Later on I omitted my sea going career from my CV, because I found it a distraction. It was irrelevant to the jobs I was applying for, whilst I could sense, 'if he don't want an adventurous life at sea, then he definitely won't want to work for us here' mentality pervading the interview room. In reality we sailed from a remote oil refinery to a single buoyed mooring or platform to load crude oil. There was nowhere to go ashore to. I would have stuck it out for ten years if the pay had been tax free, but there was no company advice. I never received any company publications on remuneration, training, tax, etc. As a result most employees thought the company regarded us as sub-human.

    261. Images Wikimedia Commons/4 PH2 Aaron Ansarov Sea_Shadow_moored.jpg
      WC: Be A Stealthy Member Of The Navy

    262. This is my cv, the personal details in italics, would not be made available to an employer. You have to keep it positive. This cv is a failure for the following reasons:

    263. 1 It's too complicated. Many young HR (Human Resources) Managers would not understand it in a hurry. And it will be in a hurry when the HR manager forgets to get a job reference before the applicant turns up for the interview, as happened to me at least once. I could hear them talking in the corridor. The HR Manager said the cv was fiction and because of that the interviewing manager refused to see examples of my work and my exam certificates. Few employers check your higher education qualifications.

    264. 2 List only companies that you know will provide a job reference, because if you list others then it will be regarded as fiction and end up in the bin. Agencies you have worked for do not provide job references because all they want is for one of their bods to get in there on a contract basis. The company you actually work at on contract will not provide a reference because it has no record of you having worked there, because all the payments go to the agency, or your limited company.

    265. 3 Keep company names, addresses and contact details up to date, together with the name of the permanently employed person you were working under. This is essential in order for the HR department to obtain a job reference. Without a job reference you will not get the job, because no one is prepared to stick their neck's out for you, and risk losing their own job.

    266. 4 Don't ask questions at an interview. The chances are that the people interviewing you can't answer technical questions. You will embarrass them, whilst doing so displays your ignorance. Don't ask about the working hours. You will be expected to work umpteen hours of unpaid overtime, no matter what the law says.

    267. 5 If you are asked why you left a company, just say you wanted a change, or wanted to work nearer to home. Never say anything negative about an employer.

    268. 6 There will be times when you realise that the interviewer interviewed you simply to give themselves something to do, or they were trying to glean some knowledge from you. Come out of that interview wanting to kill them, and not wanting to commit suicide. Don't let the bastards get you down.

    269. 7 Turn up smartly dressed with a recent hair cut. Remove those hairs from nostrils and ears, and trim those eye lashes, whilst covering up those tattoos. If possible bring along examples of your work and your collection of exam certificates. Talk loudly and clearly, because I swear some are as deaf as a post. Always smile, and when leaving do so with a smile and a handshake. Check out well in advance where the place of interview is, and how to get there. Don't be satisfied with a photocopy of a road atlas page. Search for it on Google Earth and see where you are going to park your car, or where the nearest bus or train stop is. Don't turn up inebriated or half comatosed.

    270. 8 Whilst at the interview, ask yourself the question, do you really want to work with these people, do you like the working environment, is it easy and cost effective to commute there? What are the toilets like, do they have a canteen, if not, where is the nearest pub / cafe that serves meals, and is there a proper car park? Is the job stressful? I have suffered from stress for decades. I wake up to find myself covered in sweat and my heart pounding away. Don't burn yourself out at work by taking on too many problems, or working too many hours away from your family and friends.

    271. 9 Almost all the permanent jobs I've quit are because of poor working conditions resulting in ill health. When you leave always give one months notice, otherwise your employer will not provide a job reference. If you have already received an official warning, your new employer will not receive a job reference, so always ensure that you receive a job offer before you transfer. Never transfer to a smaller or less financially secure company. Never work for a company making a low tech product. The more high tech it is, the greater the profits and hence the more secure your job should be. Check out solvency through company records on the internet. If you do want to enter the world of contracting, or project related employment, remember that you will always need at least one secure company that is going to provide you with a job reference. In some cases this means handing in your notice after you have completed your apprenticeship, and before you end up with an official warning. In this world of hire, fire and forget, that will not be far off. Just tell them that you are relocating to look after mum for instance, because you need a good report in your personnel file.

    272. 10 The chances are that you will not hear from the company again unless you receive a job offer. It's always best to phone up the HR (personnel) department. Find out how many applicants there were, what future recruitment there will be, any redundancies planned, etc. This will give you a clearer indication of future employment trends in that profession.

    273. 11 Ignore this advice at your peril.

    274. The average HR manager would be unable to get a job reference from any of the companies listed on my cv. However, there is one company that would, and I only found out about it when told by a recruitment agency. That company's name and address is not listed on my cv, because I didn't work at that address. This goes to show just how complicated personnel recruitment is. Getting the right job, or even a job at all, is more by chance than anything else. I interpret this as a national crime. Educating and training someone for ten to twenty years and then abandoning them, amounts to a gross waste of tax payer's money. Criminal waste. It's about time the matter was put right. There is no excuse for HMG's failure to do so.

    275. Images Wikimedia Commons/4 Reise Reise POK_Jupiter_firefighting_robot_(1).jpg
      WC: Be A Firefighting Robot

    276. As for actually starting a career after school, there is one inescapable fact, and that is that most of the professional jobs in the global economy have moved on from the developed world to developing countries, whilst any one person in China reading this will probably say, 'and moved on again'. Apprenticeships in my day were four years long. In the middle ages they were seven years. Today they are a confidence trick by HMG, lasting just months. For advice, go to the youth employment centre, where you will enroll for a national insurance card, or go to a local library or Jobcentre. If you want an apprenticeship then ideally the Jobcentre web site should list job vacancies in graphical format over years, in order to show trend, so that you can then select a profession to study for. The Jobcentre should list addresses for information for each profession, where to study, and list the major employers of that profession. For professionals, if you want an office job you will need IT skills, which you should have no difficulty in getting at evening class, or train yourself. If you are looking for real money then you will have to go self employed, probably writing software programs for smart phones. If you don't have a brilliant mind then try working self employed in waste disposal. I do not recommend working away from home, as you will only lose touch with your friends.

    277. Employment is something that HMG is always concerned about. However there is room for considerable improvement in the system. A few years ago HMG was financing TV advertisements urging UK companies to export. That of course beggars the question, what do we export and to whom? The advertisement did not list a government department, nor any contact information. HMG should be monitoring the economies of all nations, with a view to passing on export opportunities to UK based companies, at least to those that pay a realistic rate of corporation tax. HMG has embassies in just about every country. Their economies should be monitored already, by the foreign office, BIS or MI6. This data should be put on a government website. The database would be accessible to UK based companies via a PIN issued by the Inland Revenue, HMG's tax gathering department.

    278. In a socialist nation the state looks after you from cradle to grave, whilst the individual bemoans the fact that he or she does not have the right to elect a political leader, blaming them for their ill luck. In a democracy, the individual is cast out into the disorganized world after completing their basic education. It is a sad fact that whether you succeed in life is largely due to contacts through your parents and friends, or through shear luck. It would appear that only a world technocracy can put an end to this madness.

    279. In October 2020 the fashion store chain H&M were fined 32.1 million pounds in Germany for keeping family, religion and sickness records of their employees, in contravention of the EU GDPR (European Union's General Data Protection Regulations). And what are they I thought. This regulation refers to data protection and privacy, which is enshrined in the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights, so I don't suppose there will be any of this once we're out of the EU at the end of 2020. It became compliant in 2018. A company can only collect data that it tells the subject it needs, and for only as long as it needs it. Names, email addresses, location, ethnicity, gender, biometrics, religious beliefs, web cookies, and political opinions are all personal data. The data must be encrypted. The data centre has to comply with seven protection and accountability principles. The company must be GDPR compliant, including the appointment of a data protection officer. I'm not sure what this regulation is trying to achieve. It won't stop employers treating employees like dirt. Refusing to give them adequate training, supervision, decent working environment, up to date tools, realistic salary, job security and a job reference, etc. It won't stop jobs being contracted out, nor the proliferation of spiv employment agencies handling black lists of workers. All of these are more important than privacy. This is why we are pulling out of the EU, because it's nothing more than an expensive gentleman's club just as remote from reality as that bunch in the pleasure Palace of Westminster.

    280. Now that the UK is out of the EU there is a dire shortage of about one million workers. Where have all the workers gone, UK management is saying? Well, for a start off, many people have simply retired to that place in the sun, whilst many young people have accepted their inheritance and decided that they will never become a slave like their parents. HMG is learning the hard way that without extensive employment laws, you are not going to get people to work.

    281. What was acceptable to employees a few decades ago, isn't any longer. This is what it takes to recruit someone to work for you:

      1. A company that believes in advertising its vacancies at Jobcentre Plus, instead of leaving recruitment to the thousands of agencies out there, that HMG hasn't got the guts to shut down. As a result you have square pegs in round holes everywhere.
      2. A large company with a diversified high tech product range, ensuring an acceptable profit margin & safe future.
      3. Good pay rates, equivalent to best rates abroad, decided by a national wage's council.
      4. Job security through a multi-skilled diversified workforce.
      5. Modern working environment, to reduce stress.
      6. Competent management, no psycho managers.
      7. A detailed contract of employment, explaining how you can be fired, how to book holiday periods, etc.
      8. On the job training, on site training centre & apprenticeships.
      9. A good trade union setup. No perpetual confrontation.
      10. Social club with live entertainment and events, canteen, landscaped rest area & gym, etc.
      11. A works pension and early retirement.
      12. A company prepared to provide a job reference after you leave them. Not a hire, fire and forget environment.
      13. Government Training Centres (Skillcentres), as requirements (technology & public acceptance) change over time.
      14. A political system that attracts respect, loyalty & investment. Government has a strategic planning committee and technical help department.
      15. A job that is not going to be done by AI anytime soon.
      16. A company that does not believe in contracting everything out.
    282. Looking at this list an employer is likely to throw away any thought of being benevolent. This is the age of fierce competition, 5% profit margin if you're lucky, unpredictable high interest rates and purchase trends, and the constant risk of having your company black listed. You look at all these requirements and you just know that they would all vanish if you employed automation, AI and contracted out everything, running the risk that your companies knowledge base would whither away, leaving the company no future. The alternative is to increase your profit margin by acquiring a monopoly, or invest in high tech products and services.

    283. Through government mismanagement people have decided to retire early and buy that place in the sun with their inheritance. In addition, much of the UK economy is now illegal, with the Bank of England not knowing how at least a third of our cash is being used. Those are the incentives. I know because I worked for forty companies over twenty years, mostly on a contract basis. I even worked as a work study engineer. What employers fail to realise is that whilst their working conditions may have been acceptable to a workforce twenty years ago, attitudes change. What we need is a technocracy within every organisation, not just government. It won't happen, any more than our PM will tell everyone to grow their own and go vegan or vegetarian. Global Britannia to Great Britain to Gone Bust is fifty years!


images my ideas/shut Welfare.jpg
SHUT: The welfare state
    1. The experiences which I had, regarding my wife's benefits, led me to conclude that there has to be a better way of ensuring that everyone has social security, upon which to fall back on. I later became aware of the basic income scheme proposed by the National Council for Voluntary Organisations (NCVO).

    2. In this scheme it is proposed that every person over secondary education leaving age should receive a basic income, whether they work or not. The level of basic income, which would be the same for everyone, would be decided by a voluntary grouping known as the Basic Income Research Group. This scheme would mean the abolition of state pensions, students allowances, unemployment and basic supplementary allowances, etc. Income tax allowances would be abolished. Unemployed people would be allowed to work part time without the loss of benefit. There would be no means test, and as everyone would receive the benefit there would be no stigma attached to it. Because the system is far simpler the administrative costs would be far less than the sixteen hundred million pounds it cost the UK government at this time (1987), not to mention the cost saving to the employer. This is also known as universal benefit, not HMG's present Universal Credit.

    3. Images Wikimedia Commons/5 Eirian Evans Oxfam_Shop,_Rhyl.jpg
      WC: Oxfam Shop

    4. There are times when the welfare state proves inadequate, when unforseen events scupper plans, such as deaths resulting in expensive funerals, or wars causing rises in energy and food prices. It is then necessary to search for charities and obscure government help schemes.

    5. A higher rate of tax is the main disadvantage to the scheme, but then any truly caring society requires a higher level of taxation than that of a free for all one. Housing benefit, disablement allowance and exceptional needs allowance, etc., would have to be added to the basic income when required, although the amount would depend upon the threshold decided by the government and the Basic Income Research Group. This would pave the way for the abolition of the benefits sections of the DHSS and Department of Employment, a move long overdue in my opinion. Although parts of this scheme do not fit in with my own views, it is certainly better than the scheme introduced in April 1988 known as Income Support, designed to replace supplementary benefit. In the UK the DHSS has been replaced by the Department of Work & Pensions. It provides employment through Jobcentre+ and 'way to work' scheme, universal credit for the unemployed, and state pensions.

    6. The greatest advantage of the NCVO scheme is that it paves the way towards the creation of a leisure orientated society. It also ensures that people who are not mentally capable of looking after their own financial affairs are not forgotten or abused by the state, the way my wife was.


    1. People have the right to live in a crime free society, and yet many people dismiss such a suggestion as an impossibility. Dense populations affording anonymity, and speedy transport systems offering a quick getaway, are often the recipe for successful crime. Unfortunately most developed countries offer these two values in abundance, but that is no excuse for giving up. My eventual return to Birmingham left me in no doubt that people had done just that, to the point where victim's of crime did not report the matter to the police, whilst the police only investigated some crime superficially. There was a feeling amongst many ordinary citizens that they stood alone in a sea of crime. It was best to lock oneself away at the end of the working day, and ignore whatever mayhem maybe going on in the neighbourhood. There was little confidence in the police, and with a large proportion of adult males having criminal records, the police had alienated themselves from society through their own success and HMG's failure to offer the masses anything better.

    2. The police in Great Britain were inward looking. They were accountable to the local authority, who were hardly expert at managing the police, whilst the Home Office seemed to work in an advisory capacity only. Central government control of the police was considered the first step towards a police state. As such the police appeared autonomous in their actions, any discretions being investigated by other like minded police forces. There was little incentive to reduce crime, since the more crime there was, the greater the job security and the better the promotion prospects. I came to the conclusion that the police forces should be privatised, and paid according to results. An independent unit should monitor the effectiveness of police forces by setting up fictitious incidents, and reporting the results to the local authority concerned. Many people believe that the regional forces should be amalgamated and managed directly by the Home Office. I agree, since central government would be better at managing, coordinating and quicker at introducing new ideas.

    3. It became obvious to me over the years that the police knew little about what was going on in their area. In order to rectify this matter, and bridge the gap of distrust between them and the community, a system of community policing should be introduced. In this system the police, together with education, health, employment and benefit representatives, would visit households and record who lives there, where they work, what they own, including compilation of detailed records of valuable items, discuss anti-theft devices, and note reports of suspicious activity, etc.

    4. images my ideas/shut CCTVs.jpg
      SHUT: Is crime prevention through use of CCTVs and electronic tagging, resulting in the loss of social freedoms,
      better than the existing arrest, trial, imprisonment and compensation to victims?
    5. To improve the efficiency of police work further, fingerprints, DNA prints, eye prints and dental records of all persons should be on a police computer database. And of course people shown be electronically tagged at birth. All this sounds Orwellian, but it's either that or exist under a forest of CCTV (Closed Circuit Tele Vision cameras), as in the PRC. There, facial recognition has replaced bank notes and coins, even obviating credit and debit cards. Since the police in the UK at least, already had a substantial proportion of the nation's fingerprints on file, obtaining the rest by act of parliament should not be too difficult. Such information would save lives, as well as money in the long term. All people and valuable goods such as road and farm vehicles, TVs and computers should be electronically tagged. Electronic keys for vehicles, et cetera, should be banned. Just recently I saw a man press his fob and the lights of two cars lit up. HMG should have tested this technology before it was allowed to be used. The same goes for the internet and telephone. The only way to stop these scams is to switch to electronic money only, and ban individuals from moving it out of the country. The use of other money in this country should be banned, including cryptocurrencies, the dealers of which should be banned from all retailing and banned from the internet. Of course electronic money has been around for decades, particularly when it comes to share trading. So why don't we all use it? Many people feel that our corrupt politicians avoid its general use, to enable personal money laundering, and the secret financing of political activities. As for me, I would use my RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) enabled debit card more often if I could reach the fixed card reader at a crowded bar. It all boils down to this question. What is more acceptable, living in an environment that is kept constantly secure, or keeping thousands of criminals in prison at great cost to the taxpayer and the economy?

    6. In 2021 the total loss from financial fraud in the UK is known to be 4 million pounds per day, that's £1.46 billion per annum says UK Finance. Much of this fraud is being perpetrated by kids, who buy fraud kits off the internet. It is believed that 96% of fraud is unsolved, whilst 3% is being investigated, but less than 1% is solved. Much of this is stolen by organized gangs, many in foreign countries. The government and local police have been informed, and yet it goes on year after year. In the USA, the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) stated in February 2020 that there was $3.5 billion of reported cyber crime in 2019, based upon 467,361 complaints of phishing and extortion. It amounts to economic warfare, to which a military response should be considered justifiable. But of course our appeasing government hasn't got the guts to do it. The UK is considered to be a soft touch by criminals. These loses and the heartache it creates, will continue until a technocracy imposes the necessary financial controls. When will that be? In 2020 HMG announced its intension to invest £76 million to create the NCF (National Cyber Force) run by the UK's MOD (Ministry of Defence) and GCHQ (General Communications Head Quarters). This will carry out offensive operations, whilst the existing NCSC (National Cyber Security Centre) will perform defensive operations. It will still not stop banks from handing over thousands of pounds in cash to confused elderly customers, who then hand it to con merchants, and of course, when will our plastic bank notes and coins be replaced by secure digital? With bags of cash secretly passed on to political parties, the answer to that question is of course, "never."

    7. Some of the frauds (Phishing, identity theft, account theft) are as follows:

    8. List of Likely Frauds

      Don't keep bank account, national insurance / social security number, debit and credit card details on your computer, and don't give them to other people.
      Don't give your name when you receive a telephone call.
      Don't give your name and address to someone over a phone or internet, that you do not know.
      Don't use websites on the internet that you don't trust, and always check the web address in the browser window for 'variations' by criminals.
      When asked to press a number, do not answer scam calls as you are likely being charged at a premium rate.
      Do not respond to cold calls claiming to be from your bank, ISP, operating system.
      Do not respond to a cold call offering a loan/credit/prize or investment in return for an initial fee.
      Always purchase items via PayPal, or from a well known website that has an almost fee returns system. Always get a receipt, and keep it.
      For repairs, always go to an established company, never a back street one and never from someone at work. In the UK an item just bought can be returned within 30 days.
      Never answer emails that request or ask you to confirm personal information.
      In the case of debt collectors, be it rent, loans, fees, disputed bills, fines, always check that they are legitimate by phoning the organization first, using a verified phone number, and then pay by debit card. Always get a receipt.
      If requested, don't pay your taxes, bills to an overseas bank account.
      If in doubt about a business address, phone number, email address, look it up on the internet, such as on Wikipedia, or companies house.
      Always read the warning letters from your bank, building society, etc., and memorize them!
      Don't develop a financial arrangement with someone on Skype, that you've never met in the flesh, particularly if they take a long time to answer questions, or live in the third world.
      Never send money abroad to someone you met through a dating agency, or social network, who possibly claims to be on holiday.
      Keep your PC's operating system and security software up to date. Start>Settings>Update, in Windows 10, plus security app update, etc.
      Never accept a cheque (check). Accept money by money transfer, debit or credit card. Never pay fees.
      Never pay someone for money lost in a previous scam. Contact the police with their details.
      Never pay someone on the internet to fix your PC. I've tried Microsoft loads of times without success, so why use a scammer?
      Never pay for information via the internet. Always get it from the appropriate legitimate authority.
      Never send money to a website claiming to be a charity, possibly using fake news, film stars, genuine news story. Check it out first.
      Check out all bills you receive, and check your bank statements. Is it from the company you bought it from?
      Don't update your PC's drivers from websites. They are updated automatically in Windows 10. If you have a PC problem, go to relevant website directly. Always check the domain name is correct in the browser window.
      On your PC, don't download free apps unless essential, as they are designed to obtain your info. Often a new competing app will ask for less info about yourself.
      On your PC, delete apps you don't use as they continually collect info. Apple will delete an app automatically, if not being used. Remove cookies using Ccleaner. Remove browser favourites you don't use. Search yourself on the internet, to find out what they know about you and whether it is correct. Check an apps privacy policy regularly as they can change, and always use the check boxes. '
      Never accept free offers, including PPI, over the internet, that require your personal data. If the bank really had something to offer you, they would get in touch, wouldn't they?
      Never pay for goods you haven't received, not matter what sorrowful story the seller gives you.
      Always check out any sudden claims for money, fees, deposits, et cetera, through the appropriate organisation, and pay through the correct procedure.
      Beware of scammers turning up at your door, offering to fix your drive, et cetera. Always get a reference, and ask a friend for advice. Make no sudden decisions.
      Don't respond to talent scout's advances, requesting payment for auditions, etc. Go to a registered company only.
      Remember, if your bank gets in touch with you, they will quote the last few digits of your bank account, otherwise delete the email/letter/phone call.
      Don't load bank statements onto your computer. Just in case your security app fails to stop any malware.
      Scan your computer at least weekly for any malware.
      Don't give money to street beggars on a Saturday night whilst out drinking, even if they have got a starving dog.
      If someone damages your property or your vehicle, always report it immediately to the police. I didn't and it cost me 3 weeks wages to fix.

      Remember, cold calls in the UK are illegal, so have nothing to do with these calls. Con calls are based upon psychology. They will pamper you, threaten you with fines, or have your internet cut off, tempt your greed profile by offering a deal too good to be true. Nurture your selflessness by getting you to contribute to a charitable cause, et cetera, and all the while they will chivvy you for a quick decision, so that you don't think straight. By now all the klaxons in your brain should be going off. And on and on. The scams are endless. Be a scrouge, never part with your money. Never trust anyone. Don't you think a reward system that's not based upon money would be better? I get calls threatening to cut off my internet, all the time. So often in fact that these automatic calls must also be sent to policemen's homes and offices also. You look up these phone numbers on the internet, and they will tell you that it's a fraudsters lair. So why aren't they being stopped? It beggars the question, "what use are the police?" This website describes a financial system that does not employ money. Such a system (SPEV's) would be more acceptable to some religions such as Islam.

      images my ideas/wtn Birmingham West Midlands Police Headquarters.jpg
      WTN: Birmingham West Midlands Police Headquarters
    9. To reduce internet based confidence tricks, ransomeware, viruses, blackmail, slander, hatred and hackers, HMG (Her Majesty's Government)or EC (European Commission) should ensure that each time a person activates their web browser, a PIBB (Public Information Bulletin Board) page appears for at least two minutes, which lists details of likely misdemeanors and possible sentences, if caught. Police telephone numbers and how to gather evidence should also be listed, as should the phone numbers of the Samaritan's, and that of bank security departments. The complete text on PIBB should be read out automatically, starting with the name and address of the computer's owner. During this time the PC would be tested for security and any failings immediately reported to the user. The PC would then be directed to a security update website, where it would 'stay' until the user made it secure. In the case of financial matters, the victim should be empowered with the capability to shut down their accounts, and temporarily shut down joint accounts, whilst the financial institution contacted the other names. Customers should also be allowed to give further details on an electronic form, such as details of where the money has gone, to whom and how much, for the bank to then pass on these details to relevant banks and the commercial branch of the relevant police. Failure of the financial institution to act, would result in a heavy fine, plus compensation for the victim. Prevalent crime types would be transmitted regularly, similar to Microsoft news, to warn users.

    10. And whilst we are on the subject of crime prevention, don't you think it's about time the emergency services 999 and 911 telephone numbers were etched or printed onto telephones, as they used to be? And if the government really does want to put a stop to crime, don't you think it would be a good idea to fit electronic trackers to all expensive items and people, and ensure that CCTV was properly located, with data fed in real time to a police database, and to a high photographic standard? And wouldn't it be nice to have a nuisance call button (press 3 times), on each telephone and PC keyboard, which takes the problem direct to the OFCOM/Police/GCHQ nerve centre.

    11. The following is a list of relevant services for the UK, that should appear on PIBB:

    12. ---===000===---


    13. In February 2020, HMG announced that violence, cyber bullying and child abuse on social media websites Twitter, YouTube, Facebook, TikTok, Snapchat and others, will eventually be monitored by OFCOM, backed up with heavy fines, following the failure of a voluntary code of practice. Two years later it emerged that HMG is to introduce the online safety act. This will include threats, human trafficking, knowingly false information, harmful content such as suicides, revenge porn, firearms, hoax treatments and illegal drugs; extremism such as terrorism and coercive control. Social networks can be fined up to 10% of their global turnover. How long will it be before this act is used to shut down my website, and other reactionary websites in this country?

    14. Images Wikimedia Commons/6 Muhirehussein12 Nation_police.jpg
      WC: Police Car & Motorcycle

    15. There are many websites offering advice on cons listed here, some with donation buttons. Are they legitimate? Who cares? When you look at this list, you ask yourself the question, how can this sort of thing be going on in such an advanced nation? You've got all those agencies on the PIBB, and yet we don't have a crime free society. Life is a bit like politics. Nothing is as it first appears. Our laws and associated agencies aren't designed to protect us. They are there to protect the privileged elite. Politicians, human resource directors, legal buffs, financial experts and of course the upper crust, without whom the nation would be little better than a banana republic. The way the establishment works ensures the job security of them all, to the detriment of everything else. A few years ago I wrote to the Queen and Prince Charles about the sorry state of the nation. I'm sorry I didn't delete the expletives. I wasn't looking for an honour. I don't trust anyone with a swinging sword. All I want is for everyone on this planet to be well off and happy. And by well off I mean healthy, intelligent, well housed and free from all criminal activity. I won't see it before I die, but that doesn't stop me from trying.

    16. In the cashless society, the need for an ultra secure debit card will become very obvious. The government could maintain such a system in the form of a state identity card. Such a card would help not just the police, financial institutions, housing benefit investigators, but also customs & immigration and voting officials checking identities. The holographic identity card displaying large full and profile facial views of the holder, would also display the holders full name, height, weight, colour of hair, eyes and skin, distinguishing features, together with serial numbers related to birth certificate, passport, national health, national insurance, inland revenue, driving licence and military service number. On a micro-chip would also be encoded details of one of the holders finger prints, eye prints or both. The biometric identity card would also display the holder's postal address, updated by bank or medical officials. Since this was written in 1987, HMG's identity card project has progressed at great expense. In 2008 HMG will introduce electronic borders. In 2010 HMG will introduce identity cards costing at least 90 pounds per person. At least that was the plan. As with many IT projects, HMG's biometric identity card has been scrapped, and without it there can be no National CV Centre, details of which appear later. There can also be no electronic money system. I wonder why? Could it be that politicians don't want it because they are corrupt, and because they want dodgy money invested here from abroad, in order to stimulate the economy and finance political parties? The identity card could be replaced by facial recognition, but since the best technology is from Chinese company Megvii, I doubt whether HMG will accept it anymore than they will allow Huawei 5G mobile phone cell technology to be used here.

    17. The use of two way mirrors for identity parades, and sound recording of suspects being interviewed, were introduced years after they had been brought in by other countries. The use of video cameras to deter vandals on buses, in lifts and other places, only began to take off in the late 1980s. It was also at this time that the police, and local businessmen through the police, started offering rewards for serious crimes. A final admission that the general public had a major role to play in controlling crime. Until then the offering of rewards had been left to insurance companies. I could not help thinking that there should be standard rewards for the arrest of all perpetrators of crime.

    18. Images Wikimedia Commons/6 David Stowell Queen_Elizabeth_Law_Courts Birmingham UK.jpg
      WC: Queen Elizabeth Law Courts Birmingham UK

    19. Without a doubt the biggest deterrent to crime would be for everyone to undergo a lie detector (polygraph) test annually at their local police station. For those that fail this test, truth drug (sodium pentothal, etc.) interviews should be offered. Certainly this should be made available to those who at present consider themselves to be unjustly imprisoned. On January 28th, 1988 the Birmingham pub bombers appeal against conviction finally failed. The cost to the British tax payer of weeks of appeal hearings was enormous. Whilst I was a believer in the stories of police brutality during the original interrogations, it did not detract, my mind from the obvious question. No doubt at the back of everyone's mind was the question, which was the greater injustice? Keeping six innocent men in prison, or releasing six guilty men. No one suggested to me that I should take a lie detector test, and none was offered to any other inmate as far as I know, whilst I was at the remand centre. Certainly lie detectors or polygraphs as they are correctly termed, work perfectly in the hands of a competent person. The Birmingham pub bombers later obtained their freedom and compensation for unjust conviction. As for lie detectors, they are used by security agencies and also by the Jamaican government to stamp out corruption.

    20. The numerous agencies on the PIBB imply that we live in a police state. At present, much is being said about facial recognition and how it can be linked to bus passes, supermarket club cards, and so on to create a personal profile of just about anyone. Of course there would be no police state if we had a true government of the people, for the people. The constitution for a technocracy would be written by legal experts, computer programmers and contributors to internet based forums, ensuring that the workings of government were completely transparent. That way global CCTV incorporating facial recognition, would be considered acceptable.

    21. There is no doubt in my mind that the lack of responsible journalism is a contributing factor to many crimes. These glorified stories remain dormant in the brain, feeding on video nasties, firearm, survivalist, war and keep fit magazines. Such magazines were allowed in prison, a place where many inmates had mental problems. To many normally adjusted people, the banning of these magazines would appear draconian. It therefore seems best to find out why many inmates are susceptible to suggestion. Maybe there is a medical answer related to vitamin deficiency or blood grouping, as some have postulated.

    22. As for firearms, there is no place for them in a civilised society, outside the armed services and the police. After the Hungerford massacre in which sixteen people were shot dead at random by a young man in August 1987, I came to the conclusion that firearms should not be allowed to leave the premises of secure gun clubs, and that these clubs should only be used by the armed services, police and reservists. As for the reporting of the Hungerford massacre, after committing suicide the gunman apparently achieved immortality when newspapers gave six or seven page write ups about the incident, leaving one with the impression that they were too bone idle to report any other news that day. Television news was little better. Had the killer done it after hearing about similar incidents in the USA and Australia at this time, or was survivalism simply becoming too popular? After such a send up by the news media, one was left to wonder who would copy him. That answer was quick in coming. Fed on videos of the massacre, and armed to the teeth, a mentally deranged young man beat his mother and sister to death at home, before shooting dead two men in a computer factory where his ex-girlfriend worked. On March 28th, 1988 he was committed to Broadmoor Mental Hospital for an indefinite period, after he had pleaded guilty to manslaughter. I came to the conclusion therefore that the reporting of crime by the news media, should be left to merely reproducing police bulletins word for word. Another criminal influence is soap operas on television. Since scenes of suicide are banned from TV, its about time that other unacceptable acts were also banned from these programmes.

    23. Images Wikimedia Commons/6 Adirach Toumlamoon Ankle_Electronic_tagging.jpg
      WC: Ankle Electronic Tag

    24. Ten percent of the British economy is considered to be the black economy, the proceeds of crime, namely theft, fraud, tax evasion, smuggling, prostitution, illicit drugs, etc. Much of it involves illegal immigrants whom our border police fail to apprehend and deport, or they are people who have overstayed, usually because they have a partner in this country, and HMG fails to distinguish between the two, thereby refusing to give British citizenship. The UK is considered to be one of the most law abiding countries in the world, and yet it fails miserably to come up to the standards of a truly civilised civilisation. Under a world technocracy, by eradicating money in all its forms, most of these crimes would cease, including most violence, especially terrorism. Most of the money spent on law enforcement, law courts, prisons, together with almost all money spent on defence, could be diverted to improving people's quality of life. However, crimes of passion generally have no financial basis.

    25. It is far easier and more cost effective to prevent crime than to follow a course of retribution. If people are to have vastly extended lives then clearly subjecting criminals to a century or more of retribution, after they leave prison, is just not acceptable. It would clearly be a violation of human rights. To truly rid society of crime, it would be necessary to control people's emotion. Why is it for instance that people in the west appear to control their emotions better than those in the middle east. Is it simply because the people in Iran and many in Iraq, for instance, are descended from blood thirsty Mongols? Experiments in Russia for instance, involving the breeding of animals such as foxes, have shown that a violent trait can be bred out of them. In the west much of this violent urge, or lack of self control, was removed through enthusiastic use of the death penalty during the middle ages, an unnatural selection. This shows that crimes of violence have a genetic basis. To counter it therefore, one has only to find the gene that promotes good behaviour, and enhance it, whilst reducing the presence of any gene that promotes violence. People brought up in a friendly environment are generally speaking not violent, because experiences in life wire the brain that way. People who have too much to lose by being violent are also benign. Environmental factors such as lead poisoning, that increases violent behaviour, should be eliminated.

    26. Whilst the solution to this problem may seem extreme, it is the only solution when it comes to crime on the internet. Judging by how advanced malware is becoming, much of it being produced by governments, the inevitable conclusion is that someone or something will generate a virus that is self replicating, stealthy and indestructible. In next to no time the internet and all internet connected computers, including their data, will have been trashed. It has the potential to wipe out the capitalist system and trigger world war. Whilst the UK's HMG has the National Cyber Security Centre, it's clear from the FBI's appeal to US companies for support in defeating the MSIL / Samas ransomeware, that that may not be enough.

    27. Suicide is not a crime in the UK, but it does involve a lot of police time and expense. It is the duty of government to improve the quality of life for all, in order to reduce the frequency of these incidents. After half a century of trashing marriage and the family, and hence the incentive for men to work, it is perhaps time to rectify matters. HMG's attempts at social engineering have been a disaster, with murders in the family taking place almost every week. Laws creating women's lib and casual divorce should be replaced by state approved marriage only, whilst homosexual advances should be illegal. I do not believe that people should be allowed to engage in sexual practices that endanger the lives of other people, nor to act as an impediment to creating friendships. It's about time parliament and government admitted its mistake and put things right. In addition it's about time trials were treated as courts of inquiry, rather than simply pinning guilt upon relatively defenseless individuals. The truth is that most of these crimes would not take place if society and the economy were managed to a professional standard. It is also clear to me that evidence not obtained through a polygraph test should not be allowed.

    28. Recently I watched a TV programme about the 'Manchester Pusher', a person thought to have pushed sixty people into the canals of the city of Manchester, UK, over a six year period. The police said they were probably all accidents. If they were accidents then Manchester City Council, in collaboration with the British Waterways Board, has a health and safety requirement (duty of care) to fence off the canals and fit access gates, locked and guarded by police officers on a Friday and Saturday night in order to ensure that no drunk climbs over them, since the council has given planning permission and drinks licenses to these canal side public houses. The police also have a health and safety obligation to fit and monitor high definition closed circuit television cameras along the cities canals, in order to find out whether foul play is taking place and also to provide information which would improve the safe design of the canal network. In a world technocracy with no capitalism, no one would be complaining of lack of funding from central government or elsewhere. Under British law health and safety is everyone's responsibility, which opens up these organisations to compensation to next of kin and dependents, through the courts, since they appear not to have carried out a risk assessment whilst this redevelopment was underway. We no longer have horses towing narrow boats, so why aren't the canals fenced off? In the UK, health and safety applies to the work area, but as far as I know the UK's canals have not been formally removed from this designation.

    29. Steps in bioengineering have made me think again about all the proposals listed here. If there is one thing that criminals hate more than anything else, it's the aftermath. Their conscience. What creates one's conscience I have absolutely no idea, but it recently occurred to me that if one could enhance everyone's conscience, then it would be a way to deter people from committing crimes. And if they did commit a serious crime, their conscience would force them to commit suicide. Just think of it. There would be no need for police, courts and prisons. The financial savings would be dramatic. Whether you could make humans resistant to carrying out criminal acts, via hypnosis or group consensus, remains to be seen. As for the cemeteries, I visited my local crowded cemeteries recently and concluded that we would have to re-open the catacombs, for the ashes.

    30. images my ideas/wtn crime free Birmingham%20Warstone%20Lane%20Cemetery%20Catacombs.jpg
      WTN: Birmingham Warstone Lane Cemetery Catacombs
    31. Many of the above proposals would require a more democratic system of government to be established in the UK, and no doubt in other countries too, if an Orwellian style of government was to be avoided. A complex society requires strict rules if it is to function smoothly. Liberating divorce, homosexuality and one parent families is, if one is prepared to listen to some prison inmates, not a step in the right direction. So too is the failure of the state to ensure that couples are suitably matched before they marry, since domestic problems associated with incompatibility, lack of marriage guidance, lack of support from relatives and ease of divorce, can lead to serious domestic incidents. In the age of the cashless society, CCTVs and electronically tagged goods and people, domestic violence may well turn out to be the most serious crime in the twenty-first century....apart that is from breeding too many children.

    32. You may well ask who polices the police. In the PRC the Communist Party has its own legal system. In the UK and most democracies, everyone is in theory covered by the same laws. In 2016, the police forces of England and Wales stated that there were 436 allegations of sexual gain made against 306 police officers (The Guardian), whilst between 2009 and 2015 a total of 1629 police officers were arrested for various crimes (Sunday Times). This leads one to assume that its only a matter of time before human police are replaced by androids. So what do you want, a no messing hard nosed robo-cop or a crime free society?

    33. I have serious doubts as to whether these recommendations will be implemented. When one looks at the list of law enforcement agencies on the terror page in this website's introduction, one realizes that hundreds of thousands of people rely upon crime as a career. Police, secret agents, magistrates, judges, court clerks, police back-up, prison wardens, parole staff, et cetera, all rely upon criminal activity to ensure their job security, and in the case of police, a retirement pension after thirty years service. Are police unfit for service after only thirty years? Will they be too old to police the internet? As it is they can only solve one crime in ten. What use are they? Imagine the cost of all this to a bankrupt nation. Isn't crime prevention a better alternative? Of course politicians will say that there is too much public resistance to these proposals, never mentioning the prospect of a referendum. But what they really mean is that the privileged elite are better off as the system now stands. Politicians, bankers, HR directors, advertising executives, financiers, legal experts, et cetera, are alright Jack, and are determined to stay that way. They couldn't give a damn for all those that have been accosted, raped, burgled, property burned to the ground, conned out of there life savings, or murdered. They couldn't give a damn about all those ex-cons who have been denied employment and self respect. They're living for the moment, on a roll, whilst all you dumb dumb electorate go to hell.

    34. As if that wasn't enough, in December 2020 we learn that Greater Manchester police have consistently failed to report an average of 220 crimes per day in the year up to June 2020. What do they think they're at, a fancy dress ball? Whose getting fired? The establishment's thinking and structure is totally out of date. We urgently need a WT. Heads must roll.

    35. Well words almost fail me. Tragic isn't it? Almost makes you want to stand at the next general election as an independent technocrat, doesn't it? Oh, how I wish I could conscript the lot of ya.

    36. In December 2021 it was revealed that cocaine had been found in numerous toilets in the Houses of Parliament. In an immediate knee jerk response the PM announced that since half of financial crimes in UK were committed by people on drugs, HMG would spend £300 million providing rehabilitation to 300,000 drug users, whilst tackling 2,000 cross county lines drug gangs. There is one police force in each UK county, so criminal gangs assume they are less likely to get caught if they operate over county lines. They also employ less suspicious looking children. Drug dealer's phones will be used to send pre-recorded police messages to drug buyers phoning them up. Driving licences and passports will be confiscated from drug dealers. It remains to be seen just how enthusiastically HMG and the police implement these measures. Will police sniffer dogs be sent into parliament?

    37. In June 2022 Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary & Fire and Rescue Services, stated that there were now six police forces in England operating under special measures, due to failings within their operations. These were the Metropolitan (London), Greater Manchester, Gloucestershire, Staffordshire and Wiltshire police forces. Many of the problems were due to ill discipline. Clearly there needed to be a reintroduction of national service. If the Russo-Ukraine war was to continue for years, that development may not be too far off.

    38. So what would it take to create a crime free society?

    39. 1...Clearly the police would have to be replaced by robo cops.

    40. 2...Everyone would have to be tagged with a bio implant that would monitor your location, stress levels, etc.

    41. 3...Money would have to be replaced by SPEVs

    42. 4...Everyone would have to have a purpose, a job. The working environment would have to be improved substantially.

    43. 5...Computer based training and management via IT, would reduce stress in the workplace.

    44. 6...The traditional family unit would be the norm.

    45. 7.. Depictions of violence would be removed from TV, Cinema and Sport. This it to prevent pathways for violence from being hard wired into the brain.

    46. 8...The threat of violence between nations would be removed by the creation of a world order.

    47. When you look at these requirements you realise that the human race is unlikely to adopt these measures until it becomes highly intelligent through the bio-engineering of the human brain, which would also incorporate an enhanced conscience. Politicians certainly don't have that, as in August 2022 the UK's Criminal Bar Association announced that barristers had voted to go on an indefinite strike. Such action is incomprehensible as it would bring the legal process in the UK to a standstill. The maintenance of law forms the very foundation of democracy. The barristers want to be paid for the research involved, not just the time in court, plus improved working conditions and improved legal aid funding for cases. The problem had been simmering for years, with many barristers leaving the profession as a result. For a government to turn its back on this problem, undermines the legitimacy of government itself.


    1. The average citizen has an intense fear of the police, and especially of imprisonment. For any normal person at normal times, such a fear is a deterrent to committing crime. Once a person has experienced prison however, it is no longer a deterrent, since beforehand most people rate imprisonment as being far worse than it actually is.

    2. Without a doubt, prison to me was a sickening example of the ineffectiveness of government. I was left with the impression that it would have been more humane and effective to flog me, than leave me rotting in a human dustbin for two years and ten months. For the average habitual offender, I was left with the conclusion that flogging would be more impressionable, more positive, and certainly more cost effective. Since we live in what we regard as a civilised society, corporal and capital punishment are taboo. There is however no doubt in my mind that the last place one should put an habitual criminal is in a traditional British prison, where in no time the inmates dulled brain will have become institutionalised, and brain washed by other offenders. In no time they look upon prison as being better than home. From what I heard and saw, a long term prison is preferable to a life on the dole, particularly to people who crave for friendships.

    3. As with the marines, prison inmates should be torn down then built up to become model citizens. This would be carried out by the British army. It would involve character building and special education where necessary, leading to permanent employment. In a truly caring prison system I considered a fixed term of imprisonment inappropriate. Release should be through the inmates own personal effort based on good behaviour, work output, wages saved, educational attainments achieved, and response to medical treatment where necessary. Prison inmates should be trained for release back into the community. They should have their own cell and shown how to look after themselves as regards housework, including cooking, ironing, hygiene, shopping, manners, etc. How to manage finances, including the paying of utility bills. Each prison should have its own genuine factory, not pathetic workshops, making prison clothing , mail bags and road signs. The working week should be ten hours per day, six days per week, on a production line where team work was important. Inmates should receive union rates of pay, and charged rent and income tax, etc. They would be required to save up enough money, which would be spent on furnishing a flat or buying a home immediately prior to being released. However, based upon my personal experiences, the Home Office does not possess the necessary professionalism to make it work fairly.

    4. images my ideas/shut HM Prison aerial view.jpg
      SHUT: HM Prison aerial view
    5. Upon attaining a certain level of achievement, inmates should be encouraged to cohabit with inmates of the opposite sex. When they had earned enough on the production lines, inmates would be paid whilst they attended educational classes, relevant to the state's employment needs, upon their release. Inmates would be allowed to wear their own clothes. Offenders would be put in solitary. In short, prison would be a hard working, positive minded society, with standards higher than in the community at large. There would be no drugs, no alcohol, no tobacco and no junk food. It would be a government designed microcosm, a place where social designs could be tried out before implementation in the world outside. Those inmates that consistently failed within this regime should be relegated to sheltered communities, where they could be supervised. Prison should be a place to build, and not destroy.

    6. For violent repetitive offenders, I can only hope that medical science through better diet, electro-convulsive therapy, drug implants or whatever, can contain the situation. Crime is an awful scar upon any civilised society. To find an amicable solution to the problem is virtually impossible, but there must certainly be a better way than that which I experienced. Decades later I was to realise that bioengineering of a person's genome may be the answer.

    7. Throughout the years I looked after my wife, and throughout the years I spent in prison, I lived in hope. Hope that one day we would all live in a better, more democratic and more caring world. It was this hope that kept me alive, I dreamt of a utopian world where social democracy flourished. Where there was a place in society for all human beings, regardless of their capabilities. A better world where trust and love proliferate. A world fit for children to grow up in. That world has thus far not arrived. Governments behave more like financial institutions than social workers. It is my belief that the global economy will collapse, either due to rising commodity prices, unaffordable insurance premiums due to climate change, putting firms out of business and thereby causing a global banking collapse. Global terrorism triggering super volcanic eruptions and mega tsunamis, H5N1 pandemic or global warming which could trigger a third world war. After all this misdirected effort, maybe the surviving remnants of the human race will see the error of their ways and create a world technocracy.

    8. This paper was produced in 1987 on an Amstrad PCW 8512, printed off on a dot matrix printer, scanned using OCR onto a PC, only to find that not everything was scanned correctly. After proof reading this and hopefully replacing all those commas with full stops (period), it occurred to me that if husbands had been made responsible for the actions of their family, including the actions of their wives, it is likely that I would not have ended up in prison. But of course there is still no law in the UK designed to deter people from nagging (goading) others into becoming violent or suicidal.

    9. Thirty two years later I still believe in the creation of a world technocracy (WT), which would undoubtedly lead to a new civilisation, second to none. At the age of seventy I have lived all my life under the threat of global thermonuclear war. It's now obvious to me that there are now many members of the global electorate that have had enough of politicians maintaining this unacceptable state of affairs. Governments ignore this movement at their peril. It will not end with the Arab spring and the troubles in eastern China and Hong Kong.

    10. This website gives more detailed information on how a WT should be structured.

8...Water Shortage & Poor Quality

      Images Wikimedia Commons/8 Bob Jones Water_shortage^_-_geograph.org.uk_-_205848.jpg
      WC: Farm Land Irrigation

      Images Wikimedia Commons/8 Gene Alexander, USDA NRCS Pivot With Drops.jpg
      WC: Pivot Irrigation

      Images Wikimedia Commons/8 Zumbonin Pivot irrigation in the desert.jpg
      WC: Pivot irrigation in the desert

    1. As the human population on the planet grows, so will the need for more water, for drinking, agriculture and industry. Shortages in California, Australia, Turkey and northern PRC are just the tip of the iceberg. Only a world technocracy can build a global water grid running mainly from cold latitudes to warmer ones, with pumps powered by output from geothermal, wind, solar and nuclear fusion power stations. Existing networks in the PRC and Libya give some idea of what is required. Most existing natural gas pipelines would be converted to carry fresh water. In addition plants would be constructed to treat water contaminated by mine workings and natural chemical processes, such as arsenic. Where necessary water desalination plants would be constructed, to extract fresh water from sea water.

    2. Images Wikimedia Commons/8 Hoekstra Annual-exhaustion-of-water-supplies.jpg
      WC: Global Annual Exhaustion of Water Supplies

      Images Wikimedia Commons/‎8 yuachi‎ Murano_Water_Treatment_Plant2.jpg
      WC: Water Treatment Plant

    3. The long term solution to this problem is birth control and hydroponics. The simmering conflict between Egypt and Ethiopia over the Revolution Dam project clearly shows that the Egyptian government is resistant to these ideas. However, it maybe forced to do so, in order to stop rising ground water undermining the nation's valuable and irreplaceable archeology. Extending Egypt's agriculture out from the Nile valley is causing these ancient foundations to crumble away, and no doubt destroy archeology that is thus far undiscovered. Predictions that the human population of this planet will level off by 2100, do not take into account social factors nor medical advances in immortality.

    4. Images Wikimedia Commons/8 Ad Meskens Geçitköy Dam.jpg
      WC: Geçitköy Dam Northern Cyprus Water Supply Project

      Images Wikimedia Commons/8 Sharon Nardo Three_Gorges_Dam,_model.jpg
      WC: Three Gorges Dam Model

    5. In August 2022 HMG declared a drought in the UK as forest fires raged in Portugal and south west France. Most of France and Germany were under drought conditions with the River Rhine almost closed to barges due to low water level, many carrying fuel to power stations. Rivers to the south, such as the Loire and Po were in an even worse condition, whilst the river Thames was at its lowest since 2005. The level of water on Lake Mead which supplies water and electricity to 40 million people in the south-west United States including Las Vegas, was so low that electricity production could cease in two years time. The way things are going, if governments don't get a grip on global warming, then much of the world's drinking water will have to be conveyed along lengthy pipelines from the tundra regions or obtained by desalination in the not too distant future. Hydro-electric power has been cut by 20% in the UK due to lack of water whilst riverside powerstations have had to reduce output due to the river water being too warm for cooling purposes. The situation does not bode well for winter. No sooner was the first heat wave over in the UK in 2022 than 50 beaches came under threat from pollution from water companies, due to rainwater in thunderstorms producing too much run-off from Sun baked earth. Statistics now showed that the equivalent of 16 football pitches of forest were being destroyed by fire every minute said Global Forest Watch. A figure that has doubled in the last 20 years. Nine million hectares were consumed in 2021, 5 million of which was in Russia. Clearly the Russian military were fighting in the wrong field.

    6. It is clear to me that companies transporting or producing water should be owned by that nation's sovereign wealth fund, and not left to the forces of capitalism where assets, like infrequently used reservoirs, are sold off, only to see the company asset stripped after a take over, where the share holders receive extra dividends from these sales. Then of course there is mismanagement, where the water company invests in something that has nothing to do with its prime function, only to lack funds for essential water plant operation and maintenance, often resulting in punitive fines for breaches in water pollution regulations. Until nations are managed by technocrats it's unlikely that these failings will be a thing of the past. Water, gas, electricity, information technology, and rapid transit employing taxi-vans and air taxis should all be owned by that nation's sovereign wealth fund. I include IT because of the huge amount of time spent maintaining such systems and their cost. In the UK there is little training, no standards and no rationalization. Being the foundation of an economy, it is in the government's interest to drastically improve IT efficacy and organizational efficiency, in order to improve competitiveness in the global economy.

    7. In August 2022 The Liberal Democrats stated that 90% of the water industries foul water sensors either did not work, did not work most of the time or did not exist. It is clear that these sensors should be installed, linked to the internet via satellite, to be read by water companies, OFWAT, environmental organisations and the general public. It's just another example of HMG's failure to understand and implement the capabilities of information technology. And whilst water companies are paying share dividends there is no excuse for not having these sensors working. It should not be necessary for parliament to legislate this matter. Just what kind of an environment do water companies want?

9...Internet Based Television

      Images Wikimedia Commons/9 ‎al , tanawi‎ تردد_قناة‎.jpg
      WC: No Signal

    1. Today there are so many TV channels on my smart TV  that it takes me at least half an hour to select my viewing itinerary for the day from the EPG (Electronic Programme Guide), resulting in RSI (repetitive strain injury), a temporary paralysis of the hand. There are retail channels, others with soft porn, but the majority contain loads of repeat programmes accompanied by a heavy sprinkling of advertisements, roughly every fifteen or twenty minutes. I prefer watching current affairs, documentaries that I can learn from and a good movie. There are no educational programmes, not even during the Covid-19 lockdown. I regard it as a pitiful misuse of technology.

    2. The future of commercial television lies on the internet, where viewers can watch programmes on demand and where programme producers can make their products available direct (rather than through expensive TV channel providers), whilst earning more revenue through global advertising. Such a system provides an incentive for programme producers to create programmes of high quality, to appeal to more viewers, whose person specific advertising creates the returns necessary for future investment in the industry. Adverts should be interactive, enabling the viewer to stop the programme whilst purchasing or requesting more info about the advertised product. It should also be possible to tell the ISP's search engine what types of programmes and adverts you are interested in viewing. For instance, you may want information about power stations. The program would list the names of British companies, exactly what they make, plus their website. The website would incorporate a path to the sales department. Now what car manufacturer does that, never mind a power station builder? This is how you get the nation out of debt.

    3. British television is currently so poor in quality that often I prefer to play solitaire on my PC whilst listening to my mp3s instead. It is simply too negative, only basically informative, mind numbingly repetitive and unimaginative.

    4. By failing to manage society at first hand HMG has created a society with declining moral standards. Freedom can be a curse, when you've got too much of it. Television is by far the cause of much of this nation's ills. Programmes promote house purchase and buy to let, as if they want economic chaos. Programs on cooking promote our obese diabetic social standards, whilst risque scenes in soap operas promote sexually transmitted infections, drug taking and a general degradation of social values. Programmes on automobiles promote a vroom vroom mentality, whilst totally ignoring new eco-friendly technology. British television is tripe, consisting largely of easy to produce cheap soap operas from CSI to Coronation Street. It falls far short of what I regard as entertainment, with at least one murder per night. Like the Internet, it has been destroyed by our love of freedom. With the introduction of AI I simply do not see our human population surviving, as the majority do not possess the right mentality. The human brain should be enhanced by electronic implants (Cyborgs) or bio engineering, but in the absence of such technology, at least let us have programmes that promote intelligence, and do not become a soul destroying addiction. Are inspirational, particularly for children.

    5. I well remember how it use to be when television started broadcasting in the 1950s. In those days TV programmes for kids were truly jaw dropping with series like Jerry Anderson puppets, the Buccaneers, William Tell, Hop Along Cassidy, Zoro. Now its chat shows, pop songs and time consuming dribble, and Newsround, as if there were not enough news programmes already, not to mention eternal repeats. In my opinion television programmes are a major cause of ailments resulting from a lack of mental and physical exertion, leading to senile dementia, obesity, diabetes and osteoporosis. The importance of reducing the cost of treatment in an ageing society must be one of the EC's primary concerns. In an ageing society government needs to take positive steps to reverse this trend, by tackling the causes.

    6. Television needs to be more interesting, educational and interactive, not something you sit in front of and doze off. The EC's supported P2P NEXT file sharing video streaming television is definitely the way to go. It should be shown via terrestrial and satellite, and also placed on a more secure and truthful European Union Web (euw) rather than www. EU TV companies should collaborate more to produce more numerous high quality programmes like the series Das Boat and Rome. At the present time advertising revenue is falling, whilst the TV licence fee of 145-50 pounds per annum (April 2016) is exorbitant considering all the repeats and pathetic content. OFCOM suggested in April 2008 that the TV licence fee be reallocated by 2011. More recently, a leaked letter suggests that OFCOM will permit ITV to reduce local news content, with the loss of hundreds of jobs. ISPs presently want the BBC to contribute to upgrading the Internet, whilst Channel 4 is also looking for support. With the predicted switch from personally owned cars to taxis driven by AI, the amount of automotive advertising (cars, insurance, AA) on television will reduce considerably, no doubt placing even greater pressure for the TV licence revenue to be more evenly distributed amongst channels, as many viewers refuse to pay it, particularly in south Birmingham where the reception has been terrible for years. On many occasions I can receive either BBC or independent channels, not both, due to construction of tall buildings in the city centre. I have been told by aerial installers that even reception from aerials on twenty storey blocks of flats can be problematical.

    7. Images Wikimedia Commons/9 Ank Kumar Olympic_Museum_(_Ank_Kumar,_Infosys_Limited_)_32.jpg
      WC: Olympic Museum

    8. I would like to see the existing format replaced by interactive Freeview video-on-demand theme channels, with all soap operas banned. In an age of AI and androids, further dumbing down of society by television programmes is clearly unacceptable, if humans are to continue to reign supreme. It would provide the excuse for installing a 100Mbps Internet throughout the EU at a time when 3D HD TV is about to become a reality. Hundreds of thousands of homes across the UK cannot get BBC Freeview, mainly due to interference from construction sites. This problem has existed in my area ever since digital broadcasting started. Belatedly, in May 2008 BBC Freesat became available. The poor reception that my TV presently gets on Freeview, clearly shows that a more demanding system i.e. 3D, has to come from cable. A standardized Eurovision Network throughout the European Union would help to get the electorate to be more European minded.

    9. The channels would be as follows:

    10. World news; National news; Local news:

    11. Current affairs and big issues (global warming, global terrorism, pandemic, global economy, etc.) A very large proportion of the population of Birmingham are ethnic minorities and yet hardly any programs on TV are from non-English speaking countries. News from those countries is also absent, whilst to repeat news stories more than once per hour, as does BBC News 24, is too repetitive.

    12. World theatre, national theatre, local theatre:

    13. Local authorities support local theatre and yet none of it is shown on TV. A one off broadcast of each show would be an excellent way of advertising these events.

    14. History documentaries and historical drama:

    15. When we see the mistakes we have made in the past, we can hopefully avoid repeating them in the future. It can also lead to a greater racial understanding.

    16. Science documentaries:

    17. Archaeology, astronomy, aerospace, construction, transport, materials science, etc. There is a tendency on TV to simplify programmes to the point where one wonders whether the producers themselves really understand the subject. Most appear to be clearly under qualified for the task.

    18. Movie 1 national language. Movie 2 foreign language:

    19. Movies would be required to be historically accurate and promote harmony.

    20. Sport 1 national. Sport 2 international:

    21. Including how to participate, rules and regulations

    22. Education primary, education secondary, education college, education university:

    23. As schools get burned down and IT equipment stolen, education is proving to be very expensive, particularly as it is difficult to motivate school children, even in academies, when their parents are in low paid jobs or unemployed, or they are from a broken marriage. It's clear that one-on-one education via the internet using advanced algorithms is the answer, with parental supervision and hardware provision as necessary. This way all of the syllabus gets taught. It can be updated easily. The exams would be computer generated and marked. It could be preceded by IQ tests in order to determine what career, and hence what subjects would best suit each individual. Education would probably be shown on at least eight channels.

    24. Images Wikimedia Commons/9 Geoff Marshall BBC_Television_Centre_-_geograph.org.uk_-_7407.jpg
      WC: BBC Television Centre

      Politics national, politics EU, politics, UN, law and referendums:

    25. Displays live proceedings, explanation of events, and interviews. It would arrange referendums via the internet; explain what they are about and what professional guild members would be entitled to contribute ideas and vote. The result, if passed, would then be written in legal terms by members of the legal guild, and then disseminated. For a political website see www.pol.is

    26. Images Wikimedia Commons/9 Satyar Emami Iran_vs_Mexico,_Football_Match,_Live_Tehran.jpg
      WC: Watching Football Match Live

      Government structure, welfare state:

    27. In recent years HMG has passed thousands of laws, and yet the general public has not been informed as to what those laws relate to. That is one reason why our prisons are overflowing.

    28. Economics personal & business, global market reports:

    29. Individuals need to understand domestic economics in order to stay out of debt. Companies need to know the essentials of running a business, in particular effective communications. Where sales opportunities exist. The need to advertise, carry out market research and R&D.

    30. Infant (with programmes designed to inspire interest in science and engineering):

    31. As a child I use to read Eagle comic. I found the exploits of Dan Dare and the cut-away drawings very interesting. As a result I have a deep interest in space research and engineering. TV programmes should be designed to exploit this potential in young people. This channel should promote intelligence enhancing computer games. At present UK programmes for young people are dumbing them down, to become the delinquents of tomorrow.

    32. Charities / International Rescue:

    33. This channel could broadcast disaster warnings in detail, and display the event both during and afterwards. For instance, the Sichuan earthquake did not show satellite photos in optical, radar and infra-red. Infra-red could display the location of buried survivors. Sonar can locate wrecks on the sea bed, whilst radar can detect failed bridges and subsided roads in overcast weather. The better the coverage, the more financial support charities would receive from viewers. Charities could explain what they do and where they are operating.

    34. Crime:

    35. BBC's Crimewatch is one of the most popular programmes on TV. This channel should also include crime prevention and laws, (including consumer law). How to set up an approved Internet linked CCTV system, for home and business. How to set up a secure computer system, etc.

    36. Careers / Professions:

    37. The effect of government policy and other factors on careers. Professional bodies, job training courses, etc. This would probably be shown on at least four channels.

    38. Religions of the world:

    39. To promote religious harmony and western values, particularly through the Samarian translation of the Koran.

    40. Images Wikimedia Commons/9 Kanade miko MMT_program_on_Sharp_PW-TC920_20200314.jpg
      WC: Mobile Television


    41. Very few hobbies are shown on TV. Model building, gardening, painting, ceramics, sculpture, carpentry, dancing, video, board & card games, trekking, cycling, horse riding, etc.

    42. Biome Management:

    43. Biome management system, collective food production (grains), hydroponics, cooking with the mealie maestro.

    44. Holidays:

    45. With emphasis upon promotion of eco-friendly holidays close to home, and within the pound currency zone.

    46. Health:

    47. Healthy exercise, diet and cleanliness.

    48. Light entertainment shows:

    49. Comedy, ballet, opera, circus

    50. Music:

    51. Music pop, music rock, music R&B/Soul/Reggae/Funk, music hip-hop, music classical/opera/ballet, music traditional (country & western, bluegrass, folk, chant, etc.), music foreign (African, Arab, India, Latin, Far East, etc.)

    52. Invention:

    53. Enables inventors to make contact with potential investors (government, financial institutions, manufacturing companies) and entrepreneurs. Get government assistance with regulations and regional aid, enabling technology, etc.

    54. Images Wikimedia Commons/9 Narayan43211 Watch_live_TV_channels_via Internet._wwiTV.online.jpg
      WC: TV via Internet

      Amateur & Foreign TV Programmes:

    55. This channel enables people to display their own programme, on any subject, as a means of letting off steam or of showing off their media capability. It would also enable foreign media companies to display a taster programme, in the hope of the entire series being shown later.

    56. Multilingual Teletext Channels for:

    57. news, public transport maps and timetables (air, bus, train, tram), purchasing, cartoons. I think the BBC scrapping of weather satellite pictures was a big mistake.

    58. Library channel for:

    59. eInk downloads from state libraries of books , magazines, newspapers, CD download of music, DVD download of movies, games, training versions of professional (on the job) software, etc.

    60. There will be no real improvement in programme quality until the TV licence is replaced by an internet or intranet licence that supports the creativity of internet based TV programme producers, coupled with the scrapping of TV channels in there present form.

    61. HMG intends that every home be connected to the internet at a minimum speed (bandwidth) of 2Mbps. My basic internet speed, in 2019, was 9Mbps. In 2021 my download speed was raised to 33Mbps and upload 8Mbps, but could be higher. Since I don't download movies nor games, I don't need it any higher. In October 2021 HMG announced that it was financing to the tune of £5 billion the provision of 1Gbps internet to remote regions of the UK by 2025. This would enable the download of high definition movies in just 30 seconds. Many families however show no interest in the internet. It is too complicated, frustrating and expensive. The authorities don't appear to be policing the internet in a effective manner, whilst web surfing software (browsers) are not required by law to warn users of the dangers, by displaying relevant laws when it is switched on. A PIBB. Warnings about what is passing through the modem when the light is flickering are also absent. If HMG is to get our dumbed down society interested in a science based society, it has to get the general population interested in IT first. Therefore incentives have to be provided to get the general public surfing. The speed must be capable of audio/visual internet relay chat so that users can keep an eye on elderly relatives and make friends. However, since there appears to be no directory, in Skype and Zoom, that includes names and their professions, I fail to see how it can be of use to me. The same problem appears to exist in social networking sites.

    62. Maintaining the viewers intelligence can be achieved through the broadcasting of interactive neurologically enhancing TV games with cash prizes, offer free training and computer vouchers, sign on for welfare benefits only via the internet (in English only), etc. Offer educational science biased computer games, e-books and e-comics free. HMG could coerce all television onto the internet by cancelling the TV licence. These TV channels could be financed from compulsory advertising, namely the advertising of UK company's products and capabilities to the global economy, via global Freesat and the internet.

    63. Images Wikimedia Commons/9 Our World in Data Share_of_individuals_using_the_internet.jpg
      WC: Where Internet Is Used On Earth

    64. The use of the Caxton printing press in the seventeenth century led to a watershed in information and ideas, particularly in science, especially medicine. Had the Roman empire such technology, its understanding of reciprocating stone cutting water mills, reciprocating water pumps and the power of steam, would inevitably have led to the steam engine and probably an industrial revolution at least one thousand years before it actually happened. In China under the first Chin emperor, it is believed that the use of electricity was discovered which could produce aluminium and pump lakes of mercury in the emperor's mausoleum. For a nation that invented printing it is tragic to realise that the names of those engineers and scientists, the Michael Faraday's that perished in that tomb, will probably never be known. Had they used a removable type printing press, then that knowledge would probably not have been lost, and again the human race would have experienced an industrial revolution far earlier than it did.

    65. Currently numerous television series are being mass produced that require very little thought from producers, writers, actors and all others concerned. Many of these programmes are based upon conflict, including crime. A murder takes place on TV almost every day with scant disregard for the mental and psychological impact, and hence social consequences. It is time we had a technocracy composed of technocrats with the vision and determination not to let our capitalist minded media dumb down our citizens with this tripe. The psychological impact of this content, not to mention the huge waste of time, where viewers could be doing something far more productive, has been ignored by government for too long.

    66. Knowledge is everything. It's what makes a nation great. The distributed network of the internet makes information on it even more secure than that in the smouldering ashes of ancient libraries in Alexandria or Herculaneum, and a bonus to those nations who realise its importance. Today Information Technology is the conduit for knowledge. It has the capability to streamline personnel recruitment, planning approval, training, finance and display business opportunities. Ignore it at your peril.

    67. HMG and the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) do ignore it. Freeview, a conglomeration of advertising and TV licence supported English speaking programmes, is currently (2019) not on the internet, except BBC i-Player's past programs library. With the introduction of 1TB copper based internet from Virgin Media, this is likely to change, because it's about time HMG realised the impact global advertising would have on the British economy. Currently, my present housing estate, like my previous residential area, suffers from poor reception. I can't plan my viewing because half of the channel details don't appear on my programme guide. How much longer do we have to wait for perfect reception via the internet, presumably made available via the UK company One Web? Freeview is also available via satellite, called Freesat. The internet would provide 'Freeint' with global coverage without the need for a forest of satellite dishes and rooftop aerials. Only a WT....

    68. One thing that Americans excel at is advertising. "We don't need to advertise because our customers know we exist." I remember one director telling me that, at a job interview. What about all the ones who have never heard about them, I thought. The greatest advertising body in the UK appears to be Google, but why? It's simply because the British board room isn't dynamic enough, because they are paid too much to do too little. They plainly don't know how to run a company and make a profit in this cut-throat environment. Take the British Broadcasting Corporation. This is a body whose customers definitely know it exists, because we have to pay for that expensive television licence. It is of course a tax to finance HMG's propaganda machine. At least that's how I look at it. The BBC should make and broadcast job training and education programmes to the world, in order to stimulate the global economy, plus documentaries about our UK based companies, particularly their capabilities, showing products that nations need and can afford, with contact details on teletext. That is how you get the economy moving again. It's about time the UK came top in the World Bank's ease of doing business index.

    69. According to the website statista, BBC revenue in 2020 amounted to 3.53 billion pounds in licence fee revenue and 1.42 billion pounds in the renting of programmes to other channels, etc. That may sound great but the revenue made by Netflix during the same period amounted to $25 billion. It's clear that the BBC should pursue a similar business plan. So why doesn't it? It's protected (or hamstrung) by politicians who presumably regard it as their propaganda ministry, paid for by the electorate. Now that's got to be the ultimate con hasn't it? It's plain it's time the BBC was unleashed, and the viewer given the freedom they deserve. Alternatively, HMG could compel the BBC to broadcast programs as described in this chapter. Are they capable of doing that? The BBC excels in producing documentaries like Tomorrow's World, Horizon, together with a plethora of nature programmes, so I don't see why it can't concentrate on appealing to eggheads and those that thirst for knowledge. In May 2021 it was announced that AT&T was to purchase Discovery Plus, to create a media empire worth $150 billion. Just days later Amazon decided to purchase the great movie producer MGM for $8.45 billion. Soon the BBC will have no access to a catalogue of movies to portray. Whilst there are cries from Westminster to sell off the NHS, politicians appear loathed to sell off the BBC. I wonder why?

    70. I don't know why I'm giving away all these free ideas when I don't even believe in capitalism. Must be the effect of all that disciplined training to be a navigating officer and engineering draughtsman. I simply believe in getting things done right, no matter what they are.

10...Local Government

    1. There have been three areas in which I have come into contact with my local government. These are:

    2. Replacing Birmingham Central Library

    3. Local Development

    4. The Right To Buy Your Own Home

11...Replacing Birmingham Central Library

      Images Wikimedia Commons/11 Andy G Birmingham_(UK)_skyline_-_Centenary_Square_640.jpg
      WC: Central Library & Memorial

    1. Dear sir or madam,

    2. Will the Library Of Birmingham become a white elephant?

    3. As a regular user of Birmingham Central Library I am aware of its limitations. Those limitations, caused by a lack of floor area due to changes in technology and leisure patterns during its lifetime, have caused councilors and bureaucrats to struggle over years to give birth to a better library that will satisfy all needs. This project has taken so long to conceive that it is in danger of a still birth.

    4. The changes in technology I refer to are the introduction of music CDs, DVDs and internet enabled PC's. Birmingham City Council is rightly proud of its music department, one of few in the country. Decisions made by government are often dictated by advances made in technology. Birmingham City Council has yet to appreciate this.

    5. In less than a couple of months we have seen the African country, Rwanda, and also Stockholm and Oslo connect to 500 Mbps mobile 5G internet. LG, Panasonic, Samsung and Phillips all make internet televisions. Sky 3D HD will be available in the UK from April 2010. Home entertainment system manufacturers abandon the CD player in favour of digital streaming. Total music CD sales fell 3.5% in 2009, the fifth year they have fallen, to 128.9 million. During the same period CD downloads rose 56.1 % to 16.1 million. As Google puts the world's books on the internet, advances in e-ink technology have seen the launch of the Amazon Kindle e-ink reader in two sizes, as it announces a 71% leap in profits in the fourth quarter of 2009 to 238 million pounds. CEO Jeff Bezos highlighted the popularity of its Kindle electronic book. The similar Sony touch screen with USB or SD card slot, and Intel's Reader which can scan and read documents verbally for blind people, also compete with Amazon. Apple announce the more expensive i-Pad tablet, which can digitally stream books from Apple i-Books and arrange text, pictures, video and sound as desired, in its up to 64GB memory. These products can store many books. As this technology catches on it will encourage authors to by-pass traditional publishers, leading to a far cheaper product. Technical books will be far easier to correct and update. Larger displays will be ideal for production engineers on the shop floor and project engineers on construction sites, where the risk of damaging or losing, or not having the latest version of engineering drawings is high. Eventually governments will be obliged to outlaw the use of timber and paper, for ecological reasons.

    6. As welfare benefit and National Health Service dependence increases from an ever growing elderly and refugee population, the number of infirmed people rises within our population. Many of these have no way of getting to a public library, nor of it getting to them. To many of them the internet is not a word in their vocabulary, but it's highly likely that it soon will be.

    7. Television channels in the UK are in dire need of revenue. The TV licence is not enough.

    8. images my ideas/wtn replacing 2016 Central Library Being Demolished.jpg
      2016 Central Library Being Demolished
    9. The internet offers advertising revenue in almost unlimited amounts through person specific advertising on a global scale. Cost reductions in the UK will be made by shutting down terrestrial transmitters. Viewers will be obliged to connect to Freesat, if it is still available, or connect to the internet. At a stroke, almost the entire population will be required to become computer literate as the TV licence is replaced by an internet licence. Digital streaming will become the accepted means of data transfer, and all within ten years. This is only one step away from granny managing her bank/building society accounts and pension, paying her utility bills and buying her groceries via the internet, and of course digital streaming. This at a time when my 92 year old mother cannot even operate her Freeview remote control, but constantly tells me, "you can learn a lot from soap operas." She is going to have to learn a lot about IT if she wants to continue viewing them, and pay for her TV/Internet licence and ISP fees, which could be compulsory for every home and business in the country. An e-commerce web site is likely to become compulsory for every business, as will be the permanent employment of a web-master and IT manager if this nation is to get itself out of the economic fix it is in.

    10. This of course beggars the question; in a world of digital streaming of books, newspapers, magazines, music, movies, radio stations and television, what future have book and music stores, and public libraries? In what state are our libraries in?

    11. I must admit that internet access at Birmingham's Central Library can be a bit of an ordeal. If you can remember your 14 character membership and 4 number PIN, that is only the start of the ordeal. Sitting there next to the screechy escalators your mind becomes a complete blank. If you have not written out your 'to do' list the night before, the screeching acts like white noise during interrogation. Next comes the neighbours who invariably are having a noisy conversation in pigeon English to one side, whilst on the other, the illegal immigrant, straight off the lorry from Afghanistan, has taken off his smelly trainers, as every other PC user pops their head up and looks around to see where the stench is coming from. You look up at the ceiling and notice there is no sprinkler system. At the entrance to the music department is a sign reading 'Do not be alarmed if the alarm goes off as you enter.' It is meant to work on the way out. So much for the security system. On the counter is the sign 'thieves and pickpockets operate in this building', or words to that effect. Whilst using the catalogue PC, it keeps rebooting every quarter of an hour resulting in the words 'rebooting counterfeit operating system.' as for requesting new albums, I have been waiting over two months for some of the 22+ on my list. Some are in the building, but due to staff shortages they have yet to be processed. Prices for borrowing are likely to rise considerably once the new Library of Birmingham is completed, just as Virgin rail fares make excursions to London unaffordable to those on benefit. Come to think of it, the only new album I have received in the last three months was 'Stop That Train' by Clint Eastwood & General Saint. It is difficult to see conditions being any better at the new Library of Birmingham. It is not difficult to envisage a better environment, sitting on a sofa cuddling 'er indoors whilst looking at an internet enabled TV at home...dream on.

    12. Birmingham City Council will tell you that public libraries are used for more than just the lending of books, CDs and DVDs. They are centres for academic research and for job training. As regards job training, even that is under threat. IBM now leads an international project to develop AI (artificial intelligence), probably based upon Intel's 48 core cloud chip with 1.3 billion transistors, whilst the EU leads an international project on the wet computer, an artificial brain. It is only a matter of time before the concept of working for a living is brought to an abrupt end.

    13. The new Library Of Birmingham should last for at least fifty years and be useful throughout that period. I can see no way in which that can be accomplished. As such, to proceed with this project, at a time when the nation is all but bankrupt, would be an act of unforgivable folly. The present central library, a hollow inverted stepped pyramid, is being replaced by a kitchen scouring pad with marzipan on top. It will contain an amphitheatre for poetry recitals. I think I speak for many when I say that we need an amphitheatre like ancient Rome needs a cellular phone mast, without the phones. It makes one wonder what kind of intelligence is employed by BCC. "Friends, Brummies, lend me your ear." It doesn't quite sound as majestic does it? All this has come about through numerous meetings of civil servants, architects and construction companies over a period of years. Architects are like politicians. They come up with grandiose schemes wrapped up in a fancy facade to appeal to the general public, at great expense, completely ignoring practicalities. People with degrees but with little sense of realism and responsibility. I know, I live in such a building. HMG spends a fortune on construction projects. When it comes to buildings, they often have little idea about what to put in them. It's plainly obvious that Birmingham needs a dominant mayor to kick arses and bang heads together. There is a feeling amongst the masses that HMG knows best. Don't believe one word of it. We are bankrupt. With the closure of Leyland, LDV, HP Sauce and now Cadbury, what have we left to export when what remains is owned by multi-nationals who hand out orders from places like Toulouse and Tokyo. Politicians to Robben Island, South Africa? We are not out of recession. It is the balance of trade figures that you have to watch. We are broke, skint....come to think of it, I might need a library some day just to keep warm in.

    14. This project is projected to cost 197 million pounds of hard earned tax payer's money. Over the last thirty years BCC have let the West Midlands become the worst unemployment black spot in the country. As a retired engineering draughtsman with ten academic years of higher education under my belt but only fifteen years of employment, I naturally have nothing nice to say about these thumb suckers. I have even less to say about the people who put them in that position of responsibility, namely the dumbed down electorate.

    15. My home is connected to BT, Sky and Virgin Media, but I cannot afford any of their services. The internet was made unaffordable to many by the Conservative Thatcher Government in the late 1980s who created a free-for-all instead of awarding the project to one company, or selling off the task in blocks like North Sea oil concessions. Duplication of services has led to higher prices. HMG has over the years done its utmost to slow down the internet and make it unaffordable. Will 4G licences be any cheaper than 3G? Will the next government be more aware of the vital importance of the internet in the global economy than the present one? Will the media make the general public more aware of politics and technology? We do need a parliament composed of highly trained and relevantly qualified independent technocrats, who understand technology and its importance, don't we? Unfortunately we have a media that cannot even stop the rot in manufacturing here in the West Midlands over decades.

    16. We live in a society which is not managed by government, but by events. We hear about HMG's over spends on IT projects. Now we have something similar on our own front door step, in full view of all community charge payers. This project will turn much of Centenary Square into a noisy and messy construction site. As for the existing Central Library, BCC will demand its redevelopment, turning a pedestrian choke point into a no go area. And that isn't all. The Library of Birmingham may never be finished. The Central Library complex wasn't. There are unfinished developments a stones throw away at the ABC Centre (part of Alpha Tower complex), Holiday Street near Trident Housing Association HQ, Broad Street Tramps Disco site and of course the Five Ways Shopping Centre. The area is looking more like a 'Bob the Blunderer' builder's yard. Now is the time to stop it by writing letters of complaint to newspapers and councilors, or signing the council's e-petition on the subject (compulsory from April 2010). As the piles are now being bored into the ground adjacent to the Repertory Theatre in Centenary Square we should remember that it is not too late to stop the final act....the opening by HRH Prince Charles?

    17. images my ideas/wtn replacing 2012-01 Library Of Birmingham Almost Complete.jpg
      2012 Library Of Birmingham Almost Complete
    18. This letter was delivered to the Central Library by me just as the Library of Birmingham site was being examined by archaeologists. I finally got a detailed reply after sending a third copy to my councilor. I got a lot off my back and little else. Well the Library of Birmingham was completed, and the Central Library site is now being developed at great expense. It is a pedestrian and automotive choke point that is likely to remain that way for ten years. The new library was initially a success, with many people going there just to look at the architecture. It makes a great tourist attraction. As one enters the building you look up and wonder where the ceiling is. Unlike the old library the escalators actually work. On the upper floors you can wander out onto the terrace and view Centenary Square containing the tomb of the unknown warrior, the Repertory Theatre, International Convention Centre and Symphony Hall. Across the square is the HSBC construction site, that once included the registry office where Karen and I were married. This library contains no more storage space than the old Central Library did. I ask myself the question, what would I have done if I had been mayor.

    19. Well I would not have built the new library. I used the Central Library often twice per week for many years. Its major flaw was that it had holes in the floor to facilitate natural ventilation. Those holes could have been filled in and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) installed, incorporating ornate ductwork. The structure is a hollow inverted stepped pyramid made from hefty reinforced concrete, which is proving anything but easy to demolish. It is to be replaced by a couple of office blocks. It occurred to me that in order to save money the existing building could be stripped down to the concrete, and then structural silicone glazed walls and possibly mezzanine floors added. Rather like the British Airways headquarters. That would also dramatically reduce construction time. During this phase, book, CD and DVD lending could be carried out in the nearby Gas Hall.

    20. The library project has failed because the organizers shut down the library for about a year, with no nearby alternative to go to. As a result, many of their customers switched to the internet. Now the library does not open until 11am. I went there to use the IT facilities, and was definitely not impressed. As for the music department, it is now an annulus in plan, with table tennis played in the centre. You can see it by looking down into the moon pool from the new Centenary Square, which has a shallow (10mm) pool and high downlighters. Because of the music department's odd layout it is very difficult to find things. Due to budgetary constraints little stock is being purchased. Since most of the good music albums have been stolen over the years, and because the regulars who requested the purchase of foreign hit albums now use the internet, there is now little incentive for me to visit the place. This library contains the complete works of the literary genius and playwright William Shakespeare (or was it anonymous?), who once resided at nearby Stratford Upon Avon. I wonder what he would think of it all.

    21. Eight thousand jobs have been lost as 343 libraries have closed between 2010 and 2016, as customers have switched to more convenient similar services on the internet. The Library of Birmingham is without doubt a monument to waste, ignorance, sheer bloody-mindedness and the unaffordability of local government, in an age of potential direct control of services from central government enabled via instant telecommunications and expert systems software. Photograph the litter in the gutter with your mobile phone. Send the images to HMG, and next day it's gone.........dream on.

12...Local Development

      Mr. Nigel Allen


      Wednesday, September 30th, 2015

      Birmingham City Council

      Dear sir or madam,

    1. Thank-you for allowing me to comment upon this local housing development.

    2. I visited the information centre on June 24th to see the plans. The plan consisted of traditional terraced housing facing the existing roads. At the time I asked the question, "why aren't the main axis' of the roofs of these houses east-west so that photo-voltaic panels can be mounted to them efficiently?" I was told that it would be too expensive.

    3. I therefore have serious reservations regarding the fundamental design of these properties.

    4. Shortly after this meeting there appeared in the news media details of two research projects investigating the design of eco-friendly homes, by Cardiff University, Bridgend and the Building Research Establishment, Watford. These homes were priced at not more than 70,000 pounds, thereby complying with HMG's sustainable homes requirement which it has since abandoned, due to pressure from the Home Builders Federation. These homes are designed to be so warm that they do nor require central heating. Homes designed to have a low carbon footprint are not new. I remember a similar project in Milton Keynes over a quarter of a century ago. In addition, I used to work for a company that manufactured mass produced 'Elizabethan Homes' bungalows at Rushden, Northants by a company called Nene Valley Caravans back in the 1960s, and I worked for Taylor Woodrow Anglian, whose factory across the road produced walls and floors for tower blocks of flats for the London area. The construction industry appears not to have advanced one iota since then. The ability to mass produce homes quickly and affordably is essential if we are to accommodate millions of refugees and economic migrants from the Middle East and Africa in the near future. They have seen Dallas on satellite TV and now want a piece of the action. Unlike the Palestinians, they are not prepared to spend decades in a refugee camp. With a little assistance from the Kremlin, no doubt the English Channel will be as welcoming as the EU made the Aegean Sea.

    5. Don't you think it's about time we built homes for the twenty-first century and not the twentieth?

    6. Thanks to HMG's restrictive mortgage assistance, I had to pay 100,000 pounds for my home in March 2014. One year later BCC sent me a circular asking me if I wanted to buy my 'council house' at 70% off. (I had just vacated a flat rented from a housing association for over 24 years. I was not allowed to buy it, so I was definitely not amused by the circular.) As a result I haven't got a clue how much my home would fetch on the open market right now. I have spent 20,000 pounds on improving my home, including 4,700 pounds on PVA on the roof. I also had to install a dozen rolls of insulation in the loft myself, in order to bring it up to 200mm despite having an injured hip. I could not get anyone else to do it because the EPC stated that the loft already had it. The certificate stapled to the roof truss stated that only six rolls had been installed. Not enough to cover the loft even once. I also had problems with heating the kitchen. I had to fill in the two air bricks with expanded foam along with the cooker extract vent, but still the kitchen was cold. A year later I noticed a worm crawling across the kitchen floor which alerted me to the fact that there was a hole in the floor where the sink drain pipe went. This I covered over with form-work and concrete. All this made me doubt the effectiveness of my cavity wall insulation and the accuracy of my EPC (Energy Performance Certificate). Had my cavity wall insulation been installed correctly, years ago? Did my bay windows have sufficient insulation top and bottom? For thee and a half years I put up with a moderately warm kitchen. Then one day I looked closely at the double banked radiator, and noticed that it was full of fluff, preventing air circulation. Using a 2m long bottle brush, used for Koi-Karp spawning, I removed the dust. Overnight the kitchen became warmer than the lounge. And then the combi-boiler remote control packed up.

    7. As for my electrical circuits, I had to get electricians in to check the circuits since the lighting in the master bedroom and landing did not work. The electrician discovered that the new consumer unit had not been connected up correctly, whilst there was a break in the ring main. It's now two spurs. There was only one fluorescent bulb in the house, since everywhere else they were either halogen or GLS. This is what happens when owners cannot afford to employ electricians at 45 pounds per hour, and instead decide to do it themselves, with no knowledge of The On Site Guide and BS7671. Property owners can't do this themselves easily because the electrical standards are antiquated. Cables and pipes should be in dado trunking making it easy to access and repair/update. And of course the combi-boiler also needed fixing, the previous owners not providing my solicitor with a detailed maintenance report.

    8. It's about time local authorities carried out regular energy, structural and utility (electrical/gas/water) checks on properties, together with checks on the owners and their deeds. 122 billion pounds of properties in the UK are owned offshore, much of which has been bought with dirty money. It is possible that these will be sequestrated by HMG, seeking instant revenues, at some future time resulting in a major adjustment of property values.

    9. I take ecology and the threat of global warming very seriously. I have watched Grand Designs on Channel 4 TV ever since it started. However, what they regard as a low carbon home is not my interpretation. To be truly eco-friendly, the residents should have to produce their own energy to a high efficacy, recycle their own water and grow their own food. Generally speaking, homes last at least one hundred years, so designing one to be successful throughout a period of dramatic social and technological change is not going to be easy. My own view is that people should live in biomes in extended 'family' groups. Inside each biome would be at least four living modules and one community module. Plant food would be produced hydroponically, whilst meat would come from small creatures, namely rabbits, chickens and fish. In a world where there would be little employment due to AI, etc., it is essential that the masses are kept occupied through 'housework' and hence out of trouble with the law. Such a home would enable the government to dispense with welfare benefit payments.

    10. All the money I spent on my home came through an inheritance. I never managed to save any money. I was simply working, simply to pay for the cost of commuting. My parents were boot and shoe machine operators, their earnings protected by wage's councils. They bought a detached house on a double plot, eventually selling off some of the land. Despite ten years of higher education and training, I worked mainly as a draughtsman and CAD technician at forty companies, mainly on a contract basis, over a period of twenty years. I was effectively retired at forty. It's about time government woke up to this new age, stopped talking about the economy and instead concentrated on improving people's quality of life.

    11. People are getting poorer. Thanks to laws over the last 50 years promoting casual divorce, legalised homosexuality, women's lib based upon welfare benefits paid directly to women, council homes handed to single parents and single women, and now homosexual marriages, none of which was offered to referendum, we now have a society which is totally screwed up. Due to our low pay structure and the failure of government to invest heavily in scientific research in the fields of IT, space, nuclear and bio engineering, young people cannot earn enough to buy a home, and can therefore offer a prospective partner nothing. As a result wealth is not being passed on from one generation to another. I live on my own. I have no one to pass my estate onto except HM Treasury. Without the above reforms in social housing, racial integration and population control, the situation will only get worse.

    12. Multi layered inflated biomes are quicker to construct, whilst their materials require less energy to produce. It's time HMG thought out of the box, or we'll all end up in one sooner than we think when the Greenland ice cap collapses and its flotilla of icebergs off the western approaches plunges northern Europe into a mini ice age.

    13. As companies shed their workforce, governments will be obliged to manage the masses directly, necessitating that they find alternatives to traditional employment. The need for a National CV Centre will become apparent, something that BCC should consider creating, together with a construction base for the Skylon spaceplane at Birmingham International Airport.

    14. Alternatively, BCC could provide an alternative site for similar 'biomes' designed in a contest between architectural companies worldwide.

    15. It's about time government, including BCC, created events instead of belatedly reacting to them.

    16. Many of my neighbours are against this project because they fear that the area will turn into a dirty construction site for years, whilst others complain of the reduction in recreational land, loss of privacy, introduction of undesirable tenants or devaluation of their homes. Also, I notice from the site plan on BCC website that some of these properties will have no off road parking space. I live in a quiet area which at times gets very crowded with parked vehicles. The existing road network should be extended to provide these properties with parking space.

    17. I hope you will take these suggestions seriously.

    18. Yours truly,

      Mr. Nigel S. Allen


      images my ideas/wtn Birmingham Social Housing.jpg
      WTN: Birmingham Social Housing
    19. I have no idea what the outcome of this investigation has been. It shows just how out of date thinking is regarding the construction of eco-homes. The houses were constructed and they look very nice, but they are not eco-friendly. The construction industry plainly needs more time than is available, to come to terms with global warming. If present trends continue, seventy-five per cent of species will become extinct within the next two hundred years. As I write, in 2019, Siberia is burning, over an area the size of Belgium, whilst the Russian government refuses to put the flames out. It is therefore conceivable that all of the methane trapped within the world's perma frosts will end up in the atmosphere very soon, thereby accelerating global warming. At some point the problem will become irreversible. At the same time, in Ethiopia, its citizens supported by the government, have planted millions of trees. Elsewhere, the world plainly lacks the necessary political intelligence and willpower.

13...The Right To Buy Your Own Home

    1. Before I moved into my present hovel I lived in a one bedroom flat in Edgbaston, Birmingham for twenty-four years. I applied several times over the years to buy it, but I did not qualify, due to unemployment, mainly caused by ageism, outdated skills, too much competition from unemployed engineers and my criminal record. I was told by a neighbour that directors or managers of the housing association had moved into properties next door that the HA owned, and were buying them. Whether that was true or not, I don't know. At this time, most of the right to buy for tenants, only applied to council homes. The right to buy for housing association tenants came into effect nationally in 2018. In my opinion, right to buy is overwhelming proof that HMG has no intention of mass producing zero carbon homes. Its priority lies in selling off state assets in order to pay off the national debt, thereby salvaging the capitalist system. Wasteful food production, unnecessary transportation and methane emanating from waste tips, will continue to signify business as usual.

    2. images my ideas/wtn right finedon audrey hewitt counting her millions.jpg
      Audrey Hewitt counting her millions
    3. When my mother died, at the age of 96, I was bequeathed half the estate. Most of this I spent on purchasing a three bedroom ex-council terraced house with a garden, within walking distance of the city centre. I did not want to live in a high rise apartment. I had had enough of them. I was now suffering from asthma due to breathing in exhaust fumes from the main road on one side and spores from ten holly trees on the other. I had complained to the council about the latter. They wanted about 120 pounds to pursue the case, but I remember taking a company to the small claims court once, regarding a PC I bought, only to end up paying about three times more than I was originally told it would cost.

    4. My new home took about six months to buy, with one hold up after another, during which time I looked at several alternative properties. At one that I looked at, the owners told me that the property they wanted had been sold, so when the estate agents phoned me and asked me what I thought of the place, I told them that I would think about it. One week later I phoned the agents to find out whether the owners had made any progress, only to be told that the property had now been sold, probably at a lower price. And the moral to that story is, sell your home via the internet, not through an estate agent.

    5. Images Wikimedia Commons/13 Tommaso.sansone91 Energy-Efficient_Home_Design_insulation_icon.png
      WC: Energy Efficiency Logo

    6. I found another property I liked, which was being sold by two estate agents. It was two weeks before I found out that it had been sold, but one estate agents had not told the other.

    7. I saw about a dozen properties, the vast majority of which were in poor condition, being acquired by ex-council house tenants with little or no money. Things dragged on for so long that I ended up surfing the internet for this Irish couple. They wanted a house, not a flat, in a particular area next to a bus stop. I kid you not. Eventually they realised that I was serious, and then the sale went ahead. Nearing the purchase date the estate agents phoned me up and asked me if I wanted to put in a bid. I didn't know whether I could smell a rat or not. So I put in a bid just 2000 pounds less, the reasoning being that the 100,000 pounds was not to buy the property, but was a bribe to get them out. I knew that if I reduced the price too much then they would not be able to afford to move. I also knew there were vultures in the property business.

    8. One property I wanted to buy, an end terraced ex-council house opposite an off-licence and public telephone call box, was on the market for 125,000 pounds, which I thought was over priced. It was sold for ten thousand pounds more to a young Asian couple.

    9. Total legal costs came to 1150 pounds. I had done it through the internet, but I advise you to do it locally, after you get a quote. The removal was a farce. I also arranged this via the internet. The removal lorry was so small that they had to make two trips. Because of this a number of items were left behind, so they didn't get a tip.

    10. The house was well decorated with laminate floors everywhere except the kitchen and downstairs loo. The place looked well maintained but this was deceptive. When I went to switch the lights on in the master bedroom on the first morning, they did not come on. I went into the loft. I shook the wiring to the five downlighters, initiating a spark. Upon investigation I found that the insulation had not been removed from the end of the wire before being inserted into the connector block. Some of the wiring looked like spaghetti. I therefore decided to get the wiring tested.

    11. The testing cost about 45 pounds, but I got my monies worth. The electrician had a fit when he opened the new consumer unit (fuse box) and found that the earth and neutral wires had not been connected individually to the two bus bars. "Whoever did this should get his arse kicked," said the irate electrician. Upon testing he found that there was a break in the ring main that connects to all the switch socket outlets (SSO). Also the switches on the landing and hall were not connected properly to the landing light. The second electrician said that he would fix the latter in fifteen minutes. It took him one and a quarter hours. The break in the ring main, between the SSO to the left of the cooker and the SSO to the right, was never fixed as I did not want the bedroom laminate floor to be lifted, the ring main now being two spurs. Eventually I got an electrical certificate for the house. A few weeks later one of the miniature circuit breakers (mcb) failed. I called in the second electrician who fixed it in seconds. It had only jammed. "Very rare", he said. That cost me 20 pounds.

    12. Images Wikimedia Commons/13 Jason Dale AtticInsulation.jpg
      WC: Loft Insulation

    13. The Baxi combi-boiler was losing pressure more frequently, so it had to be repaired. That cost me 300 pounds to fix. My solicitor had previously asked for a full report on it, but all he got was a receipt for an inspection.

    14. The previous owners had cleared off with the lounge electric fire. So I had to buy another one from Homebase DIY store. I had to replace a number of items in the kitchen. The vertical blinds didn't work. The worn out cooker extract wasn't connected to an extract duct and neither did it have a carbon filter for recirculation of air, so I replaced it. The tumble dryer didn't work. I cleaned the blocked filter but it was obvious that the heating elements had burnt themselves out. Since the washing machine had black spots on the door seal I replaced both with a new 400 pound Hotpoint washer / drier. One slightly larger than the one I had left in my flat. I was not amused. I phoned the previous owners, the address I got from the internet. The lady was quite adamant that the drier had worked the last time she used it. I also left behind my ceramic cooker and fridge freezer, but fortunately the gas cooker and fridge / freezer I inherited were just as good. The space where the drier had been was filled with a near matching draw unit. I covered over the kitchen floor with laminate, but when I put the final plinth back in place I realised that half the floor was not flat. This left gaps in the laminate, which I glare at each day. The kitchen being on the north side of the house was very cold. I had to fill in two air bricks and the cooker extract vent with expanded foam. I couldn't understand why the kitchen was still cold, until one year later I noticed a worm crawling across the kitchen floor from the direction of the kitchen sink. I removed the plinth to find rat droppings and a hole in the floor, into which the sink pipe went. Evidently, every time the wind hit the facade, it sent a blast of air down the drain then up into the kitchen. The next day I covered the hole in the floor, under the sink, with annular formwork and concrete.

    15. Some of the double glazing was replaced, as there was condensation in them. The window latches needed replacing as there were no locks on them or the keys were missing. I had to install about sixty per cent of the loft insulation myself as what existed didn't even cover the loft to 100mm, never mind 200mm. The Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) was totally inaccurate. I also removed rubbish in the loft, upon which I discovered rat droppings. When I moved in there was only one fluorescent light bulb. I replaced all the halogens with LEDs using a cable kit from Amazon, and replaced the GLSs with fluorescents. There were five transformers in the loft feeding the halogen downlights, to dump. I also replaced the bathroom extract fan with a kit I got from the internet, as the existing fan motor sounded like a tooth grinder, whilst the ductwork in the loft had somehow been flattened.

    16. I installed new flat pack furniture in the second bedroom, the wardrobe taking four attempts to get right. To add colour (everywhere was off white) I bought some pictures for the walls, including vinyls for the bathroom wall. The mermaid looks great.

    17. All of these repairs and updates took three months, but would have taken much longer had I not had an internet connection. At about the time a couple of whores who had ensconced themselves each evening on the pavement opposite my home, finally left for the last time, empty handed.

    18. Images Wikimedia Commons/13 Hubblead Barricade-Plus-Housewrap.jpg
      WC: New House Insulated

    19. It took months to switch my electricity and gas supplies to my preferred supplier and finally get rid of the pre-paid electricity meter. The photo-voltaic panels on the roof cost me £4,700, and performed really well, until El Nino came along. I experienced years of heavy cloud and rain from then on, due to global warming heating up the North Atlantic Ocean above normal. PV's don't like shade. Output dropped by about 75%. Soon after the PV's were fitted my converter failed. This was located in the porch, and converts direct current from the PV's to alternating current for the mains. The PV installers fitted another new converter, but this also failed about one year later. I contacted the insurers who eventually sent an electrician around. He discovered that the mains supply voltage was ten volts above the operating parameters, so the unit shut down automatically, rather than get damaged. I assume the supply voltage was too high because of all the PV's on the roofs of houses on the estate. The supplier was clearly not monitoring the system, resulting in electric kettles, toasters and tumble driers burning out, and in some cases setting fire to the kitchen. The output from the local transformer was eventually turned down, enabling my converter to operate normally. The operating light twinkles in the cold damp darkness.

    20. I think I spent about 2000 pounds on the house in total, and at least 4000 pounds on the garden over the next two years. At least 400 pounds was spent removing eight conifers and one hundred paving slabs. That's a cost most people don't take into consideration when buying a property. The effort brought me close to tears when I realised that my mother would never see it.

    21. One day I went into the loft for the first time in a year. As I lifted the hatch a cascade of rat droppings fell onto the landing floor. The ultrasonic rat scarer clearly doesn't work. I've put some Rentokill bait blocks down....and placed a curse.

    22. The inaccurate EPC beggars the question, was the cavity wall insulation installed properly, years ago. I doubt whether a surveyor would have found all these problems. There are still a few that needle me, such as the skirting board in the lounge that wraps itself around the base of the radiator, preventing air getting to the back of it. It needs raising 50mm. Then there is the back garden side fence which is 300mm inside the original fence. The garden is only 5m wide so that's quite a loss. There is no way that I can justify spending 1000 pounds just to move a 1.8m high by 22m long fence, that has been set in a continuous ribbon of concrete. Then of course there is the back door, which does not hang vertically. It's 2mm out, enabling me to see daylight at the top left hand corner. It's little things like this that really upset you when you have paid so much money.....and of course the rats. One day whilst I was in the bathroom, a rat scampered across the floor from the hall to the gap where the waste pipe enter a vertical duct. I would have leapt in the air is it wasn't for the fact that I was sitting on the loo at the time. They come down the duct from the loft, particularly when the rain has flooded their burrows. They climb other houses, then travel along the roof to my loft. Every month I get food take-away circulars pushed through the letter box, and it's these that feed the rats, through all the dropped containers. I've planted mint and Crown Imperial Fritillaria in the hope the odour will scare them away.

    23. There are other heart breakers that you can truly do without, like those bills, water, electricity, internet / phone, gas, community charge, excise licence, MOT, parking fine, but the one that really upsets me the most comes from HMG. Living on a council estate, this letter is indiscriminate. The words on the back of the envelope read, HAVE YOU LOOKED INTO THE RIGHT TO BUY YET? YOU COULD BE ELIGIBLE FOR A DISCOUNT OF UP TO 77,900 pounds. With debts of well over 600 million pounds, plus an ongoing legal case for fair pay for female workers, BCC was desperate for the money, whilst prospective buyers were desperate for real wages and job security. My advice is, if you live in a block of flats, do not buy it, because the chances are that you will soon be presented with a very large maintenance bill, or the structure will quickly be demolished.

    24. So these are the kind of problems you are likely to come across when you buy a property, and the chances are that you will have no shoulder to cry on at those moments of stress. And there will be lots of stress. Do you really want to leave the loving home of mum and dad, the bank of mum and dad, the roast beef and Yorkshire pudding of mum and dad?

    25. And if you are reading this and still insist on coming to the UK as an economic migrant or refugee from Hong Kong, etcetera, then please don't come anywhere north of Watford. In fact may I suggest Guildford, Surrey, which is rated the best place to live in the UK.


      images my ideas/wtn religion 2020-10 St Chad's Roman Catholic Catherdral.jpg
      WTN: St Chad's Roman Catholic Cathedral Birmingham UK
    1. One of the biggest problems facing the human race today is religion, or rather its future. A technocracy would create a science based society, but there is no certainty that congregations that followed their particular creed would abandon it in favour of science, if life were found on other celestial bodies in our solar system for instance. People attend prayer meetings not simply to get closer to their god. Some meet in order to thrash out communal problems, get to know others socially, establish business links or even get their child into a highly recommended church related school. Up to fifteen hundred years ago, people in Europe worshipped the power of nature, their ancestors, stone idols or deities. Few people in the developed world, except those in the Far East, do so today, but the fact that all this has changed, mainly through government policy starting with Emperor Constantine, shows that superseding religion with science, namely the search for truth and wisdom, is not an impossibility.

    2. images my ideas/wtn Birmingham Progressive Synogogue.jpg
      WTN: Progressive Synagogue Birmingham UK
    3. Do we dispose of religion completely or create an alternative? Ridding the world of something which many people feel is an anathema would not necessarily bring an end to terrorism in the middle east for instance. I do however feel that religion should be replaced by a new order. Some people get their satisfaction from hobbies, such as football, athletics, sailing, model building, model racing, playing bridge, Do It Yourself, dancing, pub crawling or charitable work, much of which is associated with a religious order. Many of these interests are no substitute for religious beliefs, whilst financial based charity work would no longer exist, as money would no longer be in circulation. Voluntary charitable work would be replaced by state support, making government more responsible for care than it is today, including the work formally done by insurance companies.

    4. Images Wikimedia Commons/14 Leonardo_da_Vinci,_Salvator_Mundi,_c.1500,_oil_on_walnut.jpg
      WC: Leonardo Da Vinci, Salvator Mundi, c.1500, oil on walnut

    5. When I look at the conduct of some refugees that have entered Europe from the middle east and north Africa, I am forced to conclude that there needs to be a legally enforceable social code backed up by a form of compulsory non-military national service, a cross between the scouts and adventure sports such as parachuting, wind surfing, scuba diving, mountaineering, plus travel, in order to open up people's minds.

    6. Images Wikimedia Commons/14 Tony Hisgett Serbian_Orthodox_Church_of_St_Lazar_2_(4705935559).jpg
      WC: Serbian Orthodox Church of St Lazar Birmingham UK

    7. I can see no reason why our civilisation cannot put belief in science first, together with a belief in improving the quality of life of everyone on the planet.

    8. images my ideas/wtn religion Birmingham Saifee Masjid Mosque.jpg
      WTN: Birmingham Saifee Masjid Mosque
    9. Christianity offers the repentant sinner life after death. Medical science will soon offer immortality, or close to it. Which do you prefer? Of course it won't be as simple as that. Those that want immortality will have to pay a price. Not only will they have to agree to their reproductive organs being neutralized, in order to prevent over population, but they will also have to agree to the creation of a crime free society, where there are no law courts, no prisons and no police. To enable this they will have to undergo brain reprogramming. Not only will people be more intelligent and self disciplined, to enable them to be sportsmen, artists or obsessive compulsive lab technicians, but they will also be more law abiding and religiously tolerant, to the point where they will embrace science, as a religion, and accept no other creed. To reinforce this, their sense of guilt will be enhanced, to the point where they will commit suicide should they break the law, known as the new social code. This will open up a renaissance in social thinking. There will be no crime, no wars, no domestic arguments. Only love for one's fellow man and nature. An objective which all main religions currently aspire to. A world free from sin, as God ordained. Of course there will have to be a referendum on the degree of reprogramming involved.

    10. images my ideas/wtn religion 2020-09 Dhammatalaka Peace Pagoda.jpg
      WTN: Dhammatalaka Peace Pagoda Birmingham UK

15...Military Technology (Skylon) & WWIII

    1. This section is based upon a letter I wrote to prime minister Theresa May on July 13th, 2016.

    2. HMG intends to replace the current Trident nuclear submarine fleet with Trident II at a cost of thirty to forty billion pounds for four vessels over a twenty year period. I believe there is a better and far cheaper and more socially acceptable alternative, at a time when we are effectively bankrupt.

      Images Wikimedia Commons/15 GW Simulations 1257px-Skylon.svg.png
      WC: REL Skylon

    3. I believe that the Skylon spaceplane, being developed by Reaction Engines Limited, at Culham , near Oxford, should be considered as an alternative to a Trident II Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile carrying nuclear fleet. Future submarine fleets are likely to be detected by radar satellites, undersea sonar and autonomous mini subs that attach to a Trident subs hull or trail at a distance, then transmit their position and self detonate. Undersea sonar already exist at narrow straits. There is no reason to think that they would not be located amongst floating seaweed in the Sargasso Sea and at the mouths of glaciers where the sound of falling ice currently masks a submarine's presence. Nuclear submarines are large, slow moving targets. They are also extremely complicated, containing thousands of valves, and hence very expensive and time consuming to manufacture and cost accurately.

    4. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 U.S. Navy USS_McNulty Sunk As Target By Fuel-Air Munition.jpg
      WC: USS McNulty Sunk By Fuel/Air Munition

    5. Skylon has the following:

    6. Advantages:

    7. 1 Skylons used to support civilian space programmes could be 'borrowed' for military purposes at times of crisis, as stated in the purchase agreement. It would not be possible for an outsider to tell the difference between a civilian mission and a military one.

    8. 2 Military missions using Skylon could be for intelligence gathering, or the deployment of conventional, kinetic energy, nuclear, chemical, biological warheads. Skylon's multi-role capability gives it added cost effectiveness. Pallets would contain a mix of glide munitions fitted with multiple 'warheads', such as intelligence gathering and C3 balloons, plus optical / infra red / GPS guided smart bomblets, capable of taking out a nuclear submarine without creating huge nuclear fallout, much of which would fall upon the attacker. Smart munitions could also soft land next to missile silos ready to attack the moment the silo opens, guarded by aerial mines.

    9. With advances in artificial intelligence, nuclear weapons may well become redundant with the introduction of miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), similar to civilian drones with four rotors, no bigger that one's hand, equipped with 3g explosive shaped charge, heat and movement sensors, communications and photo-voltaics, delivered in their thousands by just one stealthy glide bomb. With orders to kill all humans, it could remain on station for months. They could act independently or as a swarm. For a less advanced nation, such a weapon could be delivered by a ground launched stealthy cruise missile. Such a weapon makes a complete nonsense of spending huge resources, coupled with risk, on nuclear powered missiles. Such cheap effective weapons are surely the catalyst for a world technocracy? You may see the day when every government has this weapon. I see the day when every terrorist group has it. It will supplant the AK47 assault rifle. It could kill every Jew in Israel, every pain in the arse in the Kremlin, and no one would know who was responsible. What are you going to do then? In a world where anyone could be a potential doomsday machine, world order can only be achieved through a world technocracy. In a world technocracy everyone will have a bio-implant. Everyone will be tracked, interviewed regularly by AI analyst, automatically told not to associate with certain friends and re-educated if necessary. This is the sort of world presently being created in the PRC.

    10. There also exists a reluctance amongst some politicians to nuke large towns and cities. In a preemptive strike, the attackers military bases are likely to have been vacated. It is governments and the top ranking military who start wars. It is they who should be targeted. There will always be someone around to make a deal with after these people have been taken out. Technology has now made it possible to take out these critters without the creation of huge collateral damage. HMG and NATO should ask itself the question whether it is humanly acceptable to target innocent people with 150kt nuclear warheads?

    11. 3 Unlike submarines, Skylon would provide rapid reaction and communication in real time. It could be recalled at a moments notice.

    12. 4 Skylon would not require the training of thousands of personnel, and since only the pallets of warheads would be owned by the government, the system would be highly cost effective.

    13. 5 The command, control and communications (C3) should be provided from an AWAC (Airborne Warning And Control) aircraft, with the military having direct say as to if, when and what type of response is made. The system should be kept as simple as possible with no launch codes and no preset targets, in order to maintain full flexibility of operation. Leaving a nuclear response to a politician or committee merely ensures that they are targeted first, either by weapons or subterfuge. A deterrent is only as good as its weakest link. For this reason all personnel involved would be subjected to regular polygraph tests. Since Skylon is unmanned, this reduces the security risk.

    14. 6 Operating in space it would not be subjected to conventional air traffic control regulations, and would in most cases be stealthy. Unlike Intercontinental Ballistic Missile's it could approach its target from either of two directions. Since space is a near vacuum, their would be minimal shock wave from a nearby exploding enemy warhead, should any attempt be made to shoot it down.

    15. 7 This project would subsidize to some extent the fundamentals of a British launch capability, lost decades ago with the scrapping of European Launcher Development Organization's rocket, where Blue Streak was the main stage. Research into this project, in areas like 3D printing of advanced materials incorporating electrical cables with built in redundancy and structure monitoring capability, would assist the go ahead for the LAPCAT hypersonic airliner, and possibly a range of advanced sub-sonic airliners by possibly Bombardier / BAe Systems to compete with the European Airbus consortium and Boeing, whose order books are at times bulging.

    16. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 Swadim BigDog_13.jpg
      WC: BigDog By Boston Dynamics, USA

    17. Disadvantages:

    18. 1 It would operate from perhaps half a dozen airfields around the globe equipped with cryogenic facilities, underground ordnance storage, military communications and 4km long runways at locations known to a potential enemy. Commercial locations in the equatorial zone are likely to include Ascension Island (Atlantic Ocean), Christmas Island or Cocos Island (Indian Ocean), Christmas Island (Pacific Ocean) and Belize (Caribbean Sea), roughly ninety degrees apart.

    19. 2 The SALT II agreement signed by the USSR and the USA bans the use of nuclear weapons in space.

    20. 3 The production of cryogenic fuels like hydrogen are expensive and rare, but the technology is likely to become cheaper as fuel cell powered road vehicles gain acceptance. Alternatively methane could be used instead, although it would require larger and hence heavier fuel tanks.

    21. 4 Skylon is a very large vehicle, much larger than the NASA space shuttle. It is therefore a large target for micro-meteorites and space debris. The present design calls for some cryogenics to remain in the tanks for cooling purposes during re-entry. This would encourage the spaceplane to blow up if it was hit whilst in orbit. An alternative is an auxiliary tank for cooling and final approach, which I believe now exists. However, it is also clear that to increase cargo carrying capacity and reduce initial cost the vehicle should be 3D printed with a multi-layer structure, assuming of course that it can be repaired when necessary. The US company Relativity can 3D print a rocket in 60 days. The Terran R rocket is due to launch in 2022 being 110'x7.5' its ultimate intension is to make one 16' in diameter and reusable. 95% of each rocket will be reusable, whilst the company makes its own 3D printing machines. It is now clear that the Skylon project, which has dragged on since I noticed Alan Bond attending a spaceplane symposium at the BNSC Millbank in 1987, is being overtaken by events, probably much to the glee of many British politicians who look upon manufacturing as a filthy word.

    22. 5 The Skylon project has gone on for at least 30 years, during which time competition has arisen in the form of nuclear powered spaceplanes from Russia. The west probably lags ten years behind Russia, who could conceivably be the first to manufacture and fly a hypersonic exoatmospheric intercontinental airliner. A follow on from Koncordski, the Tupolev Tu-144.

    23. 5 The Skylon system will probably soon face competition from the Chinese horizontal take-off and landing two stage launch system consisting of something similar to NASA's X-43 winged scramjet powered lifting body carrying an orbital transfer vehicle similar to X-37B used by the USAF.

    24. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 DARPA Atlas_frontview_2013.jpg
      WC: Atlas Android Soldier 2013

    25. It should also be born in mind that a deterrent works best if it comes in a variety of delivery systems. I believe nuclear warheads are also present in submarine launched cruise missiles and depth charges. They should also be fitted to air launched missiles.

    26. Time will tell whether the payload capacity of Skylon, currently 12 to 15 tonnes and its total reuse-ability, will be competitive against the vertically landing Falcon 9 and its derivatives, which require extra fuel, and associated weight, in order to make a soft landing. Advancements in materials will no doubt improve Skylon's efficacy.

    27. It is clear to me that Skylon's power plant is now obsolete for military use. Remotely controlled nuclear powered hypersonic US & Russian spaceplanes, capable of reuse and rearm, with hypersonic missiles fitted with AI sensors which can find targets, jam sensors, then destroy them with AI warheads with little or no warning, makes billion dollar boy's toys obsolete when global reach spaceplanes are connected to intelligence gathering satellites to find targets. Such a fleet could destroy the world's military targets within a few days, and all primary targets within hours. It is the type of weapons system that a megalomaniac would crave for, since it could conceivably be controlled by just one person.

    28. Trident II has an Achilles heel. That of credibility. In an age where the UK is dependent upon the French company EDF to build the next generation of nuclear power station at Hinkley Point, because the British nuclear industry does not possess the capability, one wonders whether this industry is still capable of building nuclear submarines. This reminds me of the Falklands war where our shoulder launched anti-aircraft missiles were found wanting. Can the MOD be trusted? Of course not.

    29. There is a horrifying spectre associated with Trident II. The original Trident was constructed during the cold war. Russia has, in 2016, resurrected this mentality, particularly with the launch of the largest nuclear powered submarine in the world, the Belgorod, which will accommodate the Poseidon 2Mt underwater cruise missile. Fired at the west coast of La Palma, the resulting tsunami could wipe out the eastern seaboard of the United States. We are now on the edge of global thermonuclear war again. A situation which again could drag on for decades, or will it? What happens if the Russian government 'comes out', admits its wrong doings, withdraws its armed forces from the Crimea and eastern Ukraine, then goes to the UN, bangs its shoe on the rostrum and calls for a world technocracy? Will NATO governments ignore the event? Will HMG carry on building these expensive submarines? Trident II is in my opinion an unnecessary gamble with hard earned and honest tax payer's money. It deserves to be spent on more rewarding causes. In addition, what is plainly obvious is that nations are brought together through scientific endeavors, particularly those in space and a pandemic or two. Will HMG carry on regardless simply because the Royal Navy has already named the subs, after the four most important cabinet ministers?

    30. As far as I can tell, although I received a long, apparently standard, letter from the MOD, my views did not influence the UK's nuclear deterrent in any way. It was clearly a spaceplane too far. That great frolic in the sky, all over again.

    31. Of course the cost of building a defensive system has to be weighed up against what that money could achieve if spent elsewhere in the economy. There is always the risk that it could be obsolete by the time it goes operational, or that it simply fails to deter a suicidal organisation, such as North Korea. Governments tend to adopt a hostile pose simply to justify their existence. North Korea is the only suicidal government to get its hands on nuclear weapons. They know that there is no place for them in the real world, due to the crimes they have committed against their own people. Their only future therefore lies before the International Criminal Court charged with crimes against humanity. There is therefore every likelihood that North Korea will take out South Korea, Japan and the USA once it has missiles of sufficient range and numbers, for they are still fighting the Korean War. Western politicians simply don't want to know. They have created this situation in North Korea and Iran simply by doing nothing. They failed to nuke northern PRC with the 30 to 50 atomic bombs that General Douglas MacArthur proposed using in 1953, and they failed to support the Shah's government when Ayatollah Khomeini executed his ministers in 1979.

    32. A weapon's system is only as good as its weakest link. Based upon that assumption, one only has to look at how the Covid-19 pandemic has been mishandled to know that even a non-nuclear response to these problems will not be carried out. Our political systems in the west are no better than what they were in the 1930s....crap. I conclude therefore that North Korea will launch its nuclear weapons. Hundreds of millions of innocent people will be killed, resulting in the US president being forced at gun point to nuke North Korea and the whole of the PRC, because the American public will demand it. And that is why the PRC will attack western interests the moment North Korea does, because it feels that it has no choice, made worse by the fact that AI warheads delivered by nuclear powered hypersonic cruise missiles are the ultimate weapon of choice, which nothing can stop. This window of opportunity in military superiority will probably never arise again. This act of sheer brainlessness will dictate the lives of the survivors for generations to come, as they attempt to avoid the consequences of long term nuclear fallout, unspent AI weapons and aerial anti-personnel mines. This of course would be nothing compared to a years long nuclear winter, wiping out the northern hemisphere's agriculture, made worse if North Korea targets volcanos and earthquake fault lines along the Pacific ring of fire. This is what happens when you have no world technocracy. As for Iran, API (Associated Press International) released satellite images showing construction work at the Shimon Peres Negev Nuclear Research Centre, Dimona, Israel in 2021. It is thought that the facility is being updated to produce tritium and plutonium for nuclear warheads. Well at least someone is doing something.

    33. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 F1jmm Operation_Crossroads_Baker_wide_-colorized.jpg
      WC: Operation Crossroads Baker

      World War Three

    34. In addition to the suicidal regime in North Korea, we now have exactly the same mentality in Russia under President Vladimir Putin. He's not fighting the Korean War, he's fighting the cold war, and he doesn't give a damn how many people die in the process. Like Hitler, he is a masochist. All he wants is death and destruction. His ego dictates that he is the only man fit to rule Russia. Judging by the failure of anyone to remove or kill him, he maybe right. He has started wars in Georgia in 2008, and is furthering the civil war in Syria under the regime of Bashar al-Assad from 2015. He now wants to crush the Ukraine under the heel of the Russian military, on the pretext that it wants to join NATO, and is therefore a legitimate target. Whether Russia wants to join NATO once Putin and his followers are dead, buried and forgotten is an irrelevance. On 1 November 2006, ex-KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko was poisoned in a London cafe, whilst talking to a representative of the Kremlin, and died three weeks later in hospital. In February 2014 Putin supported terrorists to take over the Donbass region of Eastern Ukraine. With obvious government support, they shot down Malaysia Airlines flight MH17, flying from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur on July 17th, 2014, killing 298 passengers and crew. On Sunday, 4th March, 2018 Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia were found comatosed on a park bench in Salisbury, England. Sergei Skripal later died, believed killed by two Russian agents. Later in February 2020 he conned the Russian army into invading the Ukraine at the end of military exercises in Belarus and set about pulverizing every city he could. Meeting fierce resistance, he was obliged to use long range weapons including cruise missiles, artillery, ground and ship launched missiles and hypersonic missiles. Even if he takes Ukraine, it will by then only be a pile of rubble and bones. As of mid March 2022 the Russians are thought to have lost 15,000 lives. Having worked as a KGB officer in East Germany, he must know that it took the lives of 100,000 red army soldiers to take Berlin. But that is not going to stop him. He knows that defeat will inevitably cost him his freedom, through arrest, humiliating trial and life imprisonment for war crimes, assassinations, murder, corruption and embezzlement of state assets. His gang of oligarchs in his cabinet, parliament and elsewhere will inevitably meet a similar fate, including that of their families and close friends. Putin therefore has every reason to fight on. He wants to see Russia resurrected into a superpower, and not simply have an economy and prestige on a par with Italy. He is implicating his commanding officers in war crimes in the Ukraine in order to ensure that they know they face trial by international court should he be removed from power. This entrapment ensures that when he finally gives the order to start global thermonuclear war, they will comply. Whilst NATO countries are prepared to supply Ukraine with anti-tank missiles etc., the longer this war continues, the more likely it is that AI will be employed on both sides, with no certainty of the outcome. This war could very easily spiral out of control. Sanctions by the rest of the world, excluding India and the PRC, are preventing the capitulation of Russia from happening. He will fight on, and probably launch his ICBMs and SLBMs along with land mobile ICBMs during a nuclear exercise. Putin, Man of Steel 2, craves for his page in history, the final page.

    35. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 Nikita Kutsenko NATO.uaaasa.jpg
      WC: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Member States

      Wikipedia: Second Chechen War
      Wikipedia: Russo-Georgian War
      Wikipedia: Syrian Civil War
      Images Wikimedia Commons/15 NATO_OTAN_landscape_logo.jpg
      WC: NATO OTAN Its Moment Has Arrived

    36. Meanwhile the free western world does nothing. They did nothing during all the other wars Putin has engaged in, which is why he knows they will do nothing now. That statement isn't strickle true. They did do something. They allowed these oligarchs (gangsters and eventually terrorist) to stash away their stolen loot inside reputable banks, because they put their own economies, that is the economy of their political party, above international law and ultimately world peace. In effect they are as much gangsters as are the oligarchs. And none of them have been brought to justice. There is a good chance that while Putin may not use nuclear or dirty bombs, he will use Artificial Intelligence guided and thermobaric (fuel/air) warheads, against military and civilian targets alike, if only to display his nation's superiority in weaponry over those of NATO. The AI weapons would likely be quadcopters with minute 3 gramme explosive charges designed to find and attack people, whilst thermobaric weapons are designed to suffocate and incinerate people inside buildings. Like the Jews during the second world war, the west's politicians will look the other way, because that's what they've always done whenever a hard decision has to be made.

    37. Take global warming for instance. In the UK the cost of energy is predicted to increase to £250 per month from October 2022, and yet is HMG mass producing photo-voltaics, sea current generators, mini hydro-electric schemes or tidal barrage generators......NO! Why not? Because they are dead wood, a walking disaster area, apathetic and inept. One deadbeat government after another. They react to events instead of creating them. It took two years to build the Mulberry harbours for D-Day. It has taken half a century of debate on whether to build the Wash and then the Severn barrage, which could generate a considerable proportion of the nation's electricity, with no result. And if the European Union offered to finance the building of barrages along the coast of the UK in order to replace Russian gas and oil, how would HMG react? And right now there will be no commando assault on fortress Kremlin, State Duma, ministry of defence, intelligence and security agencies, and certainly no use of mini nukes. NATO jets will not fly supersonically over window shattered Russian cities, dropping leaflets depicting tortured and murdered Ukrainians in an attempt to make their population see reality, nor will the Ukraine be given parts to make cruise missiles to fire at Moscow. And there won't be any reward for Vladimir Putin or any other member of his gang, because we are bankrupt. And even if everything north of Watford is nuked, HMG will still not issue a nuclear response. I remember seeing this in a documentary on TV about 3 years ago and I felt disgusted at being British. Would an adversary really space out their missile launches in order to give HMG time to think? As portrayed in the book Mila 18, Ukraine citizens will be exterminated, just like the Jews in the Warsaw ghetto, whilst other governments continue looking the other way. History repeats itself. It repeats itself because the fundamental problems are not addressed. A WT would remove frontiers and every other obstacle to world peace.

    38. HMG offered the 'Homes for Ukraine' scheme. I decided to take part, offering my place to at least 40 young women, but amazingly I got nowhere. Either they couldn't speak English, had insufficient funds to get to the UK, or only wanted to go as far as Poland. Evidently all those Russian bullets, bombs, shells and missiles were having little effect. As for the mass graves containing tortured and murdered civilians. Just why are they doing it? Did Putin recruit them from prisons and psychiatric wards, or were they given standard issue drugs by their commanders to keep them awake and aggressive? About one week after I sent out my advice note I received an official email stating that all members of the scheme will be subject to police clearance. So that put an end to any attempt to pay off my forthcoming energy bills painlessly. My advice note was as follows:

    39. Congratulations! Today you are offered a place in HMG's 'Homes for Ukraine' scheme, at great expense to the British government.

    40. Hi! I'm Nigel, and I have enrolled in the above scheme, offering one double room to two Ukrainian refugees. Would you like to be one of them, along with a relative perhaps?

    41. I live in Birmingham, UK, once home of the peaky blinders. I live alone in a 3 bedroom terraced house, which I own. I am a retired engineering draughtsman and webmaster. I am divorced, and have no children. I would like children to whom I would then pass on my estate to.

    42. The details of my home, including photos, can be found at my website, which I created myself. Highlight, copy and paste into browser entire domain names listed here:

    43. To see the home page click on the logo at top left of screen. The scheme does not cost you anything. HMG will provide you with benefits, meals, employment, education and health support. HMG pays the home owner £350 per month for at least 6 to 12 months, and the local authority is paid £10,000.

    44. If you hold a valid Ukrainian international passport you will not need to attend a Visa Application Centre, since you can apply online. Children do not need a passport. The name and details of your sponsor (such as me) needs to be entered onto your visa application form.

    45. You can decide how to get out of Ukraine to Birmingham UK by using this website. Insert your point of departure:

    46. Odessa to Birmingham - 8 ways to travel via train, plane, bus, and night train (rome2rio.com)

    47. The scheme is described on HMG's websites, and started on Friday, March 18th, 2022. Copy and paste each of the following 6 web addresses to get further information:

    48. 1...Register to Support Homes for Ukraine - Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities - Citizen Space

    49. 2...Homes for Ukraine scheme: frequently asked questions - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

    50. 3...UK Visa Application Centre - Kyiv | TLScontact

    51. 4...Apply for a Ukraine Family Scheme visa - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

    52. Visa Application Centres (VAC) are at:

    53. 5...UK visa support for Ukrainian nationals - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

    54. 6...Apply for a visa under the Ukraine Sponsorship Scheme (Homes for Ukraine) - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

    55. 7... https://apply.visas-immigration.service.gov.uk/has-international-ukrainian-passport

    56. Ukraine people can get visas in the normal way, but UK VAC's in the Ukraine are closed. Don't leave it too late, and keep me regularly informed, if you want to go.
      All the best, Nigel

    57. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 Jerry Morrison Foreign & Defence Ministers NATO HQ Brussels.jpg
      WC: Foreign & Defence Ministers NATO HQ Brussels

    58. The Russian invasion of the Ukraine is likely to lead to world war three, global thermonuclear war, mutually assured destruction. It will go on for months, with nuclear, chemical, biological and conventional weapons. Since Russia and the Ukraine are major grain and fossil fuel producing regions, it's obvious that food, fertilizer, natural gas, petrol, diesel and kerosene shortages will result in mass starvation for many people around the world. A weakened human population subjected to biological weapons will lead to pandemics, followed by the total collapse of civilisation resulting in lawlessness leading to at least one billion deaths. With the total collapse of the global economy, half the world's human population could die. There will be no nation in the northern hemisphere capable of rebuilding the world, as in the Marshall plan at the end of WWII. The damage will be horrendous and incapable of repair, since almost every part of the northern hemisphere will be contaminated for possibly a century. Putin will see to that, since he has ordered Russia's nuclear warheads to contain long term radioactive isotopes. But the ultimate coup de grâce will come in the form of geo weapons. Namely megaton sized ground bursts at geologically unstable locations, such as at landslide ground faults, earthquake fault lines and super volcanoes. The volcanic dust and tsunamis will wipe out agricultural production across large swathes of the northern hemisphere, possibly for decades. Russian politicians and military relish war. They cannot live without conflict, whilst the general population has a death wish mentality, no doubt reinforced by the poor quality of their lives. Russia is a glowing example of how government convinces people how essential a ruling body is, by engaging in almost perpetual war. Western politicians are scared shit less. They refuse to admit, even to themselves, what is going on, whilst the military see their options reducing in number over time, for they know that an attack on Russia would inevitably mean an attack on the axis of evil (North Korea, Pakistan, Iran) and their supporting nations, including the PRC. None of these mother-fuckers will be allowed to inherit the world after the United States has been obliterated. Based upon previous admissions, every nuclear warhead in the US armoury would be employed, most of them instantly. The first targets would be Russia's Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile nuclear submarine fleet and InterContinental Ballistic Missile silos, together with Electro-Magnetic Pulse warheads designed to destroy all electrical equipment over tens of kilometres radius. And just about everything else would be nuked in the hope of picking off mobile missile launchers, mainly due to the failure to abolish such weapons by adhering to Strategic Arms Limitation Talk agreements. Here in the UK there will be nothing recognizable left standing after WWIII. People throughout the northern hemisphere will be driven back to the stone age. You will live a survivalist lifestyle for the rest of your life. No one will come to your rescue. My home city of Birmingham, a manufacturing hub, will be near the top of the target list. I live about one mile from the city centre.

    59. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 President_of_Ukraine_Volodymyr_Zelenskyy_to_the_Bundestag.jpg
      WC: President Of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy

    60. For years the PRC has been nibbling away at the Spratly Islands and atolls in the South China Sea; turning them into sea ports and airports. They once employed a fleet of over two hundred fishing vessels manned by militia personnel, at Whitsun Reef, to intimidate local Philippine fishing vessels from remaining in the area. If that wasn't enough a PRC aircraft carrier task force was sailed off the Republic of China (Taiwan), as the USG reminded Beijing that it has a defence agreement with both the Philippines and Taiwan. Meanwhile the PRC is imposing its brand of freedom on the citizens of Hong Kong, whilst at any minute the Chinese red army, or the Indian army could invade Burma, now called Myanmar, due to serious countrywide demonstrations against the new military dictatorship there, that appears to enjoy killing children who are simply walking in the streets. And whilst all this is going on, the abuse of Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang province in north west China continues, as ISIS terrorism sweeps across sub-Saharan Africa. It would appear that whilst there is a cure for billions of people afflicted with Covid-19, there is still no cure for megalomania. You just know that at this moment around the world, there are young men in missile silos, nuclear submarines, land based mobile launchers, B1, B2, and B52 aircraft and God knows what else, just itching to press the nuclear button, whilst the BBC are saying nothing. Let's see, where on the nuclear target list is Birmingham, UK? Too late to sell up. What happened to Skylon and my proposal for space based kinetic energy weapons, that politicians wouldn't be afraid to use? Dear prime minister, don't you think you should give the go ahead for a decisive military action now, before our rain becomes radioactive? The human race is living on borrowed time.

    61. The USA is believed to have three TR-3Bs, each costing one billion dollars, whilst Russia has its 9M730 Burevestnik (NATO ssc-x-9 Skyfall) missile, and Poseidon 2M39 autonomous torpedo, with a two megatonne nuclear warhead. It is two metres in diameter and twenty-two metres long, weighing one hundred tonnes, with an unlimited range. Designed to be launched by a manned submarine in deep waters, its warhead will explode offshore creating a devastating tsunami aka Van Dorn effect. Russia also has an air launched hypersonic cruise missile Ostrota meaning sharpness, and the sea, air, or land launched 3M22 Tsirkon (Zircon) Mach 7 hypersonic cruise missile (range 300km), and the Mach 10 2000km range Kh-47M2 air launched ballistic missile called Khinzhal (Dagger). All of these missiles are nuclear powered. Very expensive and dangerous boy's toys. As for the propulsion of a flying saucer I suggest that you watch the John Searl Effect Generator, aka Levity Disc, on YouTube. Of course some of this could simply be fiction or fantasy, but one gets the strong impression that history is repeating itself. As with Yuri Gagarin, the Russians are ahead of us again, by apparently duplicating a UFO's propulsion system. Now as I understand it the CIA has had this technology in its hands for about seventy years, handing out the knowledge to scientists bit by bit. Well it looks like they've been dragging their feet too effectively. Are we really heading for WWIII or is this conflict a ruse to cover research in technology to be created that can shoot down some UFOs? Shaken by these revelations from Russia, HMG is now spending £6.6 billion over 4 years on military space technology, directed energy weapons (laser & radio frequency), and high speed missiles, from 2021. At present the US military are developing their own hypersonic missile. This DARPA programme called HAWC (Hypersonic Air Breathing Weapon Concept) is being designed and built by Lockheed Martin and Raytheon. This programme follows on from FALCON and BlackSwift.

    62. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 Oleksandr Ratushniak Bucha, Russian Invasion Of Ukraine.jpg
      WC: Bucha, Russian Invasion Of Ukraine

    63. So what is the solution to all these potential flash points, precursors towards WWIII? Well you simply get rid of the weapons and embrace a world technocracy, but just how do you start that trend? It can only come about through shock and awe. Soon Putin will overstep the mark, at which point the USA will have to flatten Russia with non-Nuclear Biological Chemical weapons. Global Positioning System and laser guided and Artificial Intelligence weapons will have to take out the cabinet, parliament, military and energy sectors. Normally one would leave untouched the seat of government, as you need someone to sign the unconditional surrender document and manage the nation, but in this case, they are all gangsters who belong in a concrete coffin. The people who should be running the country are either dead, political prisoners or in exile. This conflict has shown that the concept of Mutually Assured Destruction does not work. This idea forms the entire foundation of the west's defence strategy. It justifies the spending of trillions of dollars of expenditure on armaments. Assuming that there is a tomorrow, this policy pursued by umpteen governments, must be brought to a halt. The only way to do that is through shock and awe, and the people to shock more than any other are the Russian people. They have let Putin expand his web of crime, from his days cooking the books in St Petersburg, to that of a master villain SPECTRE would be proud of in the Kremlin. It's time for the Pentagon to have its day. They have been dreaming of this....I hope, for decades. First to go will be the SLBMs. Sorry guys but we just couldn't figure out a way to make you surrender. The ICBMs will be destroyed by AI weapons as they emerge from the silos, assuming the hatches haven't been crushed by guided munitions. The parliament has to be taken out whilst its sitting, since the aim is to take out as many gangsters (oligarchs) as possible. The energy sector is taken out to make Russians realise just what they have condoned in the Ukraine, and to toughen up the mindset of EU citizens now without their radiant heaters at their favourite bar or street restaurant. Russia's manufacturing capability must also be taken out, in order to ensure that it ceases manufacturing weapons, thereby putting an end to the arms race between east and west. The world's military-industrial complexes will be scaled back considerably. And there won't be any east and west will there. All this destruction will be filmed and broadcast to educate the world, as a prelude to the United Nations creating a world technocracy.... hopefully. Whether a WT is created will depend upon just how selfless political leaders are. This last hurdle is harder than you might think, because the entire fundamental strategy of government is to make the masses think that government is essential, in order to protect its citizens. In order to do that, many of them deliberately create wars.

    64. Governments that pursue this policy more than any other are known as the axis of evil. Originally composed of Saddam Hussein's Ba'athist Iraq, which launched chemical weapons against its own citizens at Halabja during the Iran-Iraq war; Iran, whose nuclear programme has enriched uranium well above civilian needs; Colonel Gadaffi's Libya, which is believed to have blown up Pan Am flight 103 at Lockerbie, Scotland; Pakistan which stole uranium enrichment technology from Euratom, Almelo, Netherlands; Bashar al-Assad's Syria which is still engaged in a bloody civil war; Kim Jong Un's North Korea which obtained nuclear weapons details from the PRC, and the terrorist groups Al Qaeda which attacked the World Trade Center, New York on September 11th, 2001 and the Taliban who now rule over Afghanistan. There are minor terrorist groups affiliated to major terrorist groups/rogue states, etc. operating in Yemen, Ethiopia, Somalia, and the Sahel region of Africa. Some of these terrorist groups are financed by intelligence agencies, with the intention of undermining other nations. Terrorism is waged in the main by people who simply have not got anything else better to do, and have nothing to lose. Few have any realistic political aims, and only want death and destruction. Their actions will only be concluded when money is replaced by SPEVs, and everyone is given a meaningful purpose in life.

    65. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 Ukrainian Army 3 Russian Soldiers Frozen To Death Chuhuiv, Ukraine.jpg
      WC: 3 Russian Soldiers Frozen To Death Chuhuiv, Ukraine

    66. When you look at this long list of conflicts, you must realise that the only sane way for the human race to conduct itself should be through a world technocracy managed by highly trained and qualified technocrats, and ultimately, solely by artificial intelligence, if the human race is to survive. To prevent corruption, money must be replaced by Person Specific Electronic Vouchers. Both these ideas are described in detail in the final four chapters of this ideas section.

    67. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 VOA Exhumation_of_bodies_in_Bucha,_2022-04-08.jpg
      WC: Exhumation Of Bodies In Bucha, Ukraine

    68. This war in the Ukraine has resulted in trade embargoes and the freezing of state assets and that of Putin's oligarchs. Since both Russia and the Ukraine are major exporters of grain, whilst Russia is a major exporter of natural gas to the EU, this has resulted in sudden and large increases in the cost of energy, particularly for domestic users. In answer to an article on MSN (Microsoft Edge browser) on 02-04-2022, I wrote the following:

    69. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 Silar 02022_1234_Russian_diaspora_protests_against_war_in_Ukraine.jpg
      WC: Russian Protests Against War In Ukraine

    70. It's plainly obvious that we need a world technocracy. Instead we have a cabinet of deadwood, incapable of mobilizing the nation's workforce to build green energy plants such as the Severn Tidal Barrage, mini hydro electric schemes on our rivers and mountain streams, and wind farms on Anglesey and Pembrokeshire. This is a nation that doesn't even make photo-voltaic panels, with a government that doesn't make sense. Is Boris deliberately making his successor's job more difficult, or does the thought of being a major energy supplier to the EU go against the grain? Now is not the time to wait for small nuclear power stations from Rolls-Royce. The dithering must stop NOW! People will die from high energy and food prices and the Conservatives are to blame. Thatcher sold off British Gas and saw to it that our energy reserves were squandered in gas fired power stations. From the sale of our nationalised assets she used the money to finance an unrealistically low top rate of income tax, that has stayed at that level roughly ever since. Those assets belonged to all of the people, not millionaires. The money should have gone into a sovereign wealth fund, which could have paid a dividend to citizens, instead of welfare benefits, in an age of AI. Corruption isn't only found in Russia. It's time the electorate voted for independent technocrats in government. Nigel Allen for WTN

    71. Images Wikimedia Commons/15 Zaxo C_(67) Mother, Child & Baby Killed At Halabja, Iraq by Chemical Weapons.jpg
      WC: Mother, Child & Baby Killed At Halabja, Iraq by Chemical Weapons

      Images Wikimedia Commons/15 American_X-ray_journal_(1897)_(14570170840).jpg
      WC: The Human Body Irradiated

16...Space Research & UFOs

      images my ideas/NASA Hands of Creation.jpg
      NASA: NASA Hands of Creation

    1. A civilisation beyond capitalism, namely a planned non-monetary economy creating an egalitarian world, would be based upon a science based culture, investigating all branches of science, not just space research, which is elaborated here. Why a science based society? Well, when it comes to just handling information in an office job, or assembling components on a production line, or maintenance of vehicles/buildings/landscape, AI and androids will soon be able to take over those tasks.

    2. In maintenance, products will be modular, in order to facilitate replacement by androids. In animal agriculture, cultured meat will be produced in process plants where animal cells and feed stock grow in controlled conditions. The feed stock, an artificial flour, will be produced from protein derived from soil, added to carbon dioxide and hydrogen in vats. The hydrogen will be produced by the electrolysis of water. This feed stock will be cheaper to produce than soya, which employs millions of hectares of land to produce, and is then fed to farm animals around the world. Animal farming currently employs millions of people on our planet. For a similar output, factory farming will only employ a few thousand. Similarly, the use of fertilizers for the production of fruits and vegetables can be avoided by the use of organic farming. Namely the fertilizing of fields by employing deep rooted weeds, drawing up nutrients to the surface, they are then ploughed into the ground, after which crops are grown, supported by a feed consisting of wood chips. This would replace our existing fertilizer industry and its associated pollution of rivers and barrier reefs. What do we do with all the unemployed people created by these technologies and methods? They can't all lie on the beach in Benidorm, Spain like a colony of sea lions. People will require employment in order to give them a purpose in life. And they can't all sit there typing on their PC, bemoaning the state of the world. Fortunately there is a solution, scientific research. When it comes to science, vision and intuition are essential, which I assume AI will take many years to perfect. By which time science will have found the conscience gene, made everyone impotent, or put us all in suspended animation, on a trip far far away.

    3. This chapter is divided up into the following subjects:

    4. Chances of Life on Exoplanets

    5. There are three things that humans want to know more than anything else. Are there any more planets with intelligent life on them, and if so, where are they, and what is life like there. Only a world technocracy, with all of our planet's resources at its disposal, is probably capable of providing those answers.

    6. images my ideas/shut space galaxy.jpg
      SHUT: A galaxy...100 to 400 billion stars, 400 to 1600 billion exoplanets?

    7. As of April 2020 at least 4000 exoplanets have been discovered since the first in 1989, but probably none of them is like our planet, the Earth. The exoplanet closest in mass and temperature to Earth is Trappist 1e. It is 40 lya (light years away) and receives 60 per cent of the starlight that Earth receives. Its ultra cool dwarf star is 3 to 8 billion years old. Old enough for life to have developed there were the conditions to be right, but also old enough for its magnetosphere to have failed and volatiles to have drifted off into space. If the planet is tidally locked to its star, then the hurricane force winds generated are unlikely to permit advanced life forms, assuming the temperatures are diverse enough. 3 of the 7 planets in this solar system are in the habitable zone. Should any advanced civilisation have formed in the distant past, it may well have decided to explore the universe rather than stay in a slowly dying solar system.

    8. Another contending exoplanet comparable to Earth is Kepler 1649c. It has 1.06 Earth mass and 75% Earth starlight. Next comes Kepler 186f, Teegarden c TOI 700d and Proxima Centauri b, the last two have stellar winds which would blow away their atmospheres. K2-18b has water in its atmosphere, plus hydrogen and helium, and is probably a gaseous exoplanet, being twice the mass of Earth, 110 lya. Kepler 186f is the first Earth sized exoplanet found in the habitable zone. Because of its distance from Earth, 582 lya, it will not be possible to discern its atmospheric composition in the near future, including by JWST (James Webb Space Telescope). In January 2020, TOI 700d, was discovered 101.4 light years away by NASA’s TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite). It orbits a red dwarf star. Exoplanets larger than 1.3 times the Earth's mass are considered gaseous, like Neptune. Because of light contrast problems, exoplanets currently can only be detected if they are very large, gas giants, or the star is a dim, red or brown dwarf.

    9. In August 2021 the most similar exoplanet to Earth was announced. Kepler 452b is 1400 lya, in the habitable zone of a G2 star like our Sun. Its orbital period is 385 days, but being larger than Earth its gravity is twice as great and therefore unlikely to support advanced life unless its a water world. Since its star is 1.5 billion years older than our Sun, it's likely that this planet's volatiles have out gassed into space long ago. It's therefore likely to be barren. Accurate data for the formulae in this chapter, will only be obtained when a telescope exists which can detect Moon sized objects, and their atmospheric bio-markers, orbiting G, K and ultra cool dwarf stars, out to a distance of at least 100 light years, and possibly 1000 light years. From gamma ray to radio, such giant telescopes will emerge from NASA's 'Made in Space' program, where radio dishes, etc. are constructed in space using 3D printing, or mass produced and then sent to the poles of the Moon.

    10. In May 2013 it was announced that two of four reaction wheels on the space telescope Kepler had failed, thereby reducing its flow of data. Meanwhile the Kepler Space Observation Mission team estimate that there are 500 million exoplanets in the habitable zone (HZ), having detected 54 in the HZ, six of which are less than twice the size of Earth. However the number actually having multi-cellular life is likely to be extremely low. This section explains why.

    11. In recent years we have witnessed the launch and operation of the NASA Kepler telescope launched 2009 and its French equivalent, Corot launched 2007, both of which are now dead. As I write, three planets are announced, by the University of Birmingham, in close orbit around the same star, Kepler 37b, c and d, with 37b only slightly larger than our Moon with an orbit of 13 days. Since 1992 when the first exoplanet was discovered orbiting a pulsar, research has shown that solar systems are anything but standard, in stark contradiction to the predictions of scientists. Elsewhere Kepler 22b, 1200 lya, is thought to be a water world, Koi 701.04 has 3 planets Earth sized, whilst Gliese 667c, a red dwarf 22 lya is thought to be the departure point of our Roswell visitors, and has 4 large Earths. 1 in 6 stars are thought to have Earth sized planets orbiting them, whilst there are even planets orbiting more than one star. Despite these findings it is unlikely that more than fifty Earth type planets will be discovered within our galaxy, and here's why:

    12. images my ideas/NASA Red Dwarf Flare.jpg
      NASA Red Dwarf Flare

    13. The Probability of Life on an Exoplanet

    14. The following formulae estimates how many Earth type planets, capable of having multi-cellular life, exist within our galaxy, it having 400 billion stars. It is not the Drake equation, which estimates the number of planets with intelligent life, since life could spring up on the same planet a number of times during its existence, whilst on the other hand, the same civilisation could populate numerous planets in our galaxy. However, the longer it takes scientists to work out how life developed on Earth, the more likely it is that it was a fluke of nature.

    15. The formulae is:

    16. 400 000 000 000 x n1 x n2 &... x n10

    17. Types of Main Sequence Star

      Star Spectral Type Population Percentage Estimated Life Span
      O Yellow Dwarf 0.00003% 1 million years
      B Blue-White Dwarf 0.13% <100 million years
      A White Dwarf 0.6% 1 billion years
      F Yellow-White Dwarf 3% 4 billion years
      G Yellow Dwarf 7% 10 billion years
      K Orange Dwarf 12% 18 to 34 billion years
      M Red Dwarf 76% 560 billion to 350 trillion years
      D Type White Dwarf (dead stars) not applicable 10 billion years
      Brown Dwarf (failed stars) not applicable Immediate
      Neutron Stars & Magnetars 1% 10 billion years
    18. Other types of larger stars exist, but their numbers are few, and lie outside the main sequence. 80% of these large stars have at least one companion star, whilst in the main sequence 50% of stars have a companion star. There are probably ten times more dead and failed stars as there are those listed here. There are probably 100+ clusters of exoplanets orbiting a common centre of gravity in pairs or even greater, for every visible solar system. These are part of the Oort cloud, which is thought also to be composed of ice crystals in interstellar space. Between the orbit of Neptune and the Oort Cloud lies the Kuiper Belt, in which there are at least 139 dwarf planets, plus asteroids and comets. There are 2 trillion galaxies in the observable universe, whilst the webs and filaments that make up the intergalactic medium have a mass greater than the galaxies. As for the interstellar medium, it is composed of hydrogen and helium, some of which forming visible clouds or nebulae. Space is not a vacuum.

    19. Starlight in our universe is likely to end hundreds of trillions of years from now, as the last remaining galaxies are dragged into a super massive black hole. That of course assumes that the universe will eventually collapse in on itself. The universe may last forever, in some form or another, or it may get absorbed by a giant black hole, which then creates another universe by employing the force of gravity. As of 2021 the proportion of mass allocated to star types, dark matter, etc., is still broadly guess work, because our telescopes still cannot see many stars in multi-star systems, nor can they accurately sense the full extent of nebulae and dark matter. Our galaxy also consists of one hundred million, possibly billions, of black holes, and at least four hundred billion rogue planets, whose only detectable energy would be from barely noticeable volcanism, lightning, and asteroid impacts. The exact size, location and number of black holes is highly skeptical since small and medium sized black holes are only found by interaction with neutron stars and other black holes, through gravitational microlensing and gravity wave detectors. Medium sized black holes are thought to have formed the large black holes at the centre of galaxies soon after the big bang, with plenty left over, which do not appear to interact with other bodies very much. Believed to be the largest black hole in our universe, the quasar designated SMSS J114447.77- 430859.3 is three billion times larger than our Sun, or 500 times bigger than Sagittarius A, the black hole at the centre of our Milky Way galaxy. It is devouring the equivalent of one Earth every second. The largest magnetar, which are one thousand times larger than a neutron star, is J0243.6+6124 which was detected by the NASA Swift gamma-ray observatory in 2017 and Insight-HXMT, NuSTAR. Its magnetic field is 1.6 billion Tesla, with the capability to disintegrate a person at a range of 1000 km.

    20. The answer to this equation is the number of Earth type exoplanets in the Milky Way galaxy at the present time, with multi-cellular life, possibly intelligent.

    21. The Number of Planetary Systems with Multi-Cellular Life

      Environmental Parameter Parameter Value Number of Planetary Systems (400,000,000,000 stars)
      n1 stars, probably not binary nor triple, in the galaxy safe zone 0.50 200,000,000,000
      n2 stars like our Sun (G, F, K) 0.08 16,000,000,000
      n3 planet must be in the habitable zone 0.25 4,000,000,000
      n4 planet must be size of Earth, not too big, not too small 0.20 800,000,000
      n5 planet must have large outer planets to form a planetary shield.... 0.50 400,000,000
      n6 planet must have tidal heating 0.05 20,000,000
      n7 planet must have sufficient volatiles to create life 0.10 2,000,000
      n8 planet's land and sea scape must promote bio-diversity 0.10 200,000
      n9 amino acids and blood rain came from space, essential for single cell life 0.10 20,000
      n10 multi-cellular life 0.10 2,000
      n11 air pollution emitted by an intelligent civilisation 0.01 20

    22. Without all these factors being present, the exoplanet will retain its primordial atmosphere. Details of these factors now follow:

    23. n1 = 0.5 The factor n1 considers the location of the solar system within our galaxy, the Milky Way. I consider only 50% of stars in our galaxy to be in a safe zone, away from threatening black holes, of which there are thousands, and supernovas generating gamma ray bursts from exploding stars. The hot centre is dominated by X-rays, whilst two Fermi Bubbles, one either side of our galaxies centre and extending 50% of its diameter, are composed of gas, dust and gamma rays. Thought to be emissions from Sagittarius A, the Milky Way's central overwhelmingly large black hole. Until recently it was thought that black holes do not explode. That is until the NASA Chandra x-ray space telescope detected evidence of a huge blast in 2016, in the Ophiuchus galaxy cluster, which is about 390 million light years from Earth. The hole in the gas field, thought to have been created by one of two opposing jets, was large enough to fit fifteen Milky Way galaxies in a row inside it. It is estimated that there is a life threatening supernova every 500 million years within 1000 light years of most planets. Life within 75 light years of such an event, is likely to be destroyed. Our Sun is located along a minor spiral arm called the Orion arm where the Orion constellation resides, half way out from the Milky Way's centre, making it ideally located for astronomical research. The Orion arm resides between the Sagittarius and Perseus Arms and is 3,500 across by 10,000 light years long.

    24. images my ideas/NASA Gamma Ray Burst.jpg
      NASA Gamma Ray Burst

      images my ideas/NASA Hubble Photo of Orion Nebulae.jpg
      NASA Hubble Photo of Orion Nebulae

    25. In May 1999 Scientists detected iron 60 in a core sample taken twelve thousand feet below the surface of the Pacific Ocean, five thousand miles south of Hawaii. Iron 60 is a radioactive isotope with a half life of only two and a half million years. It is produced in super nova. Analysis of 120 ocean sediment samples in 2015 indicated that the Earth had been bombarded with such material, once two to three million years ago, and on a second occasion six to nine million years ago. Such showers of radioactive material can cause leaps in genetic mutation, whilst accompanying material could cause climate change through the seeding of clouds. Were such an event to happen today, the effect upon the human race could be catastrophic. The movie 'The Awakening' is based upon true events. In 1915 to 1928 there occurred an outbreak of encephalitis lethargica, which spread around the world infecting five million people, killing one third of them soon after. The remainder were left in a catatonic state. For over one century its cause has remained unclear, but the main suspect now is an enterovirus. This virus possibly came from space. More recently, 12,000 people around the world have become infected with Moregellan's disease. According to the Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, it is not a disease. It can best be described as an infection that produces threads from the skin of its victims. There is currently no known cause and no known cure. Our solar system is located in a relatively quiet part of the Milky Way. For it to have been bombarded like this in less than ten million years suggests that the interstellar space within our galaxy is far more hostile than first envisaged. Initially our part of the Milky Way appears to be mainly barren. However, amongst the 59 star systems within about 65 light years of us there are also 525 brown dwarf solar systems. What else is there? Brown dwarfs are very difficult to detect. There are bound to be more of them in our neighbourhood, but black holes are almost impossible to detect. All this makes the concept of interstellar space travel very risky, whilst the effect of gravitational perturbations from stars grazing our oort cloud is at present unknown.

    26. The outer reaches of our galaxy experience a dearth of silicon, oxygen and heavy elements, making life inconceivable there also. These heavy elements are made by super massive stars exploding, called a super nova, which tend to inhabit the inner regions of our galaxy.

    27. n2 = 0.076 The factor n2 considers the proportion of the stars in the Milky Way that are supportive of life. There are billions of brown dwarf stars in our galaxy, with temperatures down to room temperature, making them difficult to detect. It is assumed that no life could exist there. About a quarter of all stars in the Milky Way are brown dwarfs. The ESO (European Southern Observatory) at Paranal, Chile has a telescope array called SPECULOOS, designed to detect such ultra cool stars. It consists of 4 one metre telescopes. Alternatively, M type Red dwarfs burn at 4000°K to 2500°K and last for many times that of our own star (30 v 8 billion years). Because they are small stars, the planets have to be close to the star in order to receive life supporting amounts of heat. These stars rotate six times faster than our Sun. This rotation generates a magnetic field one hundred times greater. Such strong magnetic fields attract iron dust during formation. This results in planets closest to the star having a larger iron core, and hence a stronger magnetosphere. The star emits coronal mass ejections which threaten embryonic life, whilst an Earth type planet orbiting in the habitable zone would be so close to it that it would become tidally locked to it, creating a Venus like atmosphere. All stars less than half the mass of the Sun (M) face this scenario, whilst the older the star is, the more violent it becomes. Double and triple star systems may be considered hostile to life, particularly where radiation from an orbiting neutron star is present. However such star systems have thus far been found devoid of small planets like the Earth. Whether this is due to the difficulty of seeing such planets in multi-star systems remains to be seen. Comparisons of similar stars to our own in 2020, confirm that our Sun is extremely quiet. This finding is further evidence that advanced life in our galaxy is rare.

    28. images my ideas/Space Ulysses image of Sun's polar region EADS Space.jpg
      ESA: Ulysses imaging Sun's polar region EADS Space

    29. The mother star must be of the correct type and have been stable, for at least 4.0 billion years and its solar system for billions of years. Only 7.6% of stars in our galaxy are like the Sun. Our Sun is a G2V main sequence star, burning at 6000°K and lasting 10 billion years. Our Sun is half way through its life span. Stars greater than 1.5 times the size of our Sun (O,B,A) are likely to burn out before multi-cellular life can get started, whilst they also emit too much life threatening ultra-violet radiation. The star must emit reduced levels of UV radiation in order to create an ozone layer, but not too much UV as to harm life. Ozone is formed when oxygen atoms combine to form O³ in the stratosphere, which will then protect life on the surface from the companion star's radiation. Simultaneously the star produces a heliosphere which protects its planets from galactic cosmic rays. It is similar to the Earth's magnetosphere, but much larger. The heliosphere of our Sun extends 120 AU. Whether it extends far enough to protect life on planets orbiting M type stars, the most common in our galaxy, is debatable. Stars that support life, HabStars, are considered to be from size F to G to mid-K size. 95% of stars are less massive than our Sun, either type K or M. Results from NASA's Spitzer space telescope indicate that stars like our own have prebiotic life forming hydrogen cyanide in their planetary disc, whilst more numerous and smaller M type stars have acetylene instead.

    30. images my ideas/NASA Source of Cosmic Rays.jpg
      NASA Source of Cosmic Rays

      Images Wikimedia Commons/16 NASA Plasmasphere.jpg
      WC: 16 NASA Earth's Van Allen Plasmasphere

    31. n3 = 0.25 The factor n3 applies to planets within the habitable zone (HZ) of its mother star. Every star is thought to have a planet in its HZ, but whether it has an atmosphere of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, plus temperature regulating water and ice water, is almost impossible to determine with our present generation of telescopes. It must have sufficient ice at the poles to act as a heat sink, and thereby prevent a runaway greenhouse event. This is essential for exoplanets that get momentarily too close to their star, due to their highly eccentric orbit. The habitable zone must be stable over time...eons. The planet can either orbit the star or orbit a planet no bigger than Jupiter. A satellite orbiting a large gaseous planet, must not be too close, or it will be irradiated. Any closer, the tidal forces will cause it to erupt, like Io. A planet orbiting a star must be in a circular orbit, for the same reason. A non-circular orbit would also result in huge tides. A large tilting axis would result in huge seasonal swings hostile to life, since life is not able to adapt to large unpredictable swings in seasons.

    32. n4 = 0.2 Observation shows that stars with high metal content are more likely to have numerous planets. The planet must have sufficient mass to retain and replenish (from comets) its atmosphere and seas for billions of years. Research at Washington University in St. Louis suggests that in order to retain elements like potassium the mass of a planet, and hence gravitational pull, would have to be greater than Mars. Potassium is an essential element for life. This implies that exoplanets orbiting small M type stars are unlikely to have life, or life as we know it. The atmosphere must be dense enough to enable liquid water on the surface, and for good heat transfer to promote stable temperatures essential for life. It must also be large enough to support a molten core. If it is too big, then its seas are likely to be shallow, due to the effect of increased surface area. Too shallow for black smokers and hence life. A planet that is twice as large has too high a gravity, therefore probably too dense an atmosphere. Oxygen pressure will be too great causing life to be extinguished. Oxygen toxicity occurs at 1.6 Bar (172kPa). However atmospheric pressure is not directly related to the size of a planet. Venus is about the same size as Earth and yet its atmospheric pressure is 93 times that of Earth. Therefore, it may never be possible to determine whether an exoplanet is habitable simply by looking at it through a telescope. In 2021 astronomical observations showed that half of stars are in a binary system in which only large gas giant planets orbit them.

    33. Initially the planet is heated up by the kinetic energy from impacting asteroids and comets (accretion), and later by a Theia look alike, our proto Moon. The heat is maintained by radioisotope thermal decay of uranium, etc. This residual heat is necessary in order to create the core and mantle. Further heating from an orbiting moon helps to keep the planet's core molten through tidal forces. Gradually an accumulation of uranium-235 and uranium-238 at the Earth's core creates a natural fast breeder reactor producing plutonium-239. This georeactor is thought to be 8km in diameter. In 2022 it was announced that there was oxygen, carbon and hydrogen at high pressure in a grid like lattice of iron at 5,500C in a super ionic state. That is not solid and not liquid in the inner core. This was arrived at after looking at seismic data. In 1972 it was discovered that uranium deposits found at Oklo, Gabon had undergone nuclear fission about two billion years ago. Nuclear radiation can lead to beneficial DNA transformation on the surface of a planet, just as it can as a comet skims past a star. In the case of Earth sized moons orbiting gas giants, internal heating must be generated by gravitational forces generated during orbital resonance with a neighbouring moon, or by an elliptical orbit around the parent planet. All of these factors can contribute to the development of life.

    34. images my ideas/NASA Moon.jpg
      NASA Moon

    35. The planet must have sufficient quantities of iron and nickel to generate a magnetosphere which is necessary to protect future planetary life from ultra-violet radiation from its parent star. This can be important over time since stars get larger and generate more heat as they age. In our solar system Mercury, Earth and the four outer planets all have magnetic fields. Mars had localized magnetic fields, but today does not, because it cooled down too rapidly because of its small size. The smaller the diameter, the greater the surface area per volume. Hence small bodies cool more rapidly than larger ones. Whilst Mercury has a massive core, implying that it is the remnant of a gas giant, it is more likely that it formed that way, since it has been noticed that the nearer a planet is to its star, then the higher the iron content, due to the effect of gravity on the stellar disc of material originally orbiting our primordial Sun.

    36. n5 = 0.5 This alien solar system must have a sufficient number of large outer planets which mopped up most of the comets and asteroids in the solar system soon after its creation, thereby protecting this habitable Earth like planet from any remaining potentially harmful bodies.

    37. Also, these major planets must not have migrated inwards to gobble up the material which would otherwise be used to form the minor planets nearest the star.

    38. images my ideas/shut space jupiter & io.jpg
      SHUT: Jupiter & Io

    39. The latest computer simulations suggest that our solar system was created in the following order:

    40. Jupiter was the first planet to form, about ten million years after the Sun, but before the Sun's nuclear fusion began. It moved inwards collecting dust and ice particles, almost as far as the orbit of Mars. Further inward movement was stopped because Saturn which was tidally locked to Jupiter, pulled it into a higher orbit. About five hundred million years later the orbits of Saturn and Jupiter synchronized. Saturn came close to planet X causing the latter to move in a highly elliptical orbit, one hundred times beyond Pluto. As a result Uranus and Neptune then moved outwards to their present positions. All this rearrangement resulted in the LHB (late heavy bombardment), as asteroids were scattered everywhere, evidence for which can be seen on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Planet X has yet to be detected. Once thought to have been ejected from our solar system, it is now thought to be ten times the mass of the Earth, taking ten to twenty thousand years to orbit the Sun, or is possibly a black hole. There are millions of black holes of various sizes in our galaxy, many of which are near the Milky Way's centre, as shown in a mosaic of 370 images from NASA's Chandra x-ray observatory, and compiled by astronomer Daniel Wang from the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 2021. It proves that galaxies were created quickly when black holes clustered together soon after the big bang, which created our universe.

    41. images my ideas/NASA gcenter-2021.jpg
      NASA: Milky Way Galactic Centre 2021

    42. Planet Earth has been hit by at least six large asteroids/comets since plate tectonics started, and yet somehow life has survived. Steady state plate tectonics is thought to have gone on for at least one billion years. On the other hand Venus appears to have almost stopped rotating possibly due to asteroid impact and its close proximity to the Sun's gravity field, whilst Mars may have had its core shifted when the Hellas crater was formed, causing the formation of large volcanoes on the far side, which caused the planet to cool down rapidly. The Earth has by chance managed to avoid such fates, but since our planetary configuration appears to be unique, with four large planets acting as a shield for Earth, it is reasonable to assume therefore that the odds of finding another 'pristine' Earth are very long; far longer than I have assumed here.

    43. Extinction Life Events for Planet Earth

      Date: millions of years ago Geological Period Ends Impact on Life Evidence
      4,500 to 2,500mya Archeon
      Extensive volcanism and primitive atmosphere of methane and nitrogen. 4,540mya Planet Earth formed.
      3,800mya Oldest single cell cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) found in Greenland.
      2,100mya Atmosphere clears to enable photosynthesis.
      2,500mya Oldest single cell fungi found.
      1,600mya Oldest single cell plants found.
      2,300mya Paleoproterozoic era
      Oxygen Catastrophe caused by a prokaryotic organism, called cyanobacteria which employed photosynthesis to produce oxygen, which was toxic to most life. 2,100mya Atmosphere clears to enable photosynthesis.
      2,500mya Oldest single cell fungi found.
      1,600mya Oldest single cell plants found.
      900 to 630 mya Proterozoic to Cryogenian Earth was covered in glaciers, except hot spots, caused by life extracting CO2 from atmosphere.
      630mya extensive volcanic eruptions occur, lasting just a few years, during which atmospheric temperature swings from -50C to +50C, restoring carbon dioxide to atmosphere.
      890mya fossils of possibly keratosan sponges found at Little Dal Group, Mackenzie Mountains, NW Canada. They were supported by oxygen from local cyanobacteria. Before 800mya oxygen content in Earth's atmosphere was only 1/100 of today's.
      750mya first confirmed multi-cellular life began. (Australia/Namibia)
      508mya Cambrian explosion of life by cellular differentiation, absorbing CO2 and producing oxygen. Found at Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada.
      513 to 509 mya Cambrian, End-Botomian 83% of life wiped out Multi-cellular life emerged
      450 to 440 mya Ordovician-Silurian 57% of species became extinct, including 87% in the seas, mainly in shallow waters. Glaciation over Gondwanaland, causing drop in sea level, with dead sea life resulting in decreased oxygen levels in the seas.
      420 mya Silurian Lau/Kozlowskii extinction resulting in 23% of marine species extinct Possibly cause by volcanic activity resulting in decreased oxygen levels in the seas.
      364 mya Devonian 57% of genera & 22% of marine species became extinct. Asteroid impact caused global winter, resulting in glaciation over Gondwanaland. Sea level fall destroys coral reefs. Possibly 10 similar events occurred over a 10 million year period. Loss of marine life due to lack of oxygen in the seas.
      307 mya Carboniferous Carboniferous forests wiped out Cause unknown
      252 mya Permian-Triassic 95% of species became extinct including all trilobites. Event known as the great dying or PT event. Asteroid impact would have incinerated forests globally, resulting in heavy rains causing run off which polluted the seas. Ocean acidification, due to CO2 in atmosphere also contributed to dying in seas. Ice caps melted causing ocean conveyor to stop, resulting in lack of oxygen to support sea life. Rotting fish produced toxic waters giving off hydrogen sulphide which killed off any surviving land animals. 482km diameter crater discovered by NASA GRACE satellite in Wilkes land, Antarctica. Impact resulted in 200,000 years of volcanic eruptions known as the Siberian traps. Caused Gondwanaland to break up, creating Pangaea.
      201 mya Triassic-Jurassic 23% families, 48% genera, 75% of all species became extinct. Most amphibians extinct. Dinosaurs become dominant. Global volcanic events, shortly before Pangaea breaks up. Causes global warming and acidification of oceans. Currently no related asteroid impact has been found.
      84 mya Cretaceous No details, but the resulting climate change would have been catastrophic for most living species, if it had happened suddenly. Earth tilted on its axis 12 degrees. It then tilted back to its original tilt over a period of 5 million years. Evidence found in magnetite in sedimentary limestone in Apennine Mountains, Italy. Charcoal deposits are evidence of burning trees on Ross Island, Antarctica 84 to 72 mya, probably due to volcanic activity. Cause of Earth's tilt is unknown, but it may have been due to flooding/drying up of Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico or similar.
      66 mya Cretaceous-Paleogene 50% to 75% of species became extinct, including dinosaurs. The global winter lasted about seven years, whilst it took five million years for species to recover. Asteroid impact Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Causes volcanic eruptions at Deccan traps, India
      56 mya Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) or Eocene Thermal Maximum 1" (ETM1) A rise of 5 to 8C globally caused by a release of carbon lasting at least 20,000 years resulting in global warming lasting 200,000 years. The cause of this event is unknown. Possibly due to volcanism and release of methane. Caused considerable loss of deep sea marine life especially 30 to 50% of benthic foraminifera (single celled organisms).
      34 mya Eocene-Oligocene 66% of species became extinct. Global cooling, possibly due to reduction of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leading to reduction in ocean currents, known as the global conveyor.
      2.6 mya Pliocene-Pleistocene 36% of marine genra became extinct. Possibly caused by supernova exploding
      74,000 years ago Pleistocene Epoch, of the Quaternary Period Only 3,000 to 10,000 people survived this ice age in Africa. Whether it was caused by the climate, disease or other factors is unknown. It's possible that the last straw came when the Toba volcano in Sumatra, Indonesia exploded, creating a global winter lasting up to 10 years. It was the largest explosion in the last 25 million years. Ice age resulted in long periods of low temperatures and drought, causing humans to migrate out of Africa, once sea levels in Red Sea fell.
      50,000 years ago Pleistocene Epoch, of the Quaternary Period No evidence of collateral damage A meteorite impacted with the Earth in Arizona, USA. It created a crater 1.2km in diameter and 170 metres deep, caused by a 50 metre nickel-iron meteorite. It is the best preserved impact crater on Earth, known as Meteor Crater
      11,200 years ago Late Pleistocene Epoch No evidence of collateral damage A meteorite, impacted with the Earth creating global conflagration. No crater was found, but charcoal layer detected in Europe and north America called the Usselo Horizon and Clovis Layer. It may have wiped out Atlantis.
      4,800 years ago Holocene Epoch, of the Quaternary Period 2 asteroids hit the Earth after a large comet made a close encounter with the Sun and broke up. Even today NASA solar satellites observe three mini comet impacts with the Sun per week. Examination of numerous myths indicates that the impact area was in the south western Indian Ocean at a point called Burckle Crater. Shock quartz, micro fossils and rare metals on the ocean floor appear to confirm this, as does the presence of chevron patterns on the coastal regions of south-east Madagascar (Fenambosy) and south-west Australia, created by the three mile high mega-tsunami. The crater on the ocean floor is 29 km in diameter. Giant tsunamis flooded lowlands and caused continuous rain for nine years according to dendrochronology records. Recorded in the Holy Bible in Genesis (Noah) and Torah from Israel, and Eridu Genesis, from Nippur, and Gilgamesh (Utnapishtim) from Nineveh, Mesopotamia as the 'Great Flood.' Also found in Mayan hieroglyphs on platform of Temple XIX at Palenque. Flood accounts exist at this time in India, Egypt, Greece, etc. The comets must either have been very large, or upon hitting the sea, threw up enormous amounts of water into Earth orbit, or went into elliptical orbits for years before eventually crashing to Earth. Were they sent by aliens hell bent upon erasing our pre-history? The search for impact craters under the ice caps and seas continues.
      535 CE Holocene Epoch, of the Quaternary Period Volcano Krakatoa in Indonesia, erupted causing a global mega-disaster. Mentioned in Indonesia's Book of Kings. The volcanic ash rose to 30 kilometres height, partially blotting out the Sun for eighteen months. Krakatoa was to erupt again in 1883. there were also major volcanic eruptions in 540 CE Lake Ilopangoand, El Salvador, 546 CE in Iceland, and 547 CE at an unknown location. Crops failed, starvation, wars and civil unrest, disease and pandemic. Civilisation disintegrated. Temperatures dropped to 2C, whilst it snowed in summer. Ultimately in the year 541 CE, bubonic plague emerged in the western Roman empire, later called the Justinian plague. Mentioned by Anglo-Saxon cleric Geldas et all, seen in tree rings (dendrochronology) and recorded in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. This period of cooling is called the little ice age, and lasted until 660 CE. It is likely that at least one third of the human population of this planet died out.
      934 CE Holocene Epoch, of the Quaternary Period Volcano Eldgja in Iceland is an 75km long fissure. The eruption created a 780km² lava field. It was the biggest basaltic lava eruption ever. The release of sulphur dioxide resulted in a drop in atmospheric temperature globally for years, resulting in extensive crop failure.
      1783 CE Holocene Epoch, of the Quaternary Period Volcano Laki in Iceland is an 75km long fissure. The eruption created a 15km² lava field, being the second largest in this millennium. 50 to 80% of Iceland's farm animals and 25% of human population killed. The release of sulphur dioxide resulted in a drop in atmospheric temperature globally for years, resulting in extensive crop failure.
      Present Day Holocene Extinction (Anthropocene extinction) Rapid loss of numerous species brought on by the need for countries to modernize to western standards. Enabled by capitalism, money and greed, resulting in many politicians putting the needs of themselves before the needs of the masses. Economic parameters appear to be more important than limiting extremes of weather and pollution.
    44. Major asteroid impacts on our planet are thought to occur about every three thousand years, often resulting in shockwaves causing the breakup of large deposits of frozen methane hydrates, resulting in sudden global warming and species loss, in addition to damage caused by resulting volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Methane hydrates are frozen gas found in perma frost regions and at a depth below 500 metres under the sea floor, usually on the edge of continental shelves. As a greenhouse gas it is twenty-five times more potent than carbon dioxide. The human race in the modern era has been very lucky to avoid such incidents.

    45. It can be seen from this table that for most of the lifetime of planet Earth it has been inhospitable to advanced life. Such hostile periods on an exoplanet seen from Earth, would probably not be detected. Also, what hostile periods awaits us here, and therefore what periods should we expect to find on exoplanets two or more times older than Earth? Whilst our planet maybe hit by a comet every ten thousand years, an exoplanet maybe hit far more frequently, with no way for astronomers to notice. In an older solar system the exoplanet would be colder, its magnetosphere no more effective, and as a consequence, its atmosphere and volatiles would be drifting off into space. Much of this could only be inferred by ageing its companion star. It would therefore be extremely difficult to determine a space ark's destination prior to departure from Earth without a scout vehicle preceding it.

    46. The following is a paper written by me in 2013-02-15.

    47. --== Project Close Encounter ==---

    48. This project is designed to determine the type, magnitude and frequency of asteroid and comet encounters with Earth, where evidence for such events on this planet, has been erased over time by geological activity.

    49. As I write to you, reports are coming in from the Urals Mountain region of Russia of an exploding ten tonne asteroid that has blown out thousands of windows causing injury to about 1,200 Russian people. It just missed Rosatom's Mayak atomic waste plant at Chelyabinsk as it descended to the west. As far as I can tell no one predicted this event, with the eyes of astronomers distracted by the presence of a 45 metre asteroid 2012 DA 14 crossing the orbit of geosynchronous satellites at an altitude of 27,700km. Whilst there are a few astronomers watching out for and cataloguing the 9,000 near Earth asteroids, I cannot help thinking that the real threat from space is being ignored.

    50. In the March 2013 edition of Spaceflight it mentions NASA's Aitken Basin Sample (geological) Return mission. I understand that ESA is considering a rover mission to the South Pole of the Moon also, but do they really know why they should be going there? What I am about to propose is a billion dollar/euro mission.

    51. Apocalyptic events have happened in the past and only recently have their causes become apparent by studying ice cores and tree rings. Such recent events are as follows:

    52. 2354 BCE 9 years of rain caused by Hekla 4 volcanic eruption on Iceland.

    53. 1628 BCE Thera/Santorini volcanic eruption. Minoan & Xia dynasties end.

    54. 1159 BCE 18 years of rain caused by Hekla3 eruption on Iceland.

    55. 208 BCE Possibly caused by Icelandic volcanic eruption.

    56. 44 BCE 3 plus years of famine in Egypt caused by major volcanic eruption, possibly in central America. This assisted in bringing down the reign of Pharaoh Cleopatra in 30BC, the turbulent sky being described during the assassination of military general Julius Caesar.

    57. 365 CE Antikythera earthquake, Greece. Wiped out Roman cities, including those along African coast.

    58. 536 CE Lake Ilopango supervolcano erupts. 30 years of rain, Justinian plague, dark ages begin. Takes Maya civilisation 100 years to recover.

    59. There are hundreds of volcanoes on planet Earth, plus about fifty supervolcano sites. It is inevitable that other global events in the past have been caused by other factors such as close encounters with comets and impacts by large meteorites. Whilst nothing can be done to prevent such events, they can be monitored, and by studying past events an accurate risk assessment can be compiled.

    60. Such events by comets are of course global, even orbital. A close encounter with the tail of a comet could easily bring all Earth orbiting satellites crashing to the ground. The loss of military satellites including GPS would represent a huge risk to world peace. Some missiles would not posses sufficient energy to reach their designated targets. Orbiting dust and ice would drastically reduce photosynthesis and hence agricultural output. Earth under a 'power shower' lasting decades would see its top soil washed away, polluting the world's oceans, thereby reducing the world's fish stock.

    61. Developed countries managed by competent governments would convert empty warehouses into hydroponic facilities. It is unlikely that other countries would be rendered assistance. Billions of people are likely to die when this event happens.

    62. Health and safety is everyone's responsibility, including government's. I know of no space project that has gone before that is as important as this one. A project out of necessity not national prestige. A project designed to save the human race, not high tech corporations.

    63. I envisage this mission, designed to discover the date and magnitude of Earth - comet close encounters to be as follows:

    64. Recent data from lunar orbiting satellites suggests that the cometary ice deposits thought to lie within these dark craters are covered by regolith, probably ejector from nearby meteorite and comet impacts. Little if any of the surface is likely to be smooth layered ice like the Greenland ice cap for instance. Much of it will be faceted due to shock waves from impacts. This will make travelling across the surface and obtaining comparable data from different sample sites difficult. Detailed radar and infra-red images of the surface will be necessary in order to determine whether a rover is feasible, otherwise a hopper will have to be employed. The more complicated the geology the more samples will be required.

    65. Since the regolith is likely to be granular and not solid the 'sample' will have to be taken in situ using a laser. Analysis of the gases given off, possibly by the descendent of Beagle 2's instruments, will represent the signature of a cometary ice layer or an ejector event. As the laser progresses deeper into the regolith it goes further back in time, beyond the late heavy bombardment 3.8 billion years ago, when the last major impacts in this region took place. Hopefully the age of each event can be ascertained. After say one hundred samples are taken over a wide area, comparison of results should reveal which are ejector events, since these should cover a far smaller area than that of cometary/asteroid events. By eliminating them from the data the cometary events can be compared with data from Earth, hopefully.

    66. Cometary events leave almost no record on Earth. Similarly, ice layers at the lunar poles maybe only a few centimetres thick. This sounds impossible to detect and analyse in such a hostile environment, but we will only know by trying. This area is due for survey by NASA's VIPER  (Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover) in 2022. It is now thought that there is surface ice mixed with rock, and a permafrost underneath, possibly consisting of 15% water.

    67. This project can be accomplished either manned or unmanned. It is preferable that both approaches be attempted in order to ascertain which approach is best for the later exploration of the planet Mars.

    68. Unmanned mission:

    69. The lunar poles are thought to be the coldest spot in our solar system, with the exception of Pluto. It is unlikely therefore that spacesuits could maintain their integrity for long. The mission will therefore have to be unmanned, carried out by a nuclear powered rover (Darwin 2), relaying data to a polar orbiter (Prospero 2). It would have to have a high degree of independence and would probably be based upon ESA's ExoMars rover, which is currently being designed and built in the UK by EADS Astrium.

    70. ExoMars (Exobiology on Mars) is an ESA Roscosmos two part project, both launched by Proton rockets. Part 1 launched in 2016 carries the Gas Trace Orbiter and (EDM) Entry Descent & Mars lander demonstrator to try out technology for the ExoMars rover landing two years later, using parachute, retro rockets and air bag to land at Meridiani Planum. This lander failed. Part 2 launched in 2022 carries a Russian Lander (under the rover) and ExoMars rover, its objective being to investigate sources of methane at locations yet to be decided.

    71. images my ideas/ESA-ATG Medialab Trace_Gas_Orbiter_Schiaparelli_and_the_ExoMars_rover_at_Mars.jpg
      ESA: ATG Medialab Trace Gas Orbiter Schiaparelli & ExoMars rover on Mars

    72. Manned mission:

    73. Alternatively , ESA may use a combination of an unmanned mobile core drilling rig (Boron) and manned mobile laboratory (Fort Millennium), the latter located in a sunny spot, with cores transferred between the two by a hovering transfer vehicle (Mercury). Mercury would be fuelled from the electrolysis of polar ice, as is likely to be required on Mars. This would be ESA's training ground for manned missions to Mars, essentially containing the danger and remoteness that no Earth based simulator can provide.

    74. There are two other functions that Boron and Fort Millennium could perform, that of geological prospecting like the Curiosity rover on Mars, and the search for primitive life forms. The latter may exist on rim crater tops that are bathed in sunshine on one side and in perpetual darkness on the other. Between the two sides a habitable zone may exist, possibly fed water by extensive capillary action due to a low gravity environment. Since there is bacteria hundreds of metres below the surface of Earth and even at the deepest depths of our oceans, why can't there be life under the surface of the Moon? Since there is evidence of water in lunar regolith obtained during the Apollo era, and there is water ice at the poles, then there must be salty water in a condensate membrane elsewhere. Water could also be detected in underground sealed chambers by a radar satellite, accessed by tunnel boring machine with an airlock constructed behind it.

    75. Recovering and dating water thrown up into space by asteroid impacts on planet Earth, is also a possibility. Data from this mission may, years later, be backed up by similar missions to the poles of Mercury. Key problems would include the recognition, preservation and observation of primordial life. Problems that would also arise on Mars. Geologically, it maybe possible to obtain details of the Sun's activity over aeons by studying its output deposited on the Moon.

    76. Interpretation of the data from this mission should clearly show how much a threat to an advanced civilisation these celestial bodies are. All the data from this mission must be made available to the general public, for they have the right to appreciate the danger they are living in by pursuing a free-for-all capitalist system, instead of a highly regulated one designed to ensure their survival. I am a firm believer in a world technocracy, where citizens live in extended family groups within their own biome, producing their own electricity by PVA's, plus food and water, whilst supplying energy to a national grid in order to maintain financial independence, thereby remaining relatively immune to earthly and stellar events. If data from this mission clearly shows the necessity to live such a lifestyle, then I can honestly say that I have finally achieved something in life.

    77. The one thing that is glaringly obvious from this chapter is the importance politicians place, of a science based civilisation in the United States. It is clear to me that there is no place in politics for small minded negative thinkers who have total contempt for seeking out knowledge, to the point where the financing of them is withheld. Governments now have to decide that with the emergence of AI, will they simply let people become unemployed, or will they create a science based economic system, where the quality of life is the primary goal over the creation of wealth.

    78. References:

    79. 1 The dates 1159 BCE and 540 CE come from TV programmes, possibly BBC Horizon. One date is from bog oaks in Northern Ireland. The other is obtained by dendrochronology and Greenland ice cores. See: Professor Mike Baillie, Queen's University, Belfast on:

    80. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_Baillie

    81. www.zetatalk.com/theword/tword04n (Ireland Tree Rings)

    82. www.zetatalk.com/theword/tword27k (Tree Rings)

    83. 2 Astronomical Journal Vol. 89, Page 154 by Don Yeomans & Zdenek Sekanina published 1984 NASA supported research: Close Encounters And Collisions Of Comets With The Earth.

    84. 3 Other notable comets can be found on Wikipedia including:

    85. Hale-Bopp 1997 1.315AU 60km Nucleus x 40 degree tail

    86. Hyakutake 1996 0.1AU

    87. Haley's Comet 1986 0.586AU

    88. Iras-Araki-Alcock 1983 0.06AU & 0.03AU (2 comets)

    89. Great Comet 1811 1.04AU

    90. Comet Lexell 1770 0.015AU (6 x distance Earth to Moon)

    91. 4 A list of close approaches by comets can be found on the IAU Minor Planet Center:

    92. www.minorplanetcenter.org/iau/lists/closestcomets.html

    93. 5 www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exo_Mars

    94. n6 = 0.05 A large satellite like the Moon plays an essential part in the creation of an Earth type exoplanet. Such a satellite would shield the planet from potential comet and asteroid impacts, create tidal forces which would maintain heat in the planet's core and mantle, thereby helping to maintain the magnetosphere. These forces would also contribute to continental drift and the maintenance of the carbon cycle. Huge ocean tides during the initial phases of the planet would no doubt contribute greatly to the creation of life by coastal erosion, leading to a chemical mix we now call sea water, then the primordial soup.

    95. The satellite would also stabilize the axis of spin, creating stable seasons which would assist plants by killing pests during cold winter months. Evidence of continental drift can be seen in mid-ocean spreading, creating ridges often accompanied by volcanic smokers. Pores inside these black smokers are now thought to be the cradle of all life on Earth, though as yet the stages that lead to multi-cellular life still remain an enigma. All of these factors clearly show the need for a large satellite orbiting a life giving exoplanet, or a life giving satellite orbiting a major planet in close orbit around its star, in order to generate the tidal forces necessary. However, although large numbers of Jupiter sized planets have been detected in close orbit around their companion star, and are likely to have numerous moons orbiting them, as happens in our solar system, they are likely to be too small to support their own magnetosphere, and as such are likely to be barren, with no atmosphere and water. The only satellite in our solar system with a dense atmosphere is Titan, a moon of Saturn. It has a nitrogen atmosphere with lakes of methane and ethane, whilst the only one with a magnetosphere is Ganymede.

    96. images my ideas/NASA Ganymede's aurora & magnetic fields.jpg
      NASA Ganymede's aurora & magnetic fields

    97. Our Moon is thought to have been formed from an icy body from the outer solar system, bringing with it plenty of water ice. Since it's known that Earth's water content has primarily not changed for 3.8 billion years, then the impact must have been at or before then. Our solar system is 4.56 billion years old. During the NASA Apollo manned missions to the Moon, the LEM (Lunar Excursion Module) was deliberately crashed into the surface in order to test the new seismometers that the astronauts had just placed there. This is known as the ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package)To everyone's surprise the impact caused the Moon to ring like a bell for one hour. On a later mission part of the Saturn 5 rocket, the S-IVB, was deliberately crashed into the Moon. On this occasion the Moon rang for three hours. This suggested that the Moon contains large voids. It also showed that the Moon's surface is only 2.5 miles thick and the crust 20 to 30 miles thick. Shallow quakes in the crust last for up to 10 minutes. How can this be? There are many scientists who claim that the Moon is not hollow, that it smashed itself into small pieces when Theia impacted with Earth. If that's the case, then how did the mascons form, those areas of higher gravity caused by a large mass? Some are associated with impact craters formed during the LHB, but others are not. Some impact craters are up to two miles deep, suggesting that the asteroids either hit a hot molten or liquid surface, or one that was honeycombed. The molten surface could be formed after Theia hit the Earth causing the Moon to coalesce, generating heat in the process, or caused by tidal forces when the Moon was much closer to the Earth, resulting in frictional heat and hence numerous volcanoes, or caused by numerous asteroids hitting it during the LHB, particularly from the far side. A large meteorite impact in Antarctica is thought to have generated shock waves that travelled through the Earth's mantle and crust generating the Siberian Traps. The existence of large mare on the surface suggests that large expanses of ice no longer exist below the surface, but large voids, known on Earth as pingos, could. As for the Moon's age; since the lunar surface was created during the LHB, there is no accurate way of measuring age from crater count, particularly when they are one on top of the other, or buried by lava. Also, when it comes to measuring age from radioisotope decay, no one can be sure that samples brought back to Earth by Apollo and Luna probes are from pre LHB era. My own theory is that Theia was a minor planet in a large elliptical orbit. Repeated close encounters with the Sun resulted in out gassing leaving a honeycomb structure like that of Hyperion. Theia's orbit eventually morphed into that of the Earth's, possibly accelerated by the Late Heavy Bombardment which would have buried the honeycomb structure. I know this sounds far fetched, but then again having a Moon the same relative diameter of the Sun during eclipses is also hard to believe.

    98. images my ideas/ESA Cassini Image of Saturn's moon Hyperion.jpg
      ESA Cassini Image of Saturn's moon Hyperion

      images my ideas/NASA Earth Impact by Theia to create Moon.jpg
      NASA Earth Impact by Theia to create Moon

      Images Wikimedia Commons/16 NASA Gravity_map_of_the_Moon_(Lunar_Prospector).jpg
      WC: NASA Gravity Map Of The Moon By Lunar Prospector

    99. That beggars the question: what did radar satellites discover? The Moon's crust is dry, therefore ideal for microwave penetration. NASA used the Arecibo and Greenbank radio telescopes in 2005 to scan the poles of the Moon in a search for water ice on the floor of perpetually shadowed craters. And of course only the near side was scanned, whilst the power would not be strong enough to detect lava tubes and pingos, holes in the ground created by melting ice. Since we don't know for certain how Theia became the Moon, it should not be assumed that all of the ice from this frozen body melted on impact during the Moon's creation. A combination of powerful radar and infra-red sensors would leave little to the imagination. Infra-red has been shown to reveal ancient dwellings in Egypt, since the mud brick walls lose heat more slowly than the surrounding sand, so on the Moon it should be able to reveal the location of voids, confirmed by radar. It is also thought that infra-red can reveal water on the lunar surface, whilst radar penetration is reduced by it. Radar data should also be an indicator of load bearing properties for future soft landing spacecraft. Whilst powerful radarsats have been sent to Venus as Magellan, and Mars as ESA Mars Express Orbiter 2003 with MARSIS, and NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 2005 with the SHARAD (SHAllow RADar), only the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter 2009 with mini-RF and the Japanese Kaguya (SELENE) 2007 lunar radar sounder have gone to the Moon, to search for surface ice. None of these radars have the necessary resolution to determine surface structure in the landing zone, being only 0.3 km to 75m. Not to send a powerful radar satellite to the Moon before manned operations recommence in about 2024, could be construed as irresponsible, from a safety and cost effective strategic planning perspective. Such a mission would be ideal for DFD (Direct Fusion Drive) propulsion, which would generate the electricity required.

    100. images my ideas/NASA Lunar Lava Tube Entrance.jpg
      NASA Lunar Lava Tube Entrance

      images my ideas/Space Mars Express EADS Space.jpg
      ESA: Space Mars Express EADS Space

    101. On October 26th, 2020 came news from NASA that there definately is water on the illuminated surface of the Moon, Clavius Crater to be exact. Previous announcements came with the suspicion that the hydrogen was in hydroxyl as opposed to molecular form. Just why the H2O does not split up under a 127C temperature at the equator, 8C at 75 degrees latitude, that lasts 13.5 days, causing the hydrogen to drift off into space, is as yet not determined. The nighttime temperature is -173C. Maybe it's being replenished from the interior, or from comet tails or the lunar regolith insulates the water from the Sun's rays whilst the cold interior acts as a heat sink. The lunar 'aquifer' is thought to extend across 40,000 square kilometres of the surface. I am now waiting for their risk assessment announcement, to include the aforementioned radar & infra-red satellite, plus a seismic survey and core drilling mission by remote controlled mobile geological surveyors. To see NASA's Artemis or Elon Musk's Starship topple over upon landing wouldn't look good would it? NASA is sending a rover called VIPER (Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover) to the south pole of the Moon in 2023 equipped with a metre long drill. To the western edge of Bile Crater to be exact. Since it's no bigger than a golf cart I can't see how it could possibly satisfy my concerns. An alternative solution would be to mount ground penetrating radar onto the landing vehicle, in addition to ground mapping radar used in the final decent. One could also equip landers with a jack-up device to level the spacecraft. The alternative is for an unmanned lunar vehicle to lay the necessary rebars and concrete.

    102. ESA is sending a rover to the south pole of the Moon called Hercules in about 2025. It is designed to dock with the NASA Gateway prior to landing.

    103. images my ideas/ESA Gateway with Orion & Moon.jpg
      ESA: NASA Gateway with Orion & Moon

      images my ideas/ESA Heracles Lunar Sample Return Liftoff.jpg
      ESA: ESA Heracles Lunar Sample Return Liftoff

    104. Due to the collapse of the 300m diameter Arecibo Telescope, Puerto Rico in November and December 2020, it is likely that the National Science Foundation's 100m diameter Greenbank Observatory in West Virginia will be a replacement radar transmitter operating at up to 100kW, with the National Radio Astronomy's Very Long Baseline Array at Socorro, New Mexico being the receiver, funding permitting.

    105. images my ideas/shut space bejenado lava tube la palma.jpg
      SHUT: Bejenado lava tube La Palma, Canary Islands

    106. Since our proto moon Theia came from the outer solar system, it would have been a frozen body, like Enceladus. It impacted with the Earth, disintegrating into billions of frozen particles. They remained frozen because the Sun had not heated up enough for sublimation to occur. They formed a neat ring around the planet and coalesced into our Moon. Heavy elements and ores descended to the core, but before the body could heat up it was hit by the LHB (Late Heavy Bombardment). Millions of meteorites hit the Moon, resulting in lava flows which created the surface and crust. The surface consists of a mishmash of lunar and meteorite rocks, solar wind and cometary particles, whilst the crust would be a more solid structure. The Sun gradually heated up over millennia, warming up the Moon. The core also got warmer. Over time the Moon boiled off most of its volatiles, whilst light flashes and clouds of gas are still seen eminating from its surface. What volatiles are evaporated by its warm core, condense when they reach the cold dark surface, forming frozen dew soaked dust, seen flashing into steam, causing the dust to shoot maybe one hundred metres above the surface as the Moon's surface rotates into the Sun's view. The vacuum of space and the lunar regolith form excellent heat insulators. Just how much ice is still retained within the Moon's interior is anybodies guess.

    107. It would appear that the Moon is still losing mass, as it recedes about 4cm each year from Earth, mainly due to tidal forces with Earth. This loss of volatiles is possibly leaving huge voids inside the Moon. Just how big they are depends on whether Theia collided heavily with the Earth, or simply grazed it when it originally came into orbit with it. Since the Moon is thought to originate in the outer solar system, a grazing encounter would leave its ice fields relatively unscathed. It should be remembered that glacial ice on Earth is as hard as concrete. This means that as this ice boiled off, huge voids kilometres across would be created. If it was a heavy impact creating a disc of dust, rock and ice orbiting the Earth, it's likely that not all the ice would have evaporated into space, due to the quantity and also because the Sun was still getting hotter at that time. It's likely that large reserves of ice are located under the crust, especially in the polar regions. The crust will have been churned over during the LHB, leaving very little geological evidence. These voids are acting as an insulator between the solar heat at the surface and rising heat from the core. They may therefore contain considerable amounts of frozen volatiles. There maybe large deposits of nodules on the floor of these voids, just as there are nodules on the floor of the Earth's oceans. Whether they can be retrieved in the cold dark vacuum of space, remains to be seen. These voids are possibly too deep to be used for manned habitats. However, some may lie near the surface, to be accessed by constructing a deep shaft. It would be large enough for an Earth-Moon space tug to access the Luna colony located at the bottom. Protected from solar radiation, with easy access to the Moon's resources, it would be the ultimate sink hole. Since it would appear that ET (extraterrestrial) have been around for thousands of years, evidence of alien bases may exist there. To access such sites, it would be necessary to 3D print a drilling rig with a minimum 600mm diameter drill bit. Since it would take years to complete, and be highly dangerous due to possible out gassing, the mission would have to be remotely controlled, possibly employing androids. Rovers, and possibly unmanned submersibles, equipped with lidar, radar, CCTV, etc. would be sent down to explore the abyss. Such holes may exist naturally, indicated by chimney like structures, created by rising gas and dust. Since the Moon is a very dry body permitting the deep penetration of microwaves, voids maybe detected by orbiting radar satellites.

    108. The Earth's rotation is slowing down, caused by friction between the inner and outer cores, and between the land and ocean tides. There are two tidal bulges. One bulge is adjacent to the Moon, whilst the other is 180 degrees from it, created by inertia. The lunar gravitational field also causes the Earth's surface to rise and then fall half a metre, often resulting in earthquakes. These three effects result in the Earth's rotation slowing down by an average 47 nano seconds per day. Ocean tides on Earth created by the Moon, are flung forward of the Moon by the Earth's rotation of about 1000mph. This extra gravity, forward of the Moon, causes the Moon to accelerate forward and outward. In about 400 million years time the Moon will be so far from the Earth that its stabilizing effect will dissipate, causing the Earth to wobble unpredictably on its axis. This will cause the poles and their ice caps to shift, causing the weather to swing wildly. The magnetosphere will weaken. The evolution of species will not be able to cope with this rapid environmental change, resulting in a great loss of species. In theory, as the Moon recedes, the Earth will continue to slow down until it stops altogether in about 121 billion years time, with the same side facing the Moon. The Moon will then drift towards the Earth eventually breaking up due to Earth's gravitational forces resulting in a ring of debris around the Earth. In reality the Sun will have enveloped the Earth and Moon within 5 billion years when it becomes a red giant.

    109. There is however another factor to consider, and that is the effect the Sun has upon the Earth as it gets hotter. Increased solar radiation will increase the weathering of silicate rocks, thereby reducing the amount of carbon dioxide available for photosynthesis by land based plants and marine life. This in turn leads to less oxygen in the atmosphere, more methane and CO2, but no ozone layer. This period is known as the Great Deoxygenation. Microbial and anaerobic (free of oxygen) life forms will be the only life to survive. This will occur about one billion years from now.

    110. This suggests that multi-cellular life may only have a period of about one billion years in which to evolve intelligent species. This does not bode well for life on red dwarf solar systems where the star's nuclear fusion will last about thirty billion years. It is also suspected that planets migrate away from their stars as the star loses its mass from nuclear fusion. This implies that a planet formed too close to a red dwarf, maybe viewed by SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) in the habitable zone billions of years later, with astronomers not realizing that it has always been dead. Over eons, other exoplanets would slow down their rate of rotation and become deserts. This implies that in addition to mechanical, electrical, software, systems, planetary construction, terraform, telecoms, navigators, geologists and medical personnel, there is also a need for archaeologists to be incorporated into manned interstellar missions, to tease out technologies from extinct civilisations. Technicians such as geologists, would require duel skills, such as in paleontology, meteorology, etc. Technicians would also have to train in new skills during the voyage and upon arrival, since many dangers will await them. Poisonous insects and reptiles, the ability to predict repeated quakes and tsunamis, lightning and solar flares, hostile primitive natives, etc. Let us not forget that the main reason the Vikings abandoned north America was due to tribal conflict. Quantum communications would also be an absolute necessity for all interstellar missions.

    111. The Moon must not only be the right size, but it must also survive the initial impact with the Earth, otherwise it becomes a ring of debris.

    112. Recent research by NASA has also indicated that a body as large as Theia would have totally disintegrated when it collided with the Earth had it not impacted at a 'safe' specific angle. The chances of this happening elsewhere in our galaxy are very remote.

    113. n7 = 0.1 This exoplanet must have sufficient volatiles created in deep seas harbouring black smokers. Deep oceans on Earth are thought to have been created during the late heavy bombardment (4.1 to 3.86 billion years ago). If there was no LHB, then Earth sized planets probably would not have enough elements to create life, nor an advanced civilisation, since all the heavy elements that created the planet would have sunk to the core, leaving only an element's ores, lighter than its mantle, on or near the surface, in the crust. Also, prior to LHB, the planet's lighter elements would probably have been blown into space by the companion star's unstable and violent beginnings. Analysis of xenon gas eminating from comet 67P, and observed by ESA's Rosetta/Philae space probes, suggests that the Earth was hit by about one hundred thousand comets during its life.

    114. Water is also thought to have been transported to Earth by the proto-moon, Theia. Its impact with Earth is likely to have contributed to the LHB.

    115. n8 = 0.1 Land masses must be sufficiently large to accommodate mountain ranges and their associated micro-climates, leading to biodiversity. It is likely that the primordial landmass of Pangaea and the deep Pacific basin were created by the impact of a proto-planet that eventually became the Moon. Otherwise all you get are isolated volcanic islands, usually at the heart of hexagon shaped thermal zones created within the mantle. This world would have no major rivers and no shallow seas. Oxygen in the seas and atmosphere on Earth was created by cyanobacteria in the form of stromatolites, growing in shallow sun lit waters from 3.5 billion years ago. This process was later enhanced by algae. Evidence suggests that multi-cellular life could not have evolved without oxygen in the world's oceans.

    116. n9 = 0.5 Meteorites have been found that contain carbon and amino acids, the building blocks of life. This beggars the question, did primordial life come from asteroids/comets, undersea black smokers (hydrothermal vents), or both? Bacteria or some lower form of life by abiogenesis? The creation of life from inanimate substances. Biochemistry from geochemistry. Geochemistry involves the interaction of cyanide with carbon dioxide to produce carbon based compounds, where cyanide is carbon plus hydrogen. Meteorites have been found with iron, cyanide and carbon monoxide to produce ironcyano-carbonyl complex. Another geochemistry process towards life is that of carbon dioxide and water to produce tricarboxylic acid. The fact that bacteria exist deep underground and as extremophiles suggests that at least some came from large comets with radioactive cores, capable of triggering genetic mutations. It's likely that all these events contributed towards the foundation of biochemistry, which beggars the question, how common is it? The earliest known life on this planet were stromatolites, their microbial remains were found at the Dresser formation, Pilbara Range, Western Australia in 2019. They are 3.5 billion years old. This suggests that life can start immediately environmental conditions on the exoplanet allow. This assumes that elements and the building blocks of life are evenly distributed across most of our galaxy.

    117. Analysis of data gathered by the ESA Rosetta space probe to the comet 67P, which released the Philae lander to its surface, indicates that thirteen compounds were detected. All the building blocks of life were present, including lipids, proteins, sugars and nucleic acids, for the production of cells. These building blocks were formed over billions of years in nebulae heated by primordial stars. Fifty per cent of this comet is thought to consist of organic compounds. A sample return mission called CAESAR has been proposed.

    118. n10 = 0.1 Multi-cellular life has only evolved once on this planet about 635 million years ago during the ediacaran period after 3 billion years of development, during the age of bacteria. The oldest evidence for multi-cellular life comes from a fossil, one billion years old, having two distinct cell types, found in 2021 at Loch Torridon, Wester Ross, Scotland, by the University of Sheffield and Boston College, USA. It's hard to believe that it was through pure chance, from a sea of microbial mat, rather like the Sargasso sea today, or at a black smoker or steamy pool in a world of continuous volcanism, high radiation and tumultuous tidal seas created by an intimate Moon, that billions of RNA, then DNA, could produce multi-cellular life, such as sponges. As yet we still do not know whether microbial life found within the guts of these bodies also played a part, and the same goes for hitch hikers on the surface of nucleic acid itself. Multi-cellular life may also have been kick started by ice ages. Providing all the above parameters are satisfied, multi-cellular life is inevitable, since science dictates that elements, compounds, lipids, sugars and proteins will link together electrically to form nucleic acids. The largest bacterium, thiomargarita namibiensis, can be seen with the human eye being up to 0.75mm in length. In the age of bacteria and viruses these organisms were no doubt larger as well as more numerous, since there were fewer or no predators. Such a body would have an oxygen atmosphere, with clouds indicating water. Since the alien solar system could have formed earlier than ours, its life maybe far more advanced. However, even if it's one billion years more advanced, it's still a long shot. This is because advanced alien civilisations probably advance like ours, randomly. As I write this, the human race is on the verge of a pandemic. Preliminary estimates suggest that one hundred and sixty million people will probably die. Possibly far more than that if third world countries descend into chaos. To prevent a deliberate pandemic, caused by an act of terrorism, would require the existence of a world technocracy. It is highly likely that civilisations on exoplanets would not have such an organisation to protect them, anymore than we do. They would therefore, ultimately become extinct. This implies that highly intelligent civilisations would have a very short time span. From a SETI point of view, negligible, since industrial pollutants in the exoplanets atmosphere, such as CFCs, would only be detected for a few thousand years. So, if the human race is to survive any length of time, it must never produce hazardous materials such as dark matter, anti-matter, and doomsday viruses. To remove this threat, whilst still working on the technology, it would be best to isolate the danger to a laboratory on the Moon. And to do that, you first need a WT, don't you?

    119. Of course, if it was not for the fundamental forces of nature being what they are, our universe would be very different, making it likely that life would not evolve. Those forces are the mass of the proton and electron, speed of light, relativity, gravity, etc.

    120. Recent research shows that in comet impacts the radiation generated breaks chemical bonds to create amino acids. Amino acids, the building blocks of life, are also created as comets pass close to a star, interacting with its ammonia or hydrogen cyanide. In the 12 billion year age of our galaxy, that can be one heck of a lot of amino acid, not to mention organic compounds such as methane, ethane and acetylene. Likely locations within our solar system for extremophiles, hardy bacteria, would be the oceans and surface of Enceladus, Europa, Ganymede, the lava tubes and numerous underground lakes on Mars, plus the Moon and the atmosphere of Venus at about 50km altitude, and possibly the poles of Mercury and our Moon. In September 2019 NASA announced that the surface of Venus was habitable until about seven hundred million years ago, but this was disputed in October 2021 in a report on space.com implying that Venus never cooled down. Global warming makes Venus the hottest planet in our solar system. If it was not for global warming most of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level would be at around -18C.

    121. images my ideas/NASA Enceladus Tiger Stripes.jpg
      NASA Enceladus Tiger Stripes

      images my ideas/NASA Europa.jpg
      NASA Europa

    122. In September 2020 it was announced that biosignatures of life had been detected within the atmosphere of Venus by teams based at the University of Manchester, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and led by Professor Jane Greaves Cardiff University. The research initially carried out by James Clerk Maxwell telescope, Hawaii, and confirmed by the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) radio telescope array in Chile shows the molecule phosphine (PH3)at an altitude of 32 to 37 miles within the equatorial zone, but absent in polar regions. The amount, twenty parts per million, is one thousand times greater than that found on Earth. Lab tests at MIT indicate that other non-biological means of production would only produce one ten thousandth of that detected by these telescopes. Phosphine is produced in the pooh of penguins, released from marsh land and was used as a gas weapon in world war one. It can only be retained in the atmosphere for just a few hours, meaning that this phosphine is being produced either by an extremophile or some unknown chemical process. Since the atmosphere of Venus consists of highly concentrated sulphuric acid rain, it does beggar the question, 'how on Venus could it survive?' Some organisms have protective shells, but in which case how could it nourish itself and reproduce? It may just be bacteria. Will HMG finance a space probe to skim the atmosphere, release floating labs and examine samples by remote analysis. It maybe too dangerous to bring them back to Earth. Of course with Covid-19 the UK like most of the rest of the world, is doubly bankrupt, making such a mission unlikely. Don't you think it's about time we adopted the political and economic changes detailed on this website in order to make such a proposal possible?

    123. One way to find out whether bacteria came from space would be to send unmanned missions to the satellites of Jupiter, namely Europa or Ganymede, or Saturn's satellite Enceladus, all of which are thought to have seas under a thick layer of ice. Some meteorites have a radioactive core. This structure is likely to exist within large comets like Hale-Bopp which has a nucleus diameter of 60 kilometres and visited us in 1995. When they get close to the Sun the heavy elements gather at the centre, as the comet melts under an icy surface. It then refreezes. Successive encounters with the Sun cause the volatiles to evaporate into space, sometimes leaving an asteroid. These radioactive comets could presumably create genetic mutations. The three main Jovian satellites Europa, Ganymede and Callisto receive their radiation from Jupiter. Currently no space agency is prepared to take up the challenge of sending a nuclear submarine to these bodies which could melt through the icy crust, explore the depths, melt its way to the surface, or via a geyser, and relay the data back to Earth via a ground station or relay satellite. However, NASA have proposed to send a flyby mission to Enceladus which would analyse the organic plumes coming off it. The Cassini fly-by detected catalytic decompositions of hydrocarbons coming from Enceladus' geysers. These can only form at a temperature of around 1430°C, which dramatically improves the chances of finding pre-biotic life, or even microbial life, assuming the conditions on this satellite have existed for long enough. Examining the E ring for signs of life would be far easier than sending a nuclear submarine to such extreme depths, inside the moon.

    124. Proof of panspermia may or may not lie in the genome of the octopus. Its DNA was studied and a report presented in Nature publication in 2015 titled 'The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties.' This was followed up by another paper published in 2018 in Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology titled 'Cause of Cambrian Explosion Terrestrial or Cosmic?' This hypothesized that the octopus (cephalopods), or its eggs, arrived on Earth 270 million years ago inside a comet. In addition to eight tentacles, large brain and telescopic eyes, amongst its 2.7 billion DNA base pairs, it has 33,000 protein-coding genes. Human beings have 25,000. To explain these unique genes some scientists say that they arise from junk DNA, a process known as de novo. However that doesn't explain where the junk came from originally. In addition, unlike intelligent elephant, chimpanzee, dolphin and humans, it has no known ancestors until now. Cephalopods, including squid and cuttlefish, are marine mammals that broke from their ancestors 100 to 160 million years ago. Bristol University discovered that they evolved from ammonites and belemnites, but unlike them they have no skeleton or body armour, meaning that their fossils are very rare, and hence their evolution has been difficult to fathom out. So are they aliens? Latest research shows that some cephalopods edit their RNA on a regular basis, and are as far as we know, the only species that can do it, whilst one can even use a camera. mmmm Now suppose an octopus used its RNA editing ability to create a highly intelligent bipedal humanoid type species with revolting tentacles emerging from its oriphases. Would the human race tolerate it as a competing species on this planet?

    125. Proof of panspermia, at least in theory, comes from the meteorite AH84001. Found in the Allan Hills of Antarctica in 1984, it is believed to be one of only about thirty meteorites that originate from the planet Mars. It is four billion years old and is thought to have been ejected into space from the planet about seventeen million years ago, when a comet hit the surface. It is thought to have landed in Antarctica about thirteen thousand years ago. It is debatable as to whether lineages seen on its surface through an electron microscope are proof of alien life.

    126. Four billion years ago, when the Earth's atmosphere consisted of methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, micro organisms called mothanagyns, used light to produce arsenic. 2.7 billion years ago bacteria started to produce oxygen. Are these processes taking place on other planets and moons in our solar system? Astro biologists are scouring the surface of planet Earth, in the hope of finding extremophiles that could exist elsewhere in our solar system. Finding them would enable engineers to design diagnostic equipment to install on space probes. There are numerous sites presently being studied. The hot springs of Mono Lake, California and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, whilst underground in Spider Cave, New Mexico red bacteria is studied eating rocks. Bacteria, algae and predatory ice worms are being studied in the ice cave in Blackcomb glacier near the town of Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. The permafrost in Fox Tunnel, Alaska, is studied, where ultra-violet light has been used to illuminate pigments in bacteria. This method could be employed by orbiting space probes with UV lasers, to detect life on the surface of a moon. The study of UV light on glaciers, and salt water lakes in Kenya, and pitch lakes in Venezuela, questions whether it is possible to produce the energy for life, such as hydrogen peroxide. In the laboratory, it has been shown that subjecting the gases methane and nitrogen to electric arcs, to simulate charged particles from Saturn on Titan, for five days, will produce thirty organic molecules. Add water to this, and you produce biological molecules. Plans are afoot to send a submarine to Titan. Whether the viscosity of the lakes of Titan would enable a submarine to propel itself, remains to be seen. I know of no images showing waves on these lakes. It could be just ghoo. An aerial vehicle called dragonfly is also in development. Designed to fly from one site to another, assuming it doesn't get stuck to the surface. Current plans in 2021 call for it to be launched in 2027. It will have a helicopter, plus the capability to return samples to Earth by using Titan's methane atmosphere to produce rocket fuel. Titan is thought to have an abundance of tholins, simple compounds created with ultra-violet light, which form amino acids when water is added to them.

    127. images my ideas/shut space saturn & moons.jpg
      SHUT: Saturn & moons

    128. In 2014 scientists found seventeen different species of microbe at Blood Falls, Antarctica. They developed them on a mineral diet of sulphates and iron, without sunlight and oxygen. Antarctica also experiences blooms of green snow algae brought on by global warming, which can be seen from space. Whilst in 1818, blood ice microbial algae was also found at Cape York, Greenland. The microbial algae turned from green to red under the influence of ultraviolet light from the Sun. Today, half of Greenland's glaciers are covered by this stuff. Its sunlight absorbing ability, which accelerates ice cap melting, poses a threat to Earth through global warming and its associated sea level rise. So life on moons in the outer solar system is not too improbable to contemplate. Ganymede has a magnetic field, which in addition to a 150km thick ice cap, could protect life there from Jupiter's radiation. Because its aurora only tilts two degrees instead of the expected six, due to magnetic induction, scientists have concluded that Ganymede is composed of an 800km deep sea incoporating four layers of ice. This does not bode well for finding life however, since most life in Earth's seas is at a depth of no more than 120 metres, known as the euphotic zone. Sunlight is unlikely to penetrate even to the surface of this sea, due to its distance from the Sun and thickness of the surface ice. To reach the ocean floor on Ganymede, where the black smokers would be, is plainly suicidal using conventional materials. This problem can be overcome by using a carbon matrix, produced atom by atom.

    129. However, as a body to study fundamental science, it maybe easier to fathom out the workings of Ganymede's magnetosphere than that of Earth's, since:
      1...the distance from the surface of Earth to the outer core is 2890km
      2...but the distance from the ocean floor to the outer core of Ganymede is only 334km.
      The structure of Ganymede is thought to be as follows:
      3...saltwater and tetragonal ice ocean 875km deep
      4...rocky mantle 600km
      5...iron sulphide outer core 660km
      6...inner iron core 500km deep
      7...this makes the diameter of Ganymede 5268km.
      The surface temperature is 100K (-173C), making it at least 140K (-133C) on the ocean bottom. The likelihood of finding Earth type life is therefore remote, except around black smokers, of which there are likely to be a few due to its active core.

    130. Because the moon is smaller and mainly liquid, a submarine could get much closer to its outer core, to take numerous measurements, possibly employing top secret technology used in submarine warfare. This assumes that the submarine would not only withstand the pressure, but also progress through at least three layers of thick ice, produced by the phases of ice, to get to this relatively close location. Such research may lead to understanding the origins of plasma balls. Are they exotic life? Living plasma? Are they produced by a chemical-electro process in the outer core? Attracted to bright lights and nuclear reactors on Earth, would a nuclear submarine prove a great attraction to them? Is their breeding process based upon that of a nuclear reactor, but composed of sub-atomic particles? Can they think? What is their mental capability? Is their brain distributed like that of an octopus? Can they be trained to build and maintain the propulsive system of a flying saucer? What is 'life' like in the outer core? Are there more species down there? What does the outer core look like? Since plasma balls are attracted to light, then presumably there is illumination down there, from lightning or chemical reactions? This implies that there are voids containing transparent liquids or gases. Would it be possible therefore to attract and corral these plasma balls, and use them to power Earth and space based vehicles, maintaining the power by topping up the energy levels intermittently? This may sound far fetched but then so is the description of an octopus. This project has been proposed by me in the alien UFO section:

    131. Project DeepSat Mission to Ganymede
    132. Research in Hessdalen, Norway appears to suggest that plasma balls have a similar make-up to that of the Sun. In other words they are made up of hydrogen and helium nuclei. Once in the Earth's atmosphere they move around fast and erratically, searching for free electrons. It is a natural process which reduces its energy level to that of its surroundings, ultimately fizzling out. Free electrons can be found in the vicinity of electro-magnets in electric motors and generators, which are themselves found in road, rail, air and sea going vehicles. This is why plasma balls are seen near power stations and nuclear reactors. They are also attracted to electric lights which emit photons and electrons. This is why they appear to follow cars, etc. UFOs appear to extract this energy from a distance. They also group together forming swirling patterns, probably caused by the clouds of electrons that they attract. They may also form different shapes, dictated by their atomic structure, such as that of a tic-tac, depending upon what elements they interact with during their creation and elevation to the surface. Whether there is a practical use for this phenomenon remains to be seen.

    133. This project would probably require a cluster of space probes, along with substantial financial resources and time. But then what have we to loose but the reputation of several politicians and scientists. Maybe we should call it Project Test & Trace, because that's how much it's likely to cost. Thereby ensuring that no politician could ever say that we can't afford it. This project would require an orbiting DFD powered radarsat to detect weak points in the ice crust and relay data between the surface rover and Earth. Its Direct Fusion Drive would power the radar and surface rover by microwaves, as proposed for the mission to Pluto. The nuclear powered submarine would melt through the crust trailing a cable behind it ending in a transponder. The submarine would position sensors on the ocean floor. There would probably be three rover/submarines in order to obtain data in 3D. Once enough data is gathered, the submarine would relay the data to the rover via the transponder. Should the exploration phase be successful, a sample phase would begin, possibly followed by a production phase, where the plasma balls are harvested.

    134. Ganymede will be orbited by ESA's JUICE probe in 2030, after launch in 2022. Its powerful radar will penetrate the surface ice to a depth of about ten kilometres, hopefully detecting the ice/water boundary. It is supported by NASA / JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and Japan. NASA intends to launch the Europa Clipper mission in 2025, which will go into orbit around Jupiter to determine whether any of its moons could harbour life, especially Europa.

    135. To withstand such high pressures in my proposed mission the hull of the submarine would be built from a carbon matrix, possibly 300 to 600 times stronger than steel. For details, see web page links at the end of this chapter. The mole would be tested on Earth in areas of geothermal activity, thermal springs, geysers, volcanoes and super volcanoes. It could therefore reveal an abundance of science data long before it was launched into space. These cold plasma balls on Earth, could be the source of sprites and elves in the upper atmosphere. Does Ganymede have sprites and elves? If I am correct about the source of plasma balls (cold fusion), it may well explain why many alien civilisations have never entered interstellar space, simply because such a source is not available to them. To ignore this possibility, is therefore not an option.

    136. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 Eastview Big Red Lightning Sprite.jpg
      WC: Big Red Lightning Sprite

    137. Researchers at University College Santa Barbara (UCSB) & Georgia Institute of Technology have developed an artificial snake that can tunnel underground. It's robots like this that are needed to access the depths of Ganymede. Nobody ever said that enabling propulsive systems for interstellar vehicles would be within easy grasp. This project, lasting decades, would have to be on an international basis, because it will require great ingenuity to succeed. The economic benefits are also potentially extreme. As with the ISS it would increase global cooperation and understanding.

    138. Were primordial life to be discovered on Earth, it is likely to be unrecognizable from life today. Unfortunately primordial life on Earth will have long gone, wiped out by its descendants, or by volcanic and tectonic plate activity. The odds of primordial life being sealed in by an oxygen free layer for over half a billion years is very slim. Only the Black Sea, Dead Sea, Death Valley and blue holes of the Bahamas spring to mind, but they are all recent compared to the age of multi-cellular life. As I write, 10 metre high black smokers (hydrothermal vents) are discovered at 5,000m depth in the Cayman Trough between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica by the University Of Southampton and the UK's National Oceanography Centre, Plymouth. They are not the tallest, since a 60 metre high vent called Lost City has been found in the Atlantic Ocean, that creates hydrocarbons spontaneously, whilst water has been found at a depth of 2.4km at Timmins, Ontario, Canada and found to be 1.5 billion years old. The search for primordial life by astrobiologists continues. They may well find it, not on Earth but on the Moon. Asteroid impacts and super volcanic eruptions may deposit evidence at the lunar poles. Deposits from the KT event (66mya) and even primordial life may be present there too.

    139. If one looks at the outer planets and large satellites in our solar system, and place them in the habitable zone, then most of them would become water worlds. Only the Earth and Mars have water, the latter in the form of ice, much of it underground. The surface of Mars is 2% water. The water migrated deeper within the planet, as the core cooled, which also resulted in the collapse of the planet's magnetosphere, resulting in the solar wind bombarding water molecules, causing them to drift off into space, the evidence for which is atomic hydrogen detected in the remaining atmosphere. In the 7000 metre deep Eridania basin it is thought that the top 400m consists of extinct geothermal deposits, at least 3 billion years old. In primordial times whilst Mars had a sea, it was too small to have ocean currents that would convey heat around the planet. Except for periods of volcanic activity, which influenced the atmosphere, it is likely that the seas of Mars remained frozen. Steps along seashores appear to prove that these seas were frozen. Some scientists feel that Mars was like Earth 3.9 to 2.5 billion years ago, but I do not see evidence for that. Evidence of water erosion appears to have been caused by glacial action, and the breaching of ice dams and meteorite impacts causing flash floods, which is one reason why it stayed lifeless. The Earth was heated up by life, but Mars had no such opportunity. Whilst NASA's Perseverance rover has detected the elements of life, namely CHNOPS (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur), the necessary environment for life is lacking.

    140. Water is rare in the inner solar system because in primordial times it existed primarily only in frozen form in and beyond the asteroid belt. It is unlikely therefore that water worlds exist. Any that do would only have marine life, including flying fish. Animals living there would overcome extreme gravity, being supported by buoyancy. Water would act as a radiation shield, where Earth sized satellites orbited large planets like Saturn, in the habitable zone. Such high radiation environments could accelerate DNA pairing and evolution in general. Such water worlds found in inner solar systems are likely to be very large captured comets. However, should the oceans be one kilometre or greater in depth, frozen water in the form of clathrates would insulate submerged land surfaces from the sea and therefore prevent the carbon silicate cycle, thereby preventing advanced life developing. The seas maybe too deep for volcanoes to reach the surface and its atmosphere, whilst radiation may limit life to that of 2mm long water bears (tardigrades), and their offshoots. These creatures have the ability to regenerate their genome in a radiation environment.

    141. images my ideas/NASA Tardigrade.jpg
      NASA Tardigrade

    142. The more elements that are found in a star, the older the star is. (In the case of rare massive second generation stars, these contain few elements.) This is important to know because stars have a violent early phase, emiting intense radiation. The star and its planets are formed from a planetary disc during the first ten million years. During this time planets have a habit of migrating inwards. Whilst inner planets forming close to the Sun have no water, that is not the case for all inner planets, many of which form in the icy cold outer solar system and migrate inwards, sometimes behind a hot Jupiter, during which time the ice turns to water and gas. Planets whose orbits are in resonance are also likely to have migrated from further out. So these minor planets in the inner solar system should not be written off immediately they are discovered.

    143. It is more likely that astronomers will find planets with life, having close eccentric orbits around their stars, than seeing a large satellite like the Moon orbiting an Earth sized exoplanet. Both configurations create the tidal forces necessary for the emergence of life. It is also thought that a plant with no UV protection and carbon cycle, can evolve life with a slower metabolism, such as that of fungi. Fungi came into being on Earth about 1.43 mya (million years ago) in the sea. They came onto the land before plants and are more closely related to animals than plants. There are up to 5 million species on planet Earth. Before a full range of fungi developed, dead matter was compacted into the ground, trees forming coal, whilst crustaceans formed crude oil when submitted to intense pressure and heat over millions of years.

    144. The answer to the above formulae is 2,000 solar systems having an Earth type planet with the conditions for multi-cellular life. Playing with these parameters one is forced to come to the conclusion that the answer is likely to be an even lower number, possibly a single digit. I have assumed that the chances of an intelligent species surviving a considerable length of time to be one in a hundred, namely 20. However, the resilience of nature and intelligent species may have been underestimated. Grey aliens are reputed to have large eyes due to their dim companion star emitting little illumination. However, they have adjusted to their surroundings. Termites have also adjusted to theirs here on Earth. For their size they have huge structures both above and below ground, and can control their atmosphere. This implies that many civilisations elsewhere in our galaxy have over millions of years gone underground. They are living much like the opal miners at Coober Pedy in Southern Australia, whose underground homes remain at 23C all year around, in an otherwise hostile desert environment. To detect such civilisations using telescopes would be impossible. We would have to send out at least one hundred interstellar voyagers. In a capitalist world that would be prohibitively expensive. And if an alien civilisation was discovered, and it was based solely upon science, with no arts and sports, what could we trade with? Glass beads and iron nails may have satisfied primitive tribes that explorers met in the past, but that won't satisfy aliens whose technology we want to barter with. We could offer them a decent planet to live on.

    145. It is also abundantly clear that an Earth sized planet in a habitable zone is not an Earth type planet unless it is accompanied by a very large satellite, etc. Neither Mercury, Venus nor Mars have continental drift, and hence no potential life giving black smokers, because they have no substantial satellite orbiting them. Phobos and Demos orbiting Mars are simply small captured asteroids. Also, it should be remembered that planet Earth would have an average temperature of -18°C were it not for its greenhouse gas CO2 (carbon dioxide). Plate tectonics and the carbon dioxide from volcanoes that it creates, ensures that the Earth won't be that cold again ever, since as the Earth cools down the Sun will heat up. Highly reflective clouds would however reduce atmospheric temperature. To make matters more complicated, the role of nitrogen should not be ignored. A planet having an abundance of nitrogen can increase the atmospheric temperature, which increases the effectiveness of existing carbon dioxide and water vapour as greenhouse gases. Also, in the case of a dry planet, nitrogen can lead to dramatic cooling by reflecting light from its companion star. Since nitrogen is a noble gas, it cannot be detected, since it doesn't absorb nor emit radiation in the visible nor infrared wavelengths. This makes determining whether an exoplanet is Earth like, almost impossible.

    146. This formulae makes no reference to the evolution of our galaxy, nor the average duration of life on a planet, intelligent civilisation's or not. Most of the values for these parameters are guesstimate since there is insufficient data from astronomical observations. Doubtless there are also factors which I have not considered, particularly relating to the creation of life itself. The phosphorus cycle for instance. Phosphorus is transported mainly by tectonics over geologic time. It can also be transported by wind, such as from the Sahara Desert to the Bahamas. However, on a planet with no land, there would be no soil erosion, and therefore no phosphorus for sea plants to take up, and hence no life. Also, the elemental make-up of the planet, essential for promoting life, has hardly been mentioned although it is more likely to be based upon carbon than silicon. No mention is made of alien beings seeding planets in other solar systems, or that life is so resilient that it can withstand millennia travelling through the vacuum, intense cold, and cosmic radiation of space, known as panspermia.

    147. Living bacteria have been found in nuclear reactors, and on space stations, whilst micro-organisms have been recovered from the guts of insects trapped in amber millions of years ago, and revived. Ethyl alcohol was detected eminating from the comet Lovejoy, presumably produced by fermenting bacteria living off sugars. This provides evidence that comets have been a source of complex organic molecules necessary for life to form. Whilst scientific results from balloon flights by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) imply that micro-organisms from space are falling to Earth at the rate of at least 20 million biological cells per square metre per day. Another odd fact about life on Earth comes from the evolution of the octopus. It branched off from the squid 400 mya, and yet its DNA is vastly more advanced, having 40,000 genes, compared to humans having 25,000. Its genes cover brain and camouflage function, but where did the squid get them from? This remains an enigma.

    148. There is also the problem of differentiating basic compounds from advanced molecules produced by biological processes. This requires the determination of molecular complexity by mass spectrometry, mounted on a rover traversing an exoplanet or through astronomy. Raw data is then subjected to a measure of molecular complexity, called the molecular assembly index (MA). Complexity far greater than that achieved by geological processes is therefore life.

    149. Life on Earth is based upon sunlight and associated photosynthesis, including stromatolites that for billions of years created our oxygen based atmosphere. Were Earth's atmosphere to be opaque, then photosynthesis could not take place. This would be common in atmospheres containing carbon. Even giant tube worms found at black smokers need oxygen generated near sea level to sustain the symbiotic relationship they have with bacteria, in order to obtain nutrients for growth. However, there may be life out there that exists beneath kilometres of ice that converts infra-red energy from alien black smokers and their surrounding hot water, into biological energy as a basis for life. The difference in ph between vent water and sea water, also provides the emf (electro-motive force) to build bio-molecular chains. In other words, alkalines and acids create the energy necessary to form complex organic compounds out of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Hydrogen peroxide is also thought to be a source for energy in such environments, and as previously mentioned sulphates and iron (at Blood Falls).

    150. It's my bet that life does exist on the red planet but it's very primitive. It may prove to be a precursor to bacteria, based upon RNA, whilst the intermittent seasonal flow of methane, detected by satellites, possibly suggests a more advanced biological source, caused by the melting of ice and detritus, the remains of Mars' primordial soup, or tell tale remnants of biological artefacts from a comet. In which case it will help scientists discover how life evolved upon Earth. The truth is definitely out there, but I cannot help thinking that it is more easily found amongst this text.

    151. n11 refers to the longevity of civilisation. The human race is wiping out species on this planet at the rate of about one thousand per year and humans at a similar rate. It's obvious that if this mentality persists, the human race will become extinct in the not too distant future. My answer is twenty advanced civilisations, whilst some say it is a little over forty. I wish I could sound more positive.

    152. Types of Telescopes

    153. Modern telescopes employ truly advanced technology, such as adaptive optics moving at 2000 times per second in order to eliminate starlight flickering, by reacting to signals from a laser beam piercing the night sky. Coronographics employs a mask designed to eliminate starlight, so that a dimly lit orbiting body can be resolved. Imaging ultra violet spectrographs are used to measure the composition of a planet's upper atmosphere. Wave front sensor's correct errors produced by convections in the Earth's atmosphere, in a multi-mirror telescope's optics, usually consisting of four lasers which excite sodium atoms 56 miles high up where the telescope is pointing. These look like an artificial sun which each mirror then focuses on. This happens thousands of times per second. This enables it to read objects one to ten million times fainter than a companion star, up to 150 light years away. But all this may not be enough to detect air pollution from alien civilisation's. It may take a generation of telescopes beyond the next ones listed here:

    154. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 LSST_Telescope-cutaway-labels_1.jpg
      WC: Vera C. Rubin Optical Observatory, Chile

      Images Wikimedia Commons/16 Mike Peel Jodrell_Bank_control_room.jpg
      WC: Jodrell Bank Radio Telescope, Control Room, UK

    155. There are four methods for detecting exoplanets:

    156. 1...The most common method is transit. This measures the light intensity drop as an exoplanet traverses across the face of a star. This gives an indication of the size of the exoplanet and its orbit. However, it only works if the plain of the exoplanets orbit is not inclined more than about five degrees, otherwise it is not detected, and since all planets tend to be in the same plain, none of the other planets in that solar system will be detected either.

    157. 2...The radial velocity method measures the wobble of a star on its axis. This can detect an exoplanet that is close to its star. In our solar system Pluto and its companion Charon orbit about a common centre of gravity. The same is true generally speaking, for gas giant exoplanets that orbit their star in less than about thirty days. The wobble is very slight, but can be detected in solar systems out to about a distance of one hundred light years from Earth. Again the mass and orbit of the exoplanet can be inferred.

    158. 3...For years, low frequency radio emissions have been detected coming from Jupiter and its satellite Io. As Io passes through Jupiter's magnetic field an electric current is created which powers Jupiter's aurora. This reaction can be detected in the form of circular polarized low frequency radio emissions. These emissions have been detected from outside of our solar system by the Netherlands Institute of Radio Astronomy (ASTRON). They mainly come from red dwarf stars, which have far larger magnetic fields that our Sun, and also tend to be far more active. Since these stars and their planets are far smaller than ours, it means that Earth sized planets can be detected in greater numbers than previously. These emissions can also be generated by neutron stars reacting with ordinary stars. A visual check must therefore be made to eliminate such a possibility.

    159. 4...Wandering rogue planets and dim stars can also be detected through gravitational microlensing or gravity lens caused by dark matter, where the dark matter is in exact alignment between the dense object and the observer. This causes light from the background star to be bent around the objective due to its gravitational field, making it far more identifiable.

    160. images my ideas/NASA Dark Matter Gravity Lense.jpg
      NASA Dark Matter Gravity Lens

    161. Telescopes capable of detecting exoplanets are listed here:

    162. ESA CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite) Space Telescope (1xCCD (charge-coupled device) 300mm aperture, launched December 2019, will observe known Earth to Neptune sized planets.)

    163. USA Mauna Kea... Thirty Metre Telescope (30m 2022)

    164. USA Las Campanas, Chile... Giant Magellan Telescope (24.5m 2025)

    165. ESO Cerro Paranal, Chile... Extremely Large Telescope (39.3m 2024)

    166. ESA PLATO (Planetary Transits & Oscillations of stars) Space Telescope (CCDx4 2026 8 years life)

    167. NASA TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite) Space Telescope (CCDx4 2018 2 years life)

    168. NASA JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) (6.5m 2021 10 years life, currently priced at 8.8 billion dollars) Range 42 billion light years, the edge of our universe.

    169. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 NASA James_Webb_Space_Telescope_2009_top.jpg
      WC: NASA James Webb Space Telescope

      images my ideas/NASA Hubble Space Telescope Close Up.jpg
      ESA: NASA Hubble Space Telescope Close Up

      images my ideas/ESO owl_still_e_cc telescope.jpg
      ESA: European Southern Observatory
      Overwhelmingly Large Telescope

    170. NASA WFIRST (Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Space Telescope) (2.4m 2025 5 years life currently priced at 3.6 billion dollars) Now called the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope. It is designed to detect exoplanets through the concept of microlensing, dark energy and infrared astronomy.

    171. NASA LUVOIR (Large UV Optical Infra-Red Surveyor) Space Telescope (2 alternative sizes 8 and 15m 2039)

    172. NASA HabEx (Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission) It is a 4 metre diameter space telescope for launch in 2039. Designed to interrogate 9 Sun like stars and 111 feature stars out to a distance of 39 light years. Positioned at L2 Earth - Sun legrange point, it will have an in built chronograph, and an external star shade located 124,000km in front of it, both designed to cut out polarized light from the companion star. Both Luvoir and HabEx are competing with one another for funding.

    173. ESA Ariel (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey) This is a four year space mission located at L2. The one metre optical / infrared telescope is designed to analyse 1000 previously detected exoplanets from 2028. Project approved in November 2020. Contracts approved December 2021.

    174. UCL SSTL TWINKLE This is the only privately funded mission listed here. Costing 50 million pounds, it is initially funded by the European Research Council and a host of British universities, led by UCL (University College London). To be launched in 2022, with the mission lasting seven years+. The satellite is built by Surrey Satellite Technology. It is designed to detect 1000 exoplanets by photoscopy, and analyse the atmospheres of 100 previously known exoplanets by spectroscopy. Exoplanets in the habitable zone with greenhouse gasses would indicate a hot planet, whilst reflective clouds would indicate a cooler planet. It will be able to analyse these atmospheres in the 0.5 to 5 micro metre waveband, detecting clouds, methane and phosphine. This is an education programme that definitely deserves contributions from billionaires. This project competes with NASA's LUVOIR project.

    175. Based upon my calculations, such a mission would have to analyse one million exoplanets to stand any chance of finding one with multicellular life. Space telescopes seeking exoplanets with Earth atmospheres can only see out about 100 light years, whilst large exoplanets have been detected out to 13,000 light years. The diameter of our galaxy is 100 to 180 thousand light years. Although the disc is 2000 light years thick, the Milky Way is in fact a sphere, with millions of stars outside the disc. There are an estimated 400 billion stars in our galaxy. To analyse all of them would require telescope arrays, consisting of hundreds of telescopes, at the poles of the Moon, the coldest place in the inner solar system, and the nearest to Earth, that would be ideal for infrared astronomy. Due to the large numbers of telescopes, it would require a manned or android maintenance facility.

    176. In 2020 President Donald Trump signed EISRUSR (Encouraging International Support for the Recovery and Use of Space Resources), a document produced by the White House, along with continuing support for the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. This is in defiance of the 1979 Moon Agreement which states that non-scientific (commercial) use of space resources must be decided via international agreement. Should the lunar regions of the Moon be handed over to petro-chem companies, for the production of liquid oxygen, hydrogen and helium-3, it would be a scientific disaster that probably couldn't be fixed. Such process plant would stir up huge amounts of dust, that would swamp any such telescope facility. Without these it will not be possible to detect large numbers of Earth sized exoplanets and their atmospheres, whose pollution could be indicative of an advanced civilisation. Currently telescopes can see such exoplanets no further than ten light years away. Without such discoveries, there will be no armada of interstellar space probes sent out to gather more information, moving from one solar system to another. And without that info, there will be no manned interstellar space missions. Currently such a project is beyond the capacity of our capitalist system to finance. World technocracy now?

    177. You are probably also wondering whether it's possible to dispense altogether with mirrors and lenses in telescopes. Employing instead CCD (charge couple device) chips. Currently it is three times more expensive, whilst the direction, colour and light strengths are also problematic. The LSST telescope, which comes online in 2023 has the largest digital camera used in astronomy, weighing 3 tonnes with 3200 mega pixels, it is designed to give a complete inventory of our solar system, including planet nine, Earth crossing asteroids, dark matter and dark energy. This telescope has three mirrors which shortens its length, making it quicker to swing into the direction of study. This will enable it to image the light spectrum of objects found by gravity wave detectors, and UFOs. It is located at the Vera C Rubin observatory in northern Chile.

    178. The data from space telescopes such as GAIA (ESA), Kepler and Spitzer (NASA) is intended to assist the telescopes listed here, in the search for Earth type exoplanets.

    179. The ground based telescopes listed above may be able to see directly Earth sized exoplanets and analyze their atmospheres. Smaller heavenly bodies, such as Mercury, Mars, Moon, Ganymede, Enceladus and Europa, are likely, only to be seen by LUVOIR and HabEx. These two projects are competing with two other space telescopes for selection by the National Academy of Sciences / NASA, followed by collaborative agreements and funding by Congress. HabEx will be fitted with an internal chronograph and external sunshade, floating in space. It will be able to detect oxygen, water, potassium, sodium, methane, ammonia, carbon dioxide and ozone. The latter is indicative of a magnetosphere, without which any oxygen would be blown away by the solar wind. Ozone, oxygen and water are precursors for life, whilst potassium is necessary for the construction of cells, including DNA. These space telescopes will cost billions of dollars each. Only then will we have any idea as to how many Earth type planets, with life, are out there.

    180. As for detecting exoplanets that have intelligent civilisations, right across our galaxy, we will probably have to wait for the generation after that, that can detect air pollution within the atmosphere of these bodies, large space stations and the ion trails of spaceships. Such a telescope array will also have to ascertain the land / sea ratio and their areas, also the area of shallow and deep sea. All these factors are precursors to varied forms of life. Such massive arrays of infra-red telescopes, requiring a cold environment in which to operate, may have to be based at the poles of the Moon, currently thought to be the coldest place in our solar system at -247°C at north pole and -238°C at south pole, together with a radio or 'quantum' telescope array on the far side, for detailed SETI research. This would be a natural follow on from the PLATO satellite project to be launched in 2024 by ESA. The PLAnetary Transits & Oscillations satellite will consist of 34 telescopes / cameras designed to measure a planet's size, mass, age and detect life if present. It is a largely UK based science project, conducted by the University of Warwick and e2v, a UK based CCD (Charge Couple Device) manufacturer. Unfortunately, establishing arrays of telescopes on the Moon will cost trillions of dollars, and decades of time, which only a world technocracy and the abolition of money could handle. These arrays have to be large in order to provide the necessary range of at least one hundred light years. They need to be on a body in order to make maintenance over such a huge system practical. Unlike in space, problematic momentum wheels and coolants would not be necessary. Another telescope proposed for the poles of the Moon employs a swirling mass of mercury. No huge main mirror of glass is necessary, whilst the diameter of this telescope is only limited by the strength of materials used and the Moon's weak gravity. Such a telescope, which can only point directly upwards, would be used to detect the universes first stars 13 billion light years away. The dangers from this research should not be overlooked. Messages received from alien civilisations may contain viruses designed to knock out our technology, turn our technology against us and create an alien master race on Earth. NASA also have a plan for a one kilometre Arecibo type telescope located in a three kilometre diameter crater on the lunar far side. Designed to investigate the dark age after the big bang, it would be constructed by robots employing the NASA JPL DuAxel rover, which is two rovers in one, designed to investigate steep slopes. The project is called LCRT (Lunar Crater Radio Telescope).

    181. Will we want to go there? Should we go there? These are questions that no mere mortal should have to answer. Thinking about it, we may not have to travel far to find the answer. If many people are to be believed, they are already here. Could it be that our telescopes should be pointing at planet Earth? Assuming that no nation has already done this, I propose that a constellation of infra-red space based telescopes, with the capability to detect 0.2m diameter plasma balls, be positioned in Earth orbit. Even if this phenomena is natural, it will still be good science. It would be an ideal mission for Skylon during its x-spaceplane development phase.

    182. Is interstellar space travel feasible? I believe that the solution does not lie in existing forms of propulsion such as matter - antimatter drive, but lies out there in the realms of dark matter and dark energy research. It's my bet that the first interstellar space mission will not go to make contact with some advanced civilisation, but instead boldly go to harvest cavorite, the gravity shielding material used in H.G. Wells' 'The First Men In The Moon'. It's likely that cavorite is composed of elements of dark matter. That being the case, then at the perceived present rate of progress, it will take at least one thousand years to attain such abilities in space. Only a WT is likely to bring an end to international distrust and tension, in order to create the necessary army of co-operating scientists, engineers and technicians capable of making it so.

    183. When you look at a galaxy you see that its spiral arms are curved, suggesting that dark matter has not existed forever, otherwise the arms would be straight, but dark matter is thought to hold galaxies together. Dark matter may therefore have been formed by the big bang to form large filaments between the galaxies, and later emitted from black holes, which would explain why it is so elusive. We see matter going into a black hole, but apart from matter flung off from the event horizon, we see nothing coming out.

    184. Types of Rocket Propulsion

    185. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 Thorenn Super_heavy-lift_launch_vehicles.jpg
      WC: Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    186. Whether it will take NASA's one hundred years programme to solve interstellar propulsion remains to be seen, but I cannot help thinking that we should sort out our own backyard before polluting the universe with our thoughts and actions. If the human race engaged in interstellar space travel before it had created a truly civilised world order here on Earth, then all it would be doing is transferring its petty squabbles onto the galactic stage. And of course it also beggars the question, how do you police a civilisation ultimately spread over numerous solar systems, hundreds of light years apart? The solution appeared in the original movie, 'The Day The Earth Stood Still'. The aliens were policed by warden robots. If politicians have their way, this space voyage development phase will be frustratingly long, with projects ordered then canceled, repeatedly.

    187. There are numerous propulsion systems for rockets, rockets isn't the only means of getting a payload into space. The space elevator is an obvious system. It requires a high strength fixed tether from the Earth's surface to a space station in geostationary orbit. Like the space tether the concept of an electric linear accelerator has failed to emerge. A more recent idea is to use a sling shot. SpinLaunch has succeeded in firing a projectile through the atmosphere in 2021. The intension is to launch an unshrouded upper stage rocket and payload inside a ballistic capsule into space where the rocket takes over. Payloads up to 200kg, spun up to 5,000mph inside a vacuum chamber, will be launched. The cost will be approximately $0.5 million per launch.

    188. Types of rocket propulsion existing and in development (slowest first) are as follows:

    189. Gunpowder (solid fuel 0.7km/s 71s)(exhaust velocity, specific impulse)

    190. Aluminium oxide powder (solid fuel 2.5 to 2.63km/s 255s to 268s) This is far more powerful than gunpowder. It was painted on the side of the Hindenburg airship, but fortunately the Nazis failed to notice. And as can be seen from the disaster which destroyed it, it burns readily. An alternative solid rocket is based upon glucose from sugar impregnated with oxygen.

    191. Liquid Oxygen & Alcohol (cryogenic 1.7 km/s 173s) As used in the A4 (V2) rocket. The alcohol was distilled from potatoes (vodka).

    192. SpaceX's Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy rockets use kerosene. (3km/s 304s)

    193. Unsymmetrical di-methyl hydroxide & nitrogen tetroxide (UMDH + NTO), etc. (hypergolic 2.72 to 3.07Km/s 277s to 313s) As used in the Russia's Proton rocket. These fuels explode on contact, and are hence used extensively in space, as upper stages in rockets and in reaction control systems, because they are easier to ignite in the vacuum of space.

    194. Liquid Oxygen & Liquid Methane (cryogenic 3.2 to 3.7 km/s 330 to 80s) SpaceX's BFR (Big Falcon Rocket)is larger than Apollo's Saturn V Moon rocket. It is powered by methane because it is designed to be refueled with methane extracted from CO² (carbon dioxide) and H²O (water) on Mars, and because it's far cheaper than hydrogen. It is designed to colonize Mars, before I terraform it! Its VTORRL (vertical take off & retro-rocket landing) seven man spaceship is called Dragon 2. Spacex have also launched the Falcon 1, Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy, using LOX (liquid oxygen) and kerosene fuel combination. Spacex is led by Elon Musk, owner of Tesla cars. ESA has a reusable rocket engine in development called Prometheus, designed to power the successor to Ariane 6 called Themis.

    195. Liquid Oxygen & Liquid Hydrogen (cryogenic 13 MJ/kg 4.44km/s 453s)(megaJoules per kilogramme)....These fuels are used on upper stages, including the second and third stages of NASA's Saturn V Moon rocket and the space shuttle.

    196. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 InSapphoWeTrust Space Shuttle Endeavour.jpg
      WC: NASA Space Shuttle Rocket Engine

    197. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (8.3 km/s 830 to 1000s) ....NERVA was developed in the 1960s for missions to Mars. It heats low molecular weight propellant (hydrogen) in a nuclear reactor, which expands through a rocket nozzle. The reactor consists of a cluster of graphite hexagonal tubes (fuel elements) containing pyrocarbon coated uranium carbide particles in a graphite substrate. With six fuel elements around it, the seventh tube of pyrolytic graphite contains a zirconium hydride moderator. After cooling down the rocket nozzle's jacket, the liquid hydrogen is pumped to the reactor, where it is heated to up to 2550 degrees Kelvin, whilst passing through small pipes in each hexagonal tube, and thence to the rocket nozzle. The nuclear engines were built at Los Alamos, and then tested at Jackass Flats, Nevada from 1955 to 1972. The engine was designed to be an upper stage to the Saturn 5 Moon rocket, known as the Saturn S-N. It was also to be used as a lunar tug, as well as for Mars missions (120 days each way). Although several types were successful, the project was canceled due to budget constraints. Research into NTP continues at the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, USA employing low energy uranium. See two hyperlinks at the end of this chapter. NASA has canceled similar nuclear thermal rocket projects, namely SNTP and Prometheus since. The Prometheus project was started in 2003, but is believed to have been handed over to the military in 2005.

    198. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 NASA Nerva_-_nuclear_rocket_engine.jpg
      WC: NASA Nerva Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Rocket Engine

    199. The Gas Core Nuclear Rocket is more efficient than a solid core. With is specific impulse of 3000 to 5000s (30 to 50 km/s) with the fission gas (uranium tetrafluoride) core at 25,000C.

    200. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 NASA-Pat Rawlings (SAIC) Bimodal_Nuclear_Thermal_Rocket.jpg
      WC: Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    201. Nuclear Electric Rocket (Ion Drive 16 to 50 km/s) ....This uses fission reaction of radioisotope decay to generate electricity, by thermionics (RTG - Radioisotope Thermal Generator), to power an ion thruster. It only works in a zero gravity, vacuum environment, because it produces very low thrust e.g. 68mN. Because it can be run continuously for days, it can reach a very high terminal speed, due to its high specific impulse. It employs inert gas such as argon or xenon, which is stripped of its electrons. The resultant plasma is subjected to a complex electro-magnetic field and microwaves, which heat and accelerate it into space, directed by an electro-magnetic nozzle. Its economic use of inert gas makes it an ideal propulsion system for the interplanetary space transportation of small payloads. There are numerous designs such as VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket), em drive and Helical reactionless drive.

    202. MPD (Magnetoplasmadynamic) Thruster (5.7N max., 20 to 300 km/s 50% efficient)(One Newton is the force necessary to move one kilogramme one metre per second per second)....This employs ionized lithium accelerated by an electric current flowing through it, plus a magnetic field. Interaction of the two produces a lorentz force which propels the gas through the exhaust chamber. This engine requires hundreds of kilowatts to power it. This is beyond the capacity of photo-voltaics and RTGs (radioisotope thermoelectric generators). The USSR's TOPAZ and RORSAT satellites had that capability.

    203. The Dual Stage 4 Grid ion thruster was developed in 2005 by the ESA and Australia. With 250kW power it would produce 2.5N 210 km/s.

    204. Light Sail Propulsion....This may not sound as glamorous as the roar of rocket engines, but the truth is that they can perform interstellar missions taking no longer than those powered by nuclear fusion. Light sails, powered by a star or by lasers, can be used for acceleration and deceleration. They can be deployed to decelerate a disused satellite, and thereby bring it out of orbit prematurely. Flexible sails would be made from aluminium on the sunward side and chromium on the other, and as large as 1000km diameter. There are also designs for electric solar sails, consisting of wires, extending up to 40km diameter, interacting with the solar wind. The most notable of these space probes is IKAROS, launched by the Japanese Space agency, JAXA. LCD panels provide attitude control. The sail is 20m across diagonally. Launched in 2010, it is still being monitored, after passing Venus.

    205. Nuclear Uranium Fission Pulse Drive (60,000,000 MJ/kg 20,000,000 m/s speed 10%C) Project Orion was conceived as being powered by nuclear explosions. The partial nuclear test ban treaty 1963, ended the project.

    206. Nuclear Fusion Drive (350,000,000 MJ/kg) Conceived by the British Interplanetary Society, Project Daedalus was designed to travel to Barnard's star at 12.7% of the speed of light, getting there in fifty years. Today this research is in the form of the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, and HiPER by Euratom in France, EU. Laser based inertial confinement fusion should happen when a pellet of deuterium and tritium weighing a few milligrams, is hit by a powerful laser beam inside a water cooled blast chamber. This reaction could generate either electricity or thrust in a rocket.

    207. Magnetic Reconnection Plasma Thruster (500km/s) Being developed by U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Reconnection of plasma can be seen on the surface of the Sun, producing much energy. Project is in the theoretical stage.

    208. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 NASA Elle Starkman PPPL_physicist_Fatima_Ebrahimi & her fusion_rocket.jpg
      WC: PPPL physicist Fatima Ebrahimi & her fusion rocket

    209. Now, Direct Fusion Drive (DFD), also known as Nuclear Electric Propulsion, might be coming to the rescue at 15%C (15% of the speed of light - 45,000km/s). Based on the Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) nuclear fusion reactor, which is under development at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the DFD could provide sufficient thrust to deliver 1,000 kg to Pluto in four years travel time. The containment vessel is cooled by inert gases which when heated is then passed through a Brayton cycle to generate electricity. Because the DFD produces electrical power as well as propulsion, it could deliver 1 MW on arrival. Early studies show 5 Newtons of thrust per megawatt of fusion power at an Isp of 10,000 sec and 200 kW (kiloWatt) of available electrical power. The reactor is small because the low frequency radio waves used to heat the gases, cannot penetrate far. The reactor is 2m diameter by 10m long. It heats up deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen, found in sea water) and helium-3 (produced from lithium, but also found on the Moon and in the atmosphere of our major planets) into a rotating plasma contained by a magnetic field (pinch), before being ejected from the magnetic rocket nozzle at 25,000,000 m/s (metres per second). It is in effect a nuclear fusion powered ion propulsion system. It can generate 10MW (megawatt) in total, weigh 10 tonnes and cost only $20 million, which is peanuts considering ESO's Extremely Large Telescope will cost $1 billion, and NASA's James Webb Space Telescope $9 billion+. Being developed by Princeton Satellite Systems. There are two competitors, Helion Energy using the same fuels, and Tri-Alpha Energy, using boron and protons. Also, there is a Russian 'equivalent' called TEM (Transport & Energy Module) by Rosatom.

    210. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 Pancotti Fusion_Driven_Rocket_powered_spacecraft.jpg
      WC: Nuclear Electric Propulsion Driven Spacecraft

    211. DFD's high electrical output would make it ideal for carrying out a radar survey of all the planets and major satellites in our solar system, as well as powering a surface rover from orbit, via microwave transmission. Unfortunately it is not possible to radar scan the surface of our four large gas giants, because they have no surface. Results from NASA's Jupiter orbiter, JUNO, indicate that the planet's solid rocky core, which is 5 to 10 Earth masses, is surrounded by rubble floating in metallic hydrogen. At high pressure and temperature, hydrogen is converted into a metal, which makes up 50% of the planet's mass. Hydrogen gas would rain down onto it. A similar process probably occurs on Saturn, whilst Uranus and Neptune are not thought to have metallic hydrogen, as their mass and pressures are too low. Their cores are enveloped in water, which in turn is covered with a liquid hydrogen mantle. DFD could however transport astronauts to Mars in four months. The fuel, helium-3 is found on the lunar surface, having been deposited there by the Sun over billions of years. Whilst deuterium, produced naturally by the big bang, can be found in Earth's seas in small quantities, and in the clouds of Jupiter. It can also be obtained commercially from India, who use it in heavy water reactors. It is extracted from water, as shown in the movie 'Heroes of Telemark' about the sabotage of the Vemork Norsk Hydro plant in the town of Rjukan, Norway during WWII. It could be extracted from lunar water ice using sunlight on photo-voltaics or mirrors. Heavy water, which contains a larger proportion of deuterium than ordinary water, is used as a neutron moderator in nuclear fission reactors, slowing down neutrons so that they react with uranium 235. Via reference 7 in Wikipedia's Direct Fusion Drive article, it is possible to see an animation of this engine working. See also hyperlink at end of this chapter.

    212. Of course all these nuclear ion rockets require an initial source of electricity to start them up. Such a source may come from 'initial electrostatic confinement' being developed by an Australian company HB11 Energy Pty Limited. It is based upon a process known as laser inertial confinement, as opposed to magnetic confinement in Tokamaks. It is a compact reactor consisting of a sphere with two lasers connected to it. The first laser creates a magnetic containment field, whilst the second triggers an avalanche fusion chain reaction by directing hydrogen into a 14 milligramme boron 11 pellet resulting in HB11 fusion, equivalent to 300kWh. This is a non thermal laser reaction produced by a 10 petawatt CPA (Chirped Pulse Amplification) laser in a 1 pico-second pulse causing a release of positively charged helium plasma roughly every second, which upon close contact with the enclosing 1m diameter charged (1.4 megavolts) steel sphere, generates electricity by transferring its charge to a capacitor bank. The reactor is enclosed in one thousand layers of metal, boron and water one metre deep to absorb x-rays and alpha radiation. The compact design makes it ideal for the powering of ships and aircraft. Assuming all hurdles in the design can be overcome a commercially viable design is not likely until at least 2040 CE. It is a non-lingering radioactive process, that does not require heavy steam turbines and generators. It is not capable of a meltdown, so could therefore be located on a housing estate, thereby reducing transmission loses. A link to the HB11 company website is at the end of this chapter. See also nuclear fusion systems in chapter 28...The economic crisis & stimulus plan/nuclear fusion

    213. images my images/shut space saturn illuminated.jpg
      SHUT: Saturn illuminated by the Sun

    214. There are two other types of nuclear electric drive being developed in the USA, one for the DoD (Department of Defence) through DARPA (Defence Advanced Projects Agency), and the other by NASA, employing 5-20% enriched U235. The DoD project, known as DRACO (Demonstration Rocket for Agile Cis-Lunar Operation).

    215. Manned Missions in Space

    216. There are numerous proposed projects for the development of man in space, including Skylon and Sänger II spaceplanes. However the only advancement upon that of expendable launchers so far, is the SpaceX rockets and the USAF unmanned X-37B OTV.

    217. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 Clemens Vasters Sänger_II_spaceplane_model.jpg
      WC: Clemens Vaster's Proposed Sänger II Spaceplane Model

      Images Wikimedia Commons/16 Giuseppe De Chiara 1968 X_37B_OTV-2_01.jpg
      WC: X-37B USAF Unmanned Orbital Transfer Vehicle
      Launched By Atlas V Rocket

    218. The use of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion propulsion does beggar the question, just how safe is this, for the human race? These spacecraft will presumably be launched from the far side of the Moon at lagrange point 2, in the cislunar region, where radioactive exhaust gases will be blown into deep space by the solar wind. Here gravitational fields cancel each other out. It is therefore an ideal location for employing rocket engines that have low thrust, but over time, can achieve a very high terminal speed. Alternatively, the Lunar Gateway (Boeing Deep Space Gateway) will be employed, located in an elliptical orbit around the Moon. This orbit enables landing at the poles or equatorial regions. It would serve as a safe haven, assembly point for Moon and Mars' missions, ensure recyclability of rocket stages, communication relay centre, plus enable remote control of surface equipment, such as excavators and process plant. It is a collaboration between the USA, EU, Canada and Russia.

    219. To get from low Earth orbit to low lunar orbit requires a space tug. This requires the use of a vehicle being designed by the Ad Astra Rocket company, powered by the VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) ion drive. It has a solar-voltaic powered ion engine designed to transport small cargoes, and therefore safe to use in a near Earth environment. It would be powered by a nuclear-electric power source for large payload interplanetary missions. It's VF200 motor is a 200kW version. They are designed to be used in a cluster with opposing coils, not just to increase total power output, but also to counteract side forces created when the magnetic field of the motor interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere. It could deliver a 7 tonne payload from low Earth orbit to low lunar orbit, using a single VF200 motor running on argon inert gas, and taking 6 months. Tests on the International Space Station have been rejected as the ISS does not have enough electrical power available. Running an ion drive on the ISS, in order to compensate for atmospheric drag, by raising its altitude, would cut the $210 million annual cost to about $10.5 million. VASIMR, like all large ion drives, including DFD, suffers from the fact that nuclear reactors and waste heat radiators are a weight and maintenance problem. To supply space station's for Moon and Mars bases require large spaceships. Unlike Apollo, which sent three astronauts to the Moon for a couple of days, NASA intends sending four astronauts to the poles for at least one week. This requires large spacecraft that will have to be launched as modules and assembled at the lunar gateway. To circumvent the need for nuclear power, NASA is developing 50kW thin film solar voltaic arrays, half the weight of those on the ISS, with a surface area of 200m². A manned mission to an asteroid would need 250kW, whilst a manned mission to Mars, 800kW. The ion drive, consisting of a hall thruster, would use xenon inert gas, and have a working life of at least ten years.

    220. Considered the most advanced ion thruster is NASA's X3. It is a three channel, 100kW, 5.4N thrust ionic drive, weighing 500 pounds, being tested at the Glenn Research Center, Ohio, whilst designed at the University of Michigan. ESA on the other hand are working on an ion thruster that can employ nitrogen and oxygen as fuel in the Earth's rarefied atmosphere. This would be ideal for low orbiting satellites, such as those engaged in gravity, weather and pollution monitoring. Ion thrusters are ten times more fuel efficient than chemical rockets, whilst a chemical rockets terminal speed is around 1.86 miles per second, compared to 25 miles per second for ion drive.

    221. Spacex is an American private venture, as is Blue Origin, founded by Jeff Bezos, founder of the Amazon internet based market. Blue Origin also uses recoverable rockets powered by liquid methane and oxygen. During the re-entry phase a ring fin moves the aerodynamic centre. Then eight drag brakes are deployed, whilst steering fins direct the rocket stage to the landing pad. The throttlable engines reignite, whilst the landing legs deploy shortly before touchdown. Their manned missions are named after astronauts. New Shepard - sub orbital, New Glenn - orbital, New Armstrong - lunar? Their manned spaceship is simply called Crew Capsule 2. Methane rockets were first developed by ORBITEC in 2005, now part of Sierra Nevada Corp. whose spaceship is called Dreamchaser. The Boeing / Bigelow Aerospace spaceship is called the CST-100 Starliner, which together with the CTORRL Dragon 2 is designed to support the ISS (International Space Station). Boeing also make the VTOHL (vertical take off & horizontal landing) X-37 unmanned USAF shuttle, whilst developing the Phantom Express winged VTOHL small satellite launcher, supported by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) of the USG's DoD (United States Government's Department of Defence).

    222. There are a number of small rockets designed to launch cubesats, and small shuttles. Some of these can be launched from a carrier aircraft, one of which, and the largest aircraft in the world, is the Stratolaunch, by Scaled Composites operating out of Mojave Air & Spaceport, California. It has a twin fuselage, six engines and twenty-eight wheels. It is bigger than Howard Hughes' spruce goose, which flew in 1947.

    223. Bigelow, a company financed by Robert Bigelow, the once owner of hotel chain Budget Suites of America, build huge inflatable space station modules, made from vectran, a man made material twice as strong as kevlar. Its BEAM (Bigelow Expandable Activity Module) (16 cubic metres) is attached to the ISS, for testing. Lack of suitably sized launchers has held back progress. Bigelow propose to build an orbiting hotel for tourists, a commercial orbiting research facility and a base on the Moon, using their inflatable modules. Modules will be launched by ULA (United Launch Alliance), such as the B-330 (330 cubic metres) to low lunar orbit in 2022 and supplied by Boeing or Spacex spaceships.

    224. NASA's manned spaceship is called Orion, and forms part of the Space Launch System, which includes the Gateway lunar station, cis-lunar transfer vehicle, Artemis spacesuits, lunar terrain vehicle and Human Landing System for the support of research on the Moon and later on Mars. ESA has no manned spaceship. It engages in research on the ISS, whilst building the service module for NASA's Orion, which is based upon its automated transfer vehicle, used to transport cargo to the ISS. ESA's robotic missions, such as Exomars satellite in 2016, rover in 2022, and the Luna 27 to the Moon's south pole, are its preferred choice for exploration, both of which are collaborations with Russia.

    225. images my ideas/NASA SLS.jpg
      NASA SLS

      images my ideas/NASA Orion Spacecraft.jpg
      NASA Orion Spacecraft

      images my ideas/NASA Orion_Arrays.jpg
      NASA Orion & Service Module made by ESA

      images my ideas/NASA Gateway Lunar Transfer Vehicle.jpg
      NASA Gateway Lunar Transfer Vehicle

      Images Wikimedia Commons/16 NASA Lunar Gateway Illustration.jpg
      NASA Lunar Gateway Illustration

    226. Meanwhile in Russia the manned Soyuz spaceship is being replaced by the Roscosmos/RKK Energia Federatsiya, of which there will be manned (4 to 6 cosmonauts), unmanned and lunar versions. A Russian heavy lift rocket to support the cislunar space station (Lunar Gateway) has been approved. The PRC's space agency, CMSEO (China Manned Space Engineering Organisation), has the Shenzhou spaceship which will support the Tianhe-1 module, initial part of the new Tiangong-3 space station. The UK has Skylon, a follow on from the BAe HOTOL, a horizontal take off and landing spaceplane, that has been in development for the last 35 years. Elsewhere, ISRO, the Indian Space Research Organisation, launched the winged VTOHL RLV-TD (Reusable Launch Vehicle - Technology Demonstrator) in 2016 from Sriharikota space centre on the coast of SE India, simulating a landing over the sea. ISRO and JAXA intend to launch a lunar sample return mission and rover to the Moon in 2024. Israel intends to repeat its failed attempt in a similar mission soon.

    227. Looking at this list of spacecraft, there appears to be too many people chasing after dreams, and not enough investment in scientific payloads. Something that the billionaires of this world should address. We need mobile drilling rigs to determine the lunar geology and infra-red telescopes at the poles of the Moon to find Earth type exoplanets, and brown dwarf solar systems and planet x in our own back yard, in order to justify much of this investment. However, the problems presented to humans by just being there, are daunting. It's estimated that a 5kg rock travelling at 72,000km/h (kilometres per hour) can create a crater nine metres in diameter, ejecting seventy-five tonnes over hundreds of metres. The Moon also has weather. In addition to extreme temperatures of 106C (degrees Celsius) in sunlight and -183C in shadow, there is also a dust haze that is created when sunlight heats up the volatiles in the lunar regolith, causing them to flash off, sending dust high above the surface. Dust particles at the poles are likely to remain frozen in darkness, thereby reducing this problem. But if a solution to razor sharp lunar dust destroying seals and bearings is not resolved, then no one, except expendable androids, are going anywhere. The iron in lunar dust is suspected of causing raised blood pressure, 275/125, plus life threatening heart rhythm disturbances. Over a period of about one year in zero G, it has been noticed that the heart suffers from noticeable shrinkage, like that from long distance swimmers. The option of employing androids instead of humans on the Moon therefore appears to be more likely. However, my dream of AI taking total control of our solar system appears to be unlikely as NASA appears to have finally found a solution to all that lunar dust. Using electric arcs to ablate material, creating free ionized particles, that can then be sorted according to mass, is a way of mining surface material. On a smaller scale it could also be used to attract dust particles away from axle bearings, astronaut and airlock seals, and clean astronaut EVA suits and other equipment inside the airlock. It could theoretically keep astronaut gloves and boots clean during EVA, in order to make them last longer.

    228. images my ideas/NASA Moon Base.jpg
      NASA Moon Base

    229. Currently, NASA says it will fit a back door into its space suits, similar to existing Russian suits, so that they are docked with an airlock and therefore left outside. However, recent photos from NASA show spacesuits with the conventional two part waist connector. But Apollo type suits would need repair, and parts such as gloves will require replacing after a short period of time. In addition, man made materials do not last long in extreme temperature environments. It is thought however, that temperatures in lava tunnels could be a near constant 20C. NASA's 'swamp works' is developing an excavator to access them, consisting of a pair of contra-rotating buckets, to enable Moon base modules entry. Looking at all these problems, there are no doubt many accountants out there, who feel that the cost cannot be justified. HMG plans on spending about 30 billion pounds on Covid-19 test and trace. That's enough to finance a manned mission to Mars, never mind a Moon base. If the solutions don't work, then the politicians will simply stop funding, again. I will be very surprised if space agencies can get a space suit to last ten days in a lunar test chamber, at lunar temperatures, with lunar dust blown constantly on it as it moves.

    230. images my ideas/ESA Future_Moon_base.jpg
      ESA: ESA Future Moon base

    231. And then of course, there are the health risks, silicosis (dust inhalation) and genome degradation (radiation), not to mention the psychological effects of living in a totally enclosed environment devoid of loved ones and nature for months on end. The only truly reliable space suit is likely to be that worn by an android, NASA's Valkyrie android. Research data from the THEMIS five satellite system, suggests that during solar storms the Sun can link up with the Earth's magnetosphere, and produce energized electrons that would pose extreme danger to astronauts, particularly those working on the surface of the Moon, who have no shelter to get to in time. Another problem is that of materials. Man made materials don't last very long in places of extreme temperature, such as fibre glass boats in the Arctic. On the Moon, materials will go through a very high and low temperature cycle every month. Thermal fatigue stress will be a paramount problem. Could insulating materials cope with such a sittuation? Domes can be covered in regolith but tall structures made from spent fuel tanks is problematic, and of course are more vulnerable to meteorite impact. And just how do you shield a pressurized rover from extreme temperatures? Looking at all the problems associated with man in space, I cannot help thinking that the humane outcome would be to leave such exploration and development to AI and androids. It should be remembered that astronauts working on the International Space Station are protected from natural radiation by the Earth's magnetosphere, but there is no such protection on the Moon nor Mars.

    232. images my ideas/ESA 3D Printed Moon Base.jpg
      ESA: 3D Printed Moon Base

      Images Wikimedia Commons/WC 16 Daderot  Biosphere_2_-_1998_a.jpg
      WC: NASA Biosphere 2 Oracle, Arizona, USA
      was occupied by 8 people for 2 years in 1991

      Images Wikimedia Commons/WC 16 NASA Swamp Works Ltff_edf_30.jpg
      WC: NASA Swamp Works scout vehicle
      to reconnoiter lava tubes on Moon & Mars

      Images Wikimedia Commons/WC 16 NASA Swamp Works Prototype-d'excavateur-de-la-NASA--RASSOR.jpg
      WC: NASA Swamp Works excavator for Moon & Mars
      the action and reaction cancel one another out

    233. Since lava tubes are likely to be in the wrong location, or their entrance too deep, requiring the removal of thousands of tonnes of regolith, perhaps it would be best to construct an equivalent shield on the surface. Instead of using additive machine tools to build pressurized habitation modules, why not use them to construct a large tunnel in sunlight, enclosed at one end, on the surface adjacent to landing pads? This would require minimum excavation. The walls would be thick enough to protect the internal structures from ejector and radiation. Nuclear thermal rockets would carry payloads, strapped to their sides like the Apollo lunar rover. These rockets would have wheels, not pads. They would be towed into the artificial tunnel. The hydrogen fuel tanks would be converted into accommodation, C³ (command, control & communications) and laboratories. The nuclear engines would be dual use and left on the lunar surface later serving as electricity generators, to power a radiation shield protecting workers at the many process plants, once the technology is developed. The process plants would be built into the hydrogen fuel tanks before lift off from Earth. The plant producing and storing water would be contained within the artificial tunnel, to prevent freezing. Once the tunnel's contents are in place, the tunnel could then be enclosed at the end as a means of attaining Earth like temperatures.

    234. images my ideas/ESA Multi Dome Moon Base Being Constructed.jpg
      ESA: Multi-Dome Moon Base Being Constructed

    235. At an equatorial Moon base, electricity would be produced on the lunar surface by banks of photo-voltaic (PV) panels. These would charge up huge lithium ion or graphite batteries stored in environmentally controlled buildings, to cater for the two weeks of continuous darkness, every month. Offset lunar orbiting PV satellites could also beam down electricity by microwave, during the long nights. They could also use mirrors to reflect light onto the surface to illuminate exploration and maintenance activity. Where large amounts of electricity are required, such as in the mining of Helium3, a portable nuclear fission power station, such as Project Pele involving Rolls-Royce, would be needed. Since to produce one gramme of Helium-3 requires the mining of 150 tonnes of lunar regolith, the concept does not appear practical, even if it was only a bi-product of the mining of frozen volatiles to fuel chemical rockets. Traces of water, particularly at the poles, were found by the Indian lunar satellite Chandrayaan-1 in 2009. Forty craters at the north pole were estimated to contain at least 1.3 trillion pounds of water ice. The coldest recorded temperature at the north pole is -247C, and at the south pole -238C, making it one of the coldest places in our solar system, and hence ideal for infra-red astronomy arrays. Of course a Moon base could use lunar water, by electrolysis, to produce oxygen and hydrogen, and to power a lunar tug to lower lunar orbit. It sounds simple but is it? The compounds are there. Remnants of comets, volatiles transported by the solar wind, plus evidence that some of this water came from Earth. But it's water, acetylene and a host of other gases. It's all mixed in with lunar regolith. Presumably, it would be excavated, placed in a solar oven, and separated out by distillation. Before you know it, you've got yourself a petro-chemical industry, on the Moon, with all the associated problems. Lack of research during the Apollo programme leaves a huge question mark in this respect, and of course, they never put any telescopes at the lunar poles.

    236. images my ideas/shut space two astronauts on moon.jpg
      SHUT: Two astronauts on moon

    237. The creation of a Moon base should be on an international basis, not a piecemeal affair as on Antarctica. It would be a base for astronauts, cosmonauts, takionauts and research scientists from an international cadre. Without such co-operation, there would be nothing to stop a dusty quarry being created next to an astronomical telescope facility, thereby resulting the dust and vibrations interfering with observations, plus incompatible life support connections and rescue procedures.

    238. One assumes that NASA wants to grab essential real estate on the Moon before anyone else. Lunar lava tubes, which would provide protection from radiation, have a less severe temperature range, and provide protection from micrometeorites and ejector, are considered essential for a permanent base. Lava tubes have been detected at Marius Hills, Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms) on the western edge near side, that has an entrance 65m diameter and 80m deep, connected to a rile 100m wide and 50km long, and at Mare Ingeii, on the outer edge of the south pole Aitken Basin, that are 120m wide and 1.7km long. They were detected by NASA's Grail gravity satellites called Ebb and Flow, and India's lunar spacecraft Chandrayaan-1. These lava tubes would be large enough to house an entire Moon base. However they could be already accommodating large amounts of ice, resulting from volatiles rising from deep below ground over millennia. The subterranean habitation modules would be lighter, since they would not require heavy radiation shielding, whilst the one sixth Earth's gravity would assist their relocation from the surface. There would be relatively little dust in this subterranean world, whilst the floor of the lava tube would be solid enough to anchor machines, unlike the broken regolith on the surface. Lighter space suits could be worn in the reduced radiation environment. However, outside of the construction zone, since no solar wind and sunshine reaches these areas, it is likely that the surfaces will be razor sharp, necessitating the use of more durable rigid spacesuits NASA is currently (2020) engaged in developing crawlers that can explore these lava tubes. A project known as AXEL. However, it would be quicker and easier to use an autonomous flying vehicle, fitted with LIDAR to obtain a 3D image of the structure, assuming the necessary power source were available.

    239. images my ideas/ESA Moon Base Being Constructed.jpg
      ESA: Moon Base Being Constructed

    240. As for surface space suits, NASA is now working on Smart Suits consisting of reactive fabrics and amorphous adaptation. In other words suits that can react to radiation, heat, light, voice and eye movement activated commands, self repairing, lights up the soles as you walk, trackable, deploys an air bag, or equivalent, when you trip over, fires retro-rockets as you fall off a cliff and automatically does up the laces, presumably. Flashing lights on space suits, fixed structures and vehicles are essential, due to the high contrast between light and darkness, as it would be too easy to be hit by a moving vehicle, whose driver was blinded by sunlight. 3D head up displays would be essential, showing locations of personnel, vehicles, roads, sink holes, landing pads, etc., all supported by sat-nav. It is likely that there would be no transition from bright light to absolute darkness, since there would be no dust in the atmosphere to reflect light, and of course no atmosphere. There would however be Earth shine, but it's doubtfull that it would be enough to overcome glare from a crater rim at the south pole. Space suits would have a liquid layer of sealant between two impermeable layers. The liquid layer would not only seal ruptures in the fabric but also act as a radiation shield. The double visor would protect against impact, whilst floodlights in the helmet would illuminate the workplace. There would probably have to be a system of reverse electrostatics to prevent build up of dust on the space suit, or assist cleaning it after each task. This dust problem may have been caused by Apollo suits incorporating steel (magnetised?) threads, whilst the water present in regolith may have resulted in hydrogen bonding, causing dust to attach itself firmly to the space suits.

    241. There are designs showing space suits clamped to the exterior of rovers, with astronauts entering the vehicle by a hatch in the back of the suit. This way the dirty suit does not contaminate the interior of the vehicle. However, experience with Apollo shows that these suits deteriorate rapidly, particularly the gloves. Therefore disposable outer gloves and shoes should be available from an exterior dispenser. Eventually space suits will have to be brought indoors to be repaired. They will have to pass through an air blast cleaning station like that used at bio research labs and chip fab plants. It may use the sort of technology found in manta rays, which keep their lungs cleaned through a sophisticated filtration system. Failure to solve this problem will preclude the long term habitation of both the Moon and Mars. If you have any ideas you want to develop to do with space science, then I suggest you submit them to NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) scheme, which offers financial inducements.

    242. An alternative refuge could be provided by an artificially produced magnetoshield, to deflect radiation. Natural magnetoshields, known as tattoos or swirls, so named because they change the colour of lunar surface dust, creating swirl patterns, exist at numerous places on the Moon, but probably not at an ideal location for a Moon base. Theory suggests that lava tubes became magnetic as they cooled, and these provide a magnetic field near these swirls. Due to the extremely low temperatures on the Moon, superconductors may operate there, producing a magnetic field based upon the Meissner effect. Without such a shield, long duration expeditions, in open top rovers similar to that used in Apollo, will not be possible. Space suits do not protect astronauts against severe radiation. Radiation in space, in the form of protons and helium, etc., comes from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) from stars, neutron stars, gamma ray bursts caused by exploding stars, and highly energetic quasars or radio galaxies, the first galaxies to be created after the big bang. The solar wind from the Sun brings us protons in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections (CME). There is also momentary radiation from the Van Allen radiation belt encircling Earth, trapped there by the Earth's magnetosphere, during the launch phase. A person on Earth would experience 0.3 millisieverts annually, an astronaut on ISS 80ms in 6 months, whilst an astronaut in deep space or on the Moon 300ms in six months, and on Mars only 300ms in 500 days, because Mars is further from the Sun than the Moon and has a tenuous atmosphere. Unacceptable levels of radiation results in damage to DNA resulting in cataracts in eyes, cancer and deformities. There is concern within the industry that Cherencov radiation in the long term will accelerate the death of brain cells within the central nervous system.

    243. images my ideas/NASA Radio Galaxy.jpg
      NASA Radio Galaxy (Quasar)

      images my ideas/NASA astronaut physical.jpg
      NASA astronaut physical

      images my ideas/shut space rover on moon.jpg
      SHUT: Pressurized rover on Moon

      Protection Against Radiation

      Havens within tanks of water in the event of Coronal Mass Ejection.
      Radiation resistant pressurized structures containing hydrogen.
      Radiation resistant drugs.
      Avoiding severe radiation zones such as the Van Allen radiation belts.
      Avoiding times of high solar activity such as the eleven year sunspot cycle.
      Avoiding the magnetic deflection / electrostatic repulsion of charged particles from reactors, engines and shields.
      Burying in lava tubes or tunnels accommodation modules on the Moon and Mars.
      Designing equipment so that it requires no maintenance trips onto the surface.
      Ensure that maintenance areas are shielded.
      Shield or bury process plant.

      images my ideas/ESA-Telerobotics & Haptics Laboratory The_Interact_Centaur_Rover.jpg
      ESA: ESA Telerobotics & Haptics Lab. Centaur Rover

      images my ideas/ESA-Telerobotics & Haptics Laboratory The_Interactive Centaur_Rover on Moon Mockup.jpg
      ESA: ESA Telerobotics & Haptics Lab. Centaur Rover in Moon Mockup

    244. Whilst there are many solutions in overcoming the effects of radiation, including the use of specialised drugs, there are few when it comes to the effects of weightlessness. Studies carried out on astronauts and cosmonauts from the ISS, indicate a serious problem when it comes to long spaceflights. Over fifty days in space, 11 of them had blood systems found wanting. Seven showed signs of blood flow stagnation, or even reversal, from the brain. Two had partial blood clots in the left internal jugular vein. These blood clots could travel to the lungs, where they could result in a pulmonary embolism, which could prove fatal. The solution to long trips is of course artificial gravity, but none exist at the moment. Reducing manned journeys to Mars can currently only be achieved through DFD propulsion. This report is in JAMA medical journal, first reported on BBC news website. Anaemia is also an insurmountable problem on long endurance missions. Astronauts suffer a 30% loss of red blood cells, whereas on Earth it is 20%. These are constantly replaced but the levels remain the same. Astronauts become weak due to loss of muscle strength, in addition to bone loss. This is dangerous in space since all controls will have to be by push button to switch on mechanical assistance, since strength cannot be relied upon. Astronauts will need to take iron tablets and consume more calories, but even one year back on Earth the effects are still measurable.

    245. Whilst thinking about this problem, I concluded that instead of building huge centrifugal space modules, all you probably need to do is attach the astronauts sleeping capsule to a centrifugal frame inside a pressurized module, possibly no more than five to six metres in diameter. The centrifuge would rotate 2 to 6 astronauts, equispaced apart, in order to balance the system whilst they are sleeping. It would stop rotating when they show signs of awakening. The system would probably not have to rotate very fast, just enough to exercise the heart and provide blood flow sufficient enough to prevent neurone loss. Due to the overall diameter of the centrifuge, this system would have to be located in an inflatable module. This obviates the need to rotate entire sections of a spacecraft used for daytime operations. Astronauts experiencing one third of their voyage time subjected to an Earth type gravity would slow down or even inhibit degradation of the human body due to the long term effects of weightlessness. Similar systems may prove ideal in the accommodation of chickens, rabbits and even fish in a gravity farm, not for consumption in space, but merely to transport farm animals to colonies on the Moon and Mars. Midget or child astronauts should prove ideal for such a compact system.

    246. The effects of a space environment upon astronauts is as follows:

    247. 1...Astronauts become 3% taller after spending three months in space.

    248. 2...Astronauts lose 20% of muscle mass after 5 to 11 days in space.

    249. 3...Astronauts lose 14 to 30% of bone density. On Earth the higher figure is regarded as osteoporosis.

    250. 4...Weightlessness causes the fluids inside the body to redistribute, mainly from the legs to the face.

    251. 5...Gases produced inside the body remain mixed with liquids. Therefore when an astronaut burps, they also vomit.

    252. 6...Without gravity and convection, perspiration sticks to the body. Sweat will not evaporate nor drip from the body.

    253. 7...Astronauts experience blurred vision. This is caused by a build up of liquids in the brain, creating pressure on the back of the spherical eyes, which becomes flat. Blurred vision is also as a result of living in a confined space for a long time, as with prison inmates.

    254. 8...Half of astronauts experience injury during EVA (extra vehicular activity), mainly to the fingertips, caused when the fingers rub against the protective thimbles inside the glove.

    255. 9...Chromosomes grow longer in space, but resume normal length upon return to Earth.

    256. 10...Flashes have been seen in the eyes, caused by cosmic rays. It is a visual warning about radiation.

    257. 11...Two thirds of astronauts experience severe headaches. In space the brain changes shape, displaying less grey matter.

    258. 12...Since the heart experiences less resistance to blood flow in a weightless environment, it becomes smaller and spherical. As for the long term effects, the average life of an astronaut is 61 years.

    259. 13..Bacteria has been spotted growing inside and outside space stations. Being weightless, they become more rounded, reducing in surface area. Their cell membrane becomes thicker. As a result they are more resistant to antibiotics. Whether this poses a threat to long term space travel remains to be seen.

    260. 14...In experiments with the dwarf rose 'overnight scentsation' it was discovered that the scent produced by the plant changed over time. Whether this means that astronaut body odour will, remains to be experienced.

    261. 15...As mentioned earlier, due to the absence of gravity, blood clots are present in almost half of astronauts. Blood can even flow backwards.

    262. Weightlessness in space also ensures that boiling water becomes one large bubble, because gases and liquids do not separate. Also, in a fire in space, flames become dome shaped. They don't flicker. the process is called molecular diffusion. Fuels can continue to burn even when the flames have gone out.

    263. images my ideas/NASA Dwarfs & Children in Space.jpg
      NASA Dwarfs & Children in Space

    264. The long term effect of weightlessness also dictates that much of this work will have to be supervised using remote control from Earth / Gateway. Ultimately, androids will be employed, once the technology becomes reliable. They would also be more interesting for the general public, scientists, and budget approving congressmen and women to witness. The alternative of employing midgets and highly intelligent children should not be dismissed out of hand. Being less mass they require less rocket fuel. It is about time that individual diversity in space was addressed. Leaving highly capable children in school until they are eighteen years of age, wasting away the most productive years of their lives, to some is regarded as cruel. Some Olympic athletes are school children, so why not astronauts? Humans will be needed to perform complex research such as hydroponics, plus unforeseen maintenance, where intuitive behaviour may prove fruitful. Moon base will be used as an essential means of determining how a Mars base should be designed and built. It is an essential step in man's exploration of space.

    265. However, all these ideas do not dismiss the fact that humans should ideally not go into space. Mars should be terraformed and left as a nature reserve, with human visits banned. As for space stations, it is now obvious that the ISS was designed badly. It was designed with detente in mind, not safety and cost effectiveness. It should have been launched as one large module every five years, in order to keep experiments up to date and avoid dangerous and expensive maintenance. The space station should have been designed to enable experiments to be operated primarily both remotely, automatically or by android. The Experiment modules should have been attached to racks along the centreline of the module. This would have made the inside surface of the pressurized module clearly visible. In the event of a breach caused by space debris impact, a pressure sensor would have released sealing balls which would drift to the hole and seal it, automatically. In September 2021 the Russians are now saying that the ISS is close to redundancy after cracks were found in the shell of the Zarya module. Roscosmos, Russia’s space agency, is contracted to stay on the ISS until 2024. After that it is likely to switch its allegiance to the Chinese, who are pouring money into space research.

    266. images my ideas/ESA Moon Base SpaceBok Robot.jpg
      ESA: Moon Base SpaceBok Robot

    267. Lunar site research to investigate swirls is obviously needed, in addition to searching for the origins of life, etc. Craters in perpetual darkness at the poles are an ideal location for telescope arrays, production of liquid oxygen and hydrogen, employing near continuous photo-voltaic power, plus almost continuous communication with Earth. The Moon offers far more opportunities for scientific research, and being closer to workshops on Earth, is a better launch pad for interplanetary and interstellar missions than is Mars. As for colonizing Mars, I have this to say. Who wants to live permanently in Antarctica? Setting up the basic colony on Mars will be much like doing it on the Moon. How are you going to set up a base at the poles of the Moon without subjecting your astronauts to unnecessary risk. You do so by assembling payloads at the lunar gateway.

    268. First would be the unmanned exploration rovers equipped with GPR (ground penetrating radar) to detect sink holes, and resistivity / metal detectors to fine tune the radar results, and to determine the surfaces load bearing capacity, lidar to determine most economical road route across boulder fields and craters, surface drilling equipment and a laboratory for the examination of rocks and volatiles, whilst searching for primordial life. After that exhaustive survey comes the excavators / sprayers. If permafrost is detected, then means must be found to distribute the load of structures to the ground without causing subsidence. After that the Moon base equipment. Communication and power masts, landing pads and vehicle maintenance pads fitted with retractable roofs, plus pressurized accommodation and storage modules will be delivered. All are assembled at the lunar gateway, strapping retro rockets to them, prior to sending them to the lunar surface. The entire operation would be pre-programmed and remote controlled. No astronauts would go down to the surface until the base was near completion, and then probably only for maintenance purposes initially. As for the rocket fuel plant, that would not be designed and built until rock samples had been analyzed on Earth, and a pilot plant built and tested there.

    269. As for the astronomical arrays, you have to damp down the local regolith with some kind of Earth produced adhesive in order to prevent the formation of suspended dust in the lunar microclimate. That will probably be the first task to perform after all the excavating is completed. And ten day missions on the surface simply isn't long enough. Bi-products from the production of local fuels would probably be used to coat the lunar surface with an additional adhesive, to prevent clouds of dust forming, then settling on telescope lenses and space suits. These extended missions would be safer than Apollo, since manned pressurized rovers would offer some protection against ejector, solar radiation and cosmic rays. The idea of sending members of the general public to Mars without such a preparation fills me with dread. If all the president wants is a morale and vote catching show for the media, then like Apollo, the vision written here will likely never materialize.

    270. As on the Moon, most of a Mars base would have to be buried in order to shield the occupants from radiation from the Sun's solar wind. It is unlikely that caves and lava tubes would be accommodating. They would either be in the wrong place, too small, fragile, or have an inaccessible entrance. At a Mars base the generation of electrical energy would be by photo-voltaics. The wind is unlikely to be strong enough for the use of wind turbines, most of the time. However Mars has long duration dust storms, lasting months, that cover the entire planet. On such occasions PV panels will not suffice. Small scale nuclear fission generators will ultimately give way to nuclear fusion. Since Mars' core is considered dead, the use of geothermal energy does not apply. Wave, ocean current, hydroelectric, coal, and oil are not relevant. However, there was one incident where a heat source was detected by a rover. This suggests the existence of natural gas, which implies life. The only alternative is a nuclear electric power station, a direct fusion generator, similar to DFD (Direct Fusion Drive) or HB11, but they may prove difficult to maintain.

    271. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Mars Electrical Dust Storm.jpg
      WC: Mars Electrical Dust Storm
      Will it be as dangerous as that on the Moon?

    272. An alternative would be a Mars orbiting PV (photo voltaic) power station. This would microwave energy down to the base, when in view, to be stored in batteries, in an environmentally controlled building. The PV power station could also power space vehicles and surface rovers. But an orbiting PV facility could not be used during a major dust storm. The PV panels on the Mars surface would be self cleaning, when tilted vertically in the rarefied dry atmosphere. Alternatively, Mars' water could be split by electrolysis. The hydrogen would be combined with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to create methane, which would be combusted with the oxygen to produce electricity, via steam turbine. In addition the fuels would be used to power a Mars tug to lower Mars orbit, or return to Earth.

    273. It all sounds exciting, but if there is no evidence for life on Mars, then there is little justification for having a Mars base. It would probably be easier to find primordial life on Enceladus, Ganymede or Europa, by robotic means. Whilst present emissions of carbon dioxide maybe of organic origin, where do you look? Maybe in lava tubes. How do you explore caves and scale cliffs in a space suit, in a frozen environment? It's better to use androids. Safer and cheaper. As with the Moon, you don't need to bring androids back to Earth. Any harmful organisms can be retained on the Moon or Mars, to be studied remotely. Of course we all know that as long as there is capitalism and national governments, that won't happen. The space race is on. The USA verses the PRC. Whilst the scientists want their rewards also. Without a world technocracy and the abolition of money, man's basic instinct for prestige, wealth and fame, will preside over common sense. It could ultimately ensure the end of the world, as we know it. I am a space enthusiast, but health and safety comes first.

    274. One non-thermal source of electricity is the nuclear battery. Called betavoltaics, it employs tritium which emits beta particles (electrons) to build up an electrical charge, causing two piezo-electric plates to produce a reciprocating electro-mechanical motion, up to 120Hz (Hertz - cycles per second), to generate millivolts. It is only 7% efficient.

    275. Another source of electricity is the RTGs (radioisotope thermoelectric generators), which has been used extensively on satellites and space probes. It operates on the Seebeck effect. Two plates of different metals are welded together at the ends. One end is connected to the hot radioactive source (plutonium dioxide) and the other end is connected to the cold external radiator fins. During heat transfer an electro-motive force of about 0.5W per gram from PuO² (plutonium dioxide)is produced. The Russian's used 90Sr (strontium 90) as their heat source. RTGs are used in heart pacemakers. The Americans used them to power Igloo radar stations in Alaska. The Russians went one further and used them for civilian use on lighthouses and beacons. Unfortunately, over time the records got lost, and many were abandoned. Some were stolen, or simply picked up out of curiosity, with obvious resulting burns. As for the Americans, they don't come out of this scot-free either. The next time you watch the movie 'Apollo 13', ask yourself the question, "what happened to the RTG attached to the lunar rover?" PuO² has a half life of 87.7 years. 90Sr has a half life of 28.8 years. I am given to understand that they could be used as dirty bombs by terrorists. It is mistakes like this that have held back man in space programmes. Objections to nuclear programmes have come from scientists, government departments and congress, apparently to no avail.

    276. An Advanced RTG is under development in the USA which needs only 25% of the current fuel, at half the weight. It uses 1.2kg of plutonium dioxide to generate 130W of electricity for 14 years. It weighs 32kg in total and is 26% efficient. A competitor is Kilopower, which uses a self regulating stirling engine to generate 4kW of heat energy and 1kW of electricity. It is a modular design, which can be resized for alternate uses. It is therefore called the MMRTG (multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator).

    277. To date nuclear reactors in space (not RTG) consist of the USA's SNAP 10A, which shut down after 43 days due to a systems fault, and the Soviet Union's Kosmos 954 which crashed at Slave Lake in Canada in December 1977, requiring extensive decontamination of the area by military personnel in hazmat suits. As a result TOPAZ I (Cosmos 1818) and TOPAZ II (Cosmos 1867) satellites were launched into higher orbits. Ultimately they leaked sodium potassium coolant from their enriched uranium oxide reactors, but they're still up there. TOPAZ II was designed to produce only 5kW of electricity from 12 kg of fuel for 3 to 5 years. It ran for 1300 hours. All these nuclear satellites were for radar ocean surveillance (RORSAT) and none remained in operation for more than one year. It is assumed that by the time these satellites come down, their fuel will be inert, barring collisions with other satellites. A detailed article on these satellites appears in the BIS Spaceflight magazine in April 2021, the details of which I find horrifying. You also have all those nuclear weapons lost by the US Strategic Air Command, the details of which are top secret, plus the flying and crashing of Russia's nuclear powered cruise missile. No wonder aliens don't want to know us. To them we are the Flintstones.

    278. Interstellar Missions

    279. Project Icarus: This project consists of a 150 tonne space probe to Alpha Centauri powered by z-pinch fusion. Journey time within 100 years. This is a follow on from the BIS Project Daedalus.

    280. Matter-Antimatter Drive (90,000,000,000 MJ/kg 50 to 80%C) It could be 40% efficient, but as with all interstellar drives listed here, it suffers from overheating. Anti-matter would be produced in a relatively small linear accelerator, powered by nuclear fusion reactors. The matter / anti-matter chamber would direct the explosion out of the nozzle, which would consist of an electro-magnetic field. Losing gamma radiation and neutrinos, its exhaust heat would be of the order of 0.3 trillion Watts per tonne of spaceship mass. To reduce this heat loss, a GeV (giga electron-volt) gamma ray laser, employing proton-antiproton pinch discharge has been proposed. The front of the spacecraft would have to be heavily shielded, its entire structure regenerative. An electro-magnetic / gas bow wave would protect the probe from interstellar dust impact. Space is not a vacuum. It consists of rogue asteroids, rogue planets and rogue stars, rogue brown dwarf solar systems, nebulae, neutron stars and black holes, in addition to hydrogen, C60 buckyballs, silicon carbide and, if observations from some astronauts are correct, jellyfish like life, presumably from disintegrated comets. How could an interstellar spaceship avoid them when it is travelling at say, fifty per cent of the speed of light? It is thought that clean space consists of one hydrogen atom per square metre, which by now the Voyager space probes, which are now leaving our solar system, should have confirmed. It therefore seems highly likely that flying saucers employ stargates and wormholes to avoid such obstructions.

    281. Spacecraft travelling at a noticeable percentage of the speed of light, are often regarded as fanciful. Cold fusion and em drive fall into this category. Another such proposal is the near light speed helical engine, advanced by Dr. David Burns of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Announced in 2019, it consists of a particle accelerator which employs a closed cycle propellant. It takes advantage of the fact that the mass of these particles changes when travelling close to the speed of light. Because it's a closed cycle, it does not need replenishing. The propulsive system would be 650 feet long by 40 feet wide.

    282. A Genesis sub-probe would be released at each encountered solar system. It maybe possible to reduce its speed by employing a magnetic sail interacting with the star's heliosphere. The alternative being aerobraking in the atmosphere of a series of large planets. After going into orbit, it would build its own communications relay station, sub-probes (orbiters and landers) to visit each planet in the HZ. Using an extensive science database compiled by scientists on Earth, it would describe and relay back to Earth, details of all forms of life encountered. It would also describe in detail, any new technologies and civilisations encountered by stealth, or by archaeological means. Of all the interstellar drives listed here, matter/anti-matter drive and direct fusion drive appear to be the most plausible.

    283. As the centuries and millennia pass, this intelligent and dextrous space probe would terraform planets, building a space base, and ultimately new cities. It may have the capability to not only produce embryonic plants and animals, but also our future selves, homotechnicus. A perfect utopia. Did it save the human race? Well, if it saved this website and all the music listed on it, then yes it did.

    284. Such a Genesis Mission could turn out to be the first of many.

    285. A propulsion system that would use hydrogen atoms from rarefied interstellar space, is the Bussard Interstellar ramjet, using a proton-proton chain reaction, speed 0.12C.

    286. Another interstellar mission announced in 2017, is called Breakthrough Starshot, one of the projects proposed by Icarus Interstellar, an off shoot of the BIS Initiative For Interstellar Studies. The objective is Alpha Centauri b, an exoplanet 4.37 lya. travelling at 12.5%C the cluster of starchips, each powered by a 100GW array of ground based lasers, over kilometres, would take 20 years to get there, plus 4 years for Earth to receive the returned data. The mosaic of pictures would then be pieced together to obtain a detailed view of the planet. It is hoped that the starchips will get within one astronomical unit of the planet. Each starchip would be based upon advanced mobile phone technology. Powered by a 150mg plutonium 238 battery, the 1000 starchips would consist of 4 x 2 mega pixel cameras (CCD), computer, laser communications, 4m square graphene sail and 4 x 1W photon thrusters. Each chip would be coated in beryllium copper to protect it from interstellar dust impact. The project would cost $5 to 10 billion. It would also pollute interstellar space. That's earthlings for ya. You can't take 'em anywhere.

    287. Another project promoted by Icarus Interstellar is Project Hyperion / Persephone, a world ship housing a community of humans, in artificial gravity, for generations. 20km long by 5km diameter, housing 50 to 500 people.

    288. Images Wikimedia Commons/.jpg

    289. At least two methods of travelling faster than light have been proposed. The first is by warp drive, proposed by Miguel Alcubierre in a paper, 'Warp Drive' in 1994. NASA publication CD-98-76634, employing exotic matter and negative mass. The second method called Blackhole Starship employs Hawking radiation from a black hole. Ufologists say that UFOs are powered by anti-gravity, based upon the zero point field of energy, from which all energy emerges. The truth is definitely out there somewhere. Currently we cannot see over 95% of our universe. It is therefore not surprising that there is no way of travelling faster than the speed of light in the foreseeable future. Due to the years it would take therefore to travel to an accommodating alien world, humans would travel there either in a test tube as a fertilized egg, or as an adult in a hibernation chamber. Studies of hibernating brown bears suggest that humans could imitate this in a chamber of hydrogen sulphide or similar. Tests have shown that the hydrogen component protects living organisms from cosmic and solar radiation. I think interstellar space travel with humans, would only be mdone if Earth was becoming uninhabitable.

    290. Terraforming Planets

    291. Are there any advanced civilisations out there, from whom we can advance our way of life? It is likely that UFO's from outer space visiting Earth, originate from civilisations that are now extinct, especially if from another galaxy. Alien civilisations could have wiped themselves out in a global war or industrial accident. Their planet is likely to be highly toxic, or nothing more than ghoo. Is contact worth the risk? Better to look from afar with powerful telescopes.

    292. That being said, there is just so much that a telescope can see. To see the surface of a planet and its atmosphere in detail, we are talking about a range of no more than ten light years at present. To determine the exact nature of Tabby's star (KIC 8462852) has required the thinking of the world's astronomers, due to its unpredictable dimming. It's now thought to be consuming an orbiting exomoon, although to be certain we would need an extremely large telescope array to see it, as it's 1000 lya (light years away). So currently, if we want a better view, we need either to launch interstellar space probes with powerful telescopes onboard, or build huge telescope arrays on the surface of the Moon. The latter can only be achieved by placing a telescope at the bottom of a cold polar crater and recording problem parameters, such as dust, temperature, quakes, communications, etc.

    293. All however is not doom and gloom. There is a far cheaper and quicker way to observe life on another planet. We might be able to terraform Venus, where currently the temperature of the surface is 470°C, due mainly to the high carbon dioxide pressure. It may or may not be possible to terraform Venus. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could be reduced by the introduction of polystyrene microspheres to sequester carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with calcium oxide and magnesium oxide rocks into carbonate minerals. This would reduce the atmosphere from 88 bar at 460C to 43 bar pressure at 127C temperature. Since the chemical process generates more energy than it consumes, it maybe possible to extend the process to reduce surface temperature further. However, since the planet is Sun synchronous, essentially not revolving, the extreme temperature differences between sunlit and shaded hemispheres would generate hurricane plus winds making living on the surface impossible. Whilst a base could possibly be constructed underground, why would you build it and how could you supply it due to strong cross winds? Currently Venus has very low wind speeds near the surface, but that is probably due to radiant heat from the planet. As the planet cools the surface winds will increase considerably.

    294. Advanced bio-engineered species could be introduced into the planet's upper atmosphere where conditions are like that on Earth. These air plants would be designed to float in the Venusian atmosphere, their 'buoyancy balloons' would reflect light out into space and thereby help to cool the planet's atmosphere. Eventually rain would be produced which would cause ground erosion. The surface would then be cool enough for decomposed matter to form soil. Whether this would be enough to tame the planet's hurricane force winds, due to the fact that it does not rotate fast enough, 230 Earth days retrograde, remains to be seen. We could seed the ground of Venus with bacteria, extremophiles, which over time will multiply. If meteorological conditions permit, more advanced life could later be introduced, but it is likely that all of it will have to be specially bio-engineered to accept the planet's conditions. The planet's atmosphere could be cooled to almost that of Earth's inside a century, but it would still be heated by radiant heat from the planet itself. The planet's crust would take millennia to cool down, so it's unlikely to be practical. In reality the planet is far too hot for rain to reach the surface. Venus has been baked inside so thoroughly that all fluids have boiled off. That is why there is no chemical battery and hence no magnetic field, and why there is no plate tectonics. A magnetosphere could be created by a magnetic generator at L1 Lagrange point between the Sun and Venus. It would probably incorporate solar heat shielding to cool the planet further, plus microwave energy transfer to surface facilities. Articles detailing the terraforming of Venus and Mars can be found on Wikipedia.

    295. So why do it? By cooling it down, one can see what stages there are in extreme global warming. The air plants would absorb the high levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, where upon they would subsequently fall to the surface. Unfortunately the dead plants would then be converted to CO2 by the hot surface. It would take a very large comet striking Venus to have any real effect, but even that would not start up plate tectonics and a magnetosphere. Venus' slow retrograde spin of its axis, will still generate high surface wind speeds, making building construction, agriculture and travel on the surface impossible. Venus is an example of how impossible it would be to terraform an exoplanet. It therefore makes no sense going to a solar system that does not have an Earth type environment. It is clear to me that the range limitation of telescopes will limit where interstellar space probes will be sent.

    296. Alternatively we could detonate large nuclear warheads deep inside the planet Mars, deep enough to prevent radiation reaching the surface. This is not far fetched, as something similar happened eons ago. An asteroid hit Mars creating the impact crater, Hellas, which in turn created the volcanoes on the opposite side of the planet, including Olympus Mons, which in turn created an atmosphere and a shallow ocean. This heat from the planet's core was eventually dissipated into space. As a result, Mars probably lost its molten core, since there is little evidence for a magnetosphere. The volcanic eruptions appear to have been short lived. Olympus Mons last erupted 25 million years ago. Apart from the seas created as Mars cooled down, the only substantial running water appears to have originated from cometary impact and impact from asteroids hitting a frozen surface. Whether channels on the surface were created by rivers fed by rain created by radiation from a weak young Sun, remains to be investigated thoroughly. It is thought that water existed on the surface for no more than half a billion years. As for rain, there are so many craters in pristine condition it suggest that precipitation rarely took place. Rivers were likely created momentarily by asteroid impacts and geothermal activity, being no more than wadis. More rivers could be exposed by a radarsat were they to exist. Alternatively, the 'rivers' could have been created by the shifting of the hot core of Mars when the Hellas impact took place, creating a hot spot near the surface, which melted underground ice. There appears to be no evidence for life beyond single cells, whilst these are likely to be deep underground, at hot spots, which is exactly where most of the water went as the planet cooled. When one looks at the satellites of Jupiter, it appears likely that had Mars remained warm and its ores and ice precipitated out over an appreciable period, then it would have become a water world. The presence of atomic hydrogen in the atmosphere of Mars, is considered an indicator of how much water was lost to space. However, since most of that water is already underground and frozen, it should not be considered as an accurate indication of how much water remains on the planet.

    297. The internal heat generated by these nuclear explosions would melt ancient subterranean frozen water, forcing it to the surface. The Soviet Union's 'Dead Hand' might have a use after all. With a molten core coupled to the rotation of Mars, a magnetosphere would be created. There is evidence that Mars once had a magnetic field. This molten core could be regenerated by nuclear explosions as necessary. It would be an excellent way of ridding the human race of the stockpiles of nuclear weapons created mainly during the cold war. As such it may take eons for the solar wind to blow this new atmosphere away, but how long? A proposal on the NASA.gov website postulates the creation of a magnetic field at Lagrange point L1, a zero gravity area between Mars and the Sun. It would be one to two Tesla at 20,000 gauss. Gases presently pumped out from Mars' volcanoes would create a greenhouse effect, causing frozen carbon dioxide at the poles to melt. Mars' atmosphere would build up, causing temperatures and hence atmospheric pressure to rise and eventually generate melt water and rain to produce sufficient water to fill one seventh of Mars' prehistoric oceans. No details of the magnet are in the science paper. Without trying out these ideas we would not know whether we can do it elsewhere in our galaxy.

    298. Many people advocate pumping greenhouse gases into the martian atmosphere, but these could easily freeze and precipitate onto the surface, as has the CO² at the poles. Such process plant would be costly, and require thousands of years to produce an atmosphere, but still would not produce an ozone layer to shield life from ultra-violet radiation from the Sun. My alternative, after seeding the surface with extremophiles, such as the seventeen different species of microbe at Blood Falls, Antarctica, or the blood ice microbial algae found at Cape York, Greenland, would be to plant heat producing rhizomes. These bio-engineered plants would have to thrive on the iron oxide soil and UV from the Sun. They would of course be extremely hardy, resurrection and legume capable probably, standing up to years of drought, months long martian dust storms, whilst producing plenty of oxygen and heat for a micro-climate that would gradually raise atmospheric temperature. It all sounds impossible, but then so is the life of the tardigrade. It can hibernate for years in an equally hostile environment. In addition, bacteria trapped inside salt crystals, for almost one hundred thousand years, have been known to survive. Considerable biological research is at present taking place to determine what organisms could survive on the cold barren surface of Mars. Methanogens, lichen, cyanobacteria and algae are all being studied. It is obvious that Mars, unlike Venus, has a future for man. From geochemistry comes biochemistry.

    299. To grow plants it is first necessary to produce soil. It is produced by micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi, interacting with mineral particles that form the base layer. This weathered rock layer has to be converted to a clay rich subsoil. Unfortunately clays on Mars are rare. The top layer will also consist of dead organic plants, plus earthworms that aerate the soil, plant roots, micro-organisms, wood louse and other insects to break down the organics. Insects to pollinate flowers definitely comes last. The base layer of rock particles is formed by freezing temperatures, rocks interacting with natural chemicals to form other compounds, and wind erosion and transfer. Without water the process is very slow. Fortunately there is an abundance of martian dust on the surface, perhaps too much, since the dust storms would blot out the Sun and switch off photosynthesis for months. It is therefore necessary to reduce this by introducing rye grass at the earliest opportunity. It is also clear however that to terraform Mars using plants will be from the base layer only, until the mean ground temperature is above the melting point of water at the atmospheric pressure reached. How long that takes depends upon the level of commitment from financial sources and luck in creating the correct plants, because gardening is not an exact science. Once it rains, creating surface water, one can expect soil erosion. To put it bluntly, it takes 500 to 1000 years to create top soil, with the Earth having about 60 years remaining, according to the top soil article in Wikipedia. Managing the agricultural needs of Mars will be even more difficult due to the flimsiest margins one has to operate within. If we can't get it right on Earth, what hope is there of doing it right on Mars. It is a classic case of a new world problem requiring a world technocracy to manage it. In May 2022 the University of Florida announced that it had grown cress from lunar soil brought back by the Apollo astronauts. Evidently the cress seeds sprouted after just two days. It's a start.

    300. A bio-engineered plant for Mars will be required to have all of the following genetic traits:

    301. The Search for Alien Civilisations

    302. If alien life does not exist, why do people see UFOs?"

    303. UFOs are:

    304. The planet Venus and other astronomical bodies

    305. Aircraft

    306. Rare atmospheric events, thermal inversion, etc.

    307. Swarms of insects, some luminous.

    308. Short lived ball lightning.

    309. The following is a compendium of ideas about plasma balls found in this chapter. Over the sea plasma balls hover just above the surface. They are suspended there due to the weight of water mist that they contain. The electrical charge that creates the ignition is created by the piezo-electric effect during an earthquake igniting underground methane gas eminating from fault lines in the sea bed. The electrical charge that powers the plasma ball is produced by electro-geological means. Sedimentary layers of granite (60% piezo-electric crystal) and sandstone can act as a capacitor, storing electrical charge. Over land the electrical discharge into the atmosphere can be caused either by Earth's amgnetic field, lightning, rain or simply overload. Visible plasma balls are mainly seen at night, and can exhibit different colours depending upon the elements that the electrical charge passes through to the surface. Being electrical, they are also magnetically charged, enabling them to form formations of plasma balls in the sky. Some of these plasma balls display signs of intelligence. How can that be? This brings us to the subject of ghosts. These incidents depicting humans or animals are believed to be stored in the surrounding rock. These incidents can be played back by an unknown force or life form. They may even be controlled by the naturally stored soul of the entity. Some plasma balls appear to be controlled by such a mischievous force. Other really high energy plasma balls could be produced in the Earth's outer core, possibly resulting in the generation of sprites and elves in the upper atmosphere.

    310. Hallucinations caused by tranquillizers or fungal spores found in forests.

    311. Hallucinations caused by mass hypnosis.

    312. Lies and fraud by individuals and embellishments by the media.

    313. Deliberate misinformation by government departments, notably the USG, including hoaxes designed to cover up black operations, or to encourage Russia to spend huge sums of money on fruitless aeronautical research. Or simply to incentivise their own scientists.

    314. Stealth aircraft and spy planes, notably the TR-3B Black Manta or Astra and its Aurora successors. Aurora is the project name for this research. Aurora are plasma seen surrounding the Earth's poles, whilst these vehicles also emit plasma. Aurora, Texas, USA is reputed to be the location of an alien burial. Aurora 7 was the NASA Mercury spacecraft flown by astronaut Scott Carpenter in 1962, whilst Princess Aurora appeared in Walt Disney Productions' Sleeping Beauty.

    315. Research aircraft from Air Force Flight Test Center Detachment 3 (Area 51), Groom Lake, & Site 4 Papoose Lake, Nevada, Fort Hood, Texas, or Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, USA

    316. Interstellar ice containing hydrocarbons such as acetylene and methane entering the Earth's atmosphere. During entry, the hydrocarbons are likely to have formed a thermal protection layer made from charcoal. This can become streamlined as it enters the atmosphere. Since it is very light, it will float in a breeze (jet stream). Burning jets of gas will give it an intelligent appearance, as it changes direction. It will change colour as different gases burn. The gas may exist as a plasma, since it will have been subjected to high temperatures during entry through Earth's atmosphere.

    317. UFO incidents involving angel hair in France and Portugal, suggest that these structures either come from the sea, upper atmosphere of Earth (10 to 100 miles), or from space. The latter could have been thrown out of a comet as it entered the Earth's atmosphere, or entered Earth's gravitational field after its comet broke up during a close encounter with the Sun. Sightings by cosmonauts and astronauts on MIR and ISS space stations, appear to support this hypothesis. They may have a primitive collective intelligence. Alternatively, the two large jelly fish like structures sighted over Evora, Portugal and a local airfield in November 1959, including angel hair, suggest that they came from the sea. It's possible that they are the sacs of giant squid, filled with flatulence from the youngsters, that eventually escape into deep sea. The sac then rises into the atmosphere. UFO's have been sighted emerging from the sea off California, Alaska, Iceland and Sweden for instance. Some species of fish only come to the surface at night, and of course some deep sea fish are bioluminescent. These structures would quickly dry out and disintegrate in sunlight. The angel hair in this incident, which fell for 4 hours over a very large area, was examined under microscope and photographed at the Lisbon Faculty of Science. The lifelike structures could not be identified, and the sample was later destroyed in a fire in 1978. There have been nine such incidents in Portugal since 1857. As for life in Earth's upper atmosphere; it maybe possible to collect samples from sub-orbital flights of spaceplanes, such as Skylon, during their main missions. HMG announced in 2019 its intention to set up a space division in its defence structure. This should be capable of resolving such anomalies (UAVs, nuclear cruise missiles, plasma balls, angel hair, flying saucers), if its intelligence gathering capability is truly effective. Since astronomers have seen emissions from the Moon, such as light flashes and clouds of gas, it's likely that this phenomena reached the Earth's atmosphere in some form or another. If not, it's another case of tax payer's money wasted.

    318. I do not know whether flying saucers have ever visited our solar system. No evidence of this has been found on the Moon nor Mars, where the terrain of both has remained virtually unchanged for billions of years. Then of course there is the plaque carried by the two voyager space probes that have left our solar system. We want to make ourselves known to other aliens, and it is therefore logical that they would want to get to know us. Not much pleasure can be had in viewing our antics without giving us a friendly word of advice. However, I could be wrong. Thousands of people claim to have seen flying saucers, and thousands claim to have seen ghosts, shadow men, mothman, or its equivalent. The mothman may grow underground for years like cicadas. Ghosts are thought to be the spirits of beings embedded into materials such as buildings and furniture. Since people claim to have communicated with them, how can this be? Are they artifacts of time travel or lost in another stage of life after death, or caught in an energy field? Reincarnation exists and may well be where a person's spirit is embedded into someone else, possibly after being transported back to Earth by aliens. Possession may simply be a ghostly spirit of a dead person inside someone else, whilst telekinesis may be committed not by a possessed person but by the ghost that has possessed them. Sometimes you can see a ghost, other times you can't. All these experiences maybe related.

    319. Alternatively, it may be possible for neurons containing memory and embedded in human cells, to be passed on from one generation to another. There are 69 billion neurons in a human brain, with other neurons attached to the heart and no doubt elsewhere. It may well be possible for the spirit of a prehistoric creature to be embedded into a church made from the rock of that creature's era. This implies that a UFO powered by some exotic energy source millions of years ago, could have had its image embedded into the ground, to be seen occasionally by people today, when the geological conditions are right; presumably when plasma balls appear. UFO's have been seen apparently refueling from water deposits. There have even been a few sightings of mother craft the size of sport's stadiums. If UFO's do not exist, then why do governments spend a fortune on linear accelerators and SETI research? The fact is that UFO research cannot get the necessary funding from government unless it is perceived as a secret military project. To do that, the military have to portray these aliens as a lethal threat to the existence of the human race. The expenditure has to be kept secret in order to discourage protests, whilst all the time allegations of a cover up are met with lies, denial and ridicule.

    320. Now that you are confused as to what all these phenomena are, prepare to be even more confused, for this brings us onto the subject of people's experiences at Skinwalker Ranch, a 480 acre site in North East Utah, USA. For about 20 years this ranch was owned by space enthusiast and billionaire Bob Bigelow, from 1996 to 2016. During which time a $22 million investigation, financed by his organisation, the National Institute for Discovery Science, and the military, was carried out to determine what, how, and by whom numerous anomalies were taking place. These investigations continued under a new owner, Brandon Fugal, the results of which have been shown on the Blaze channel on BBC Freeview and Freesat. The anomalies consist mainly of telekinesis by an unknown poltergeist. That is the movement of items by invisible forces. Items moved consisted of kitchen utensils, piles of logs and fence posts, a distance of say 100 metres, whilst other objects would reappear a day or two later. On one occasion the previous cattle ranchers (prior 1996) had their four prize bulls transported into a small maintenance shed, from which they smashed their way out. A nearby metal fence had become magnetized. If they had been left in there an hour or so, then they probably would have suffocated. Shadow people were seen around the buildings, whilst lights were seen in the sky, at night. During the day an animal similar to a direwolf attacked one bull, and after being shot at least five times, wandered away only for the tracks to suddenly end on muddy ground, with no explanation. Voices and metallic sounding noises had been heard from underground. Infrasound was also detected. Objects were seen coming out of a hole in the sky, whilst an image similar to New York's twin towers would also appear on CCTV. The hole was seemingly a portal. The cattle ranchers finally abandoned the property in 1996 after one of their calves was attacked, cut up and devoured, its carcass and bones splayed out on the ground. This all happened within 45 minutes of them tagging the animal and eventually returning to the scene. In about 2016 CCTV showed a calf dying from stress with what appeared to be a UFO moving high above the animal. Other equipment showed beams of energy eminating from the ground in a time lapsed image over several weeks. Local Ute and Navajo indians call these troublemakers skinwalkers, but are also known as shapeshifters or hitchhikers, because they can affect people long after leaving Skinwalker Ranch. Anomalies in this area were first recorded by a Spanish monk, Father Silvestre Vélez de Escalante in 1776. Recent field science has revealed sporadic emissions of radiation, plus interference to mobile phones, trifield meters and spectrum analyzers. All of this is hard to believe. Is Skinwalker Ranch a gateway to outer space or another dimension? Are these reports true or false? And what about predictions of the future from Nostradamus and Baba Vanga?

    321. That brings us to the subject of how did aliens move huge blocks of stone weighing twenty tonnes or more to build huge ancient structures, and what is a stone bird? These huge corner stones can be seen in the second temple built by Herod in Jerusalem. They are also visible at Baalbek, Lebanon, which was later converted into a Roman Temple of Jupiter. Numerous neolithic monuments on Malta, Italy, Sardinia, France and the UK, etc. display similar evidence. Some stones weigh over 1000 tonnes and are clearly impossible to move even by employing giants. They were probably positioned during the bronze age. In my opinion they were not dragged very far. Indeed Jerusalem is so hilly it's difficult to imagine them being dragged at all. They appear to have been dragged down hill from their original location, since mined away. As for the temples on Gozo, Malta, the pairs of grooves in the ground suggest that the gigantic stones for the temple were dragged along them possibly to transfer the megaliths from an existing lower temple that was being flooded by rising sea levels about 12,000 years ago. However, such a transfer would not have produced grooves in the rocky shore so deep. In my opinion the temple has never been relocated, the megaliths having been dragged a short distance to the site. The grooves were produced through thousands of years of maritime trade, probably during the neolithic era, prior to the construction of ships and a proper harbour, at a time when Malta was equivalent to Mecca today. Trade would have been with rafts and shallow boats. Goods were off loaded into carts which produced the grooves. They were not used to transport heavy stones, as the timber would have been crushed by the weight. Since then cliffs have eroded and the sea level risen. As for the rock birds, monuments exist in India and Japan showing such vehicles with what appears to be a thermal protection system composed of ceramic tiles, similar to the NASA space shuttle.

    322. Formed in 2015 NASA's NExSS is a cluster of organisations designed to detect life in outer space. Another subject of intense research is that of magnetism. The frog suspended in a magnetic field, plus the influence of magnetism in the Sun's corona or black hole, or even to power a flying saucer. The videos on magnetism by Prof. Eric Laithwaite on YouTube are particularly interesting.

    323. It's not only governments that are spending a fortune. The Israeli-Russian billionaire Yuri Milner has decided to invest $100 million dollars over 10 years in 'Breakthrough Listen' a SETI project involving four astronomical observatories, observing one hundred galaxies, including the Milky Way. $100 million may sound a lot, but that's how much he is reported to have paid for his home in the USA. Whether we need more SETI telescopes, or nuclear powered missiles to shoot down UFOs, only time will tell.

    324. Not all bright lights in the sky are remnants of comets however. Foo fighters, or more accurately, plasma balls, orbs or ball lightning, having different properties from comets. They appear to be affected by the Earth's magnetic field and are attracted to aircraft and bright lights. So what are they? In my opinion they mainly originate from the Earth's outer core, transported by superconducting material to the surface, where they emerge from volcanic subduction zones and areas of known chemical-electrical activity. Water is thought to be superconducting, whilst other elements and compounds may exhibit different properties when under intense pressure and temperature, than on the surface. Also, some of the Earth's magnetic field is highly likely to be have been produced by steel. Iron with less then one per cent carbon is steel, and hence capable of being a permanent magnet, at least at surface temperatures and pressures. Many meteorites have this composition, some to be melted down to create weapons in past civilisations, including a dagger belonging to pharaoh Tutankhamun. As they arrive at the surface the plasma ball creates crop circles.

    325. Just about anything can have an electrical charge, be it clothing, or a duvet for instance. The Earth is no different, having a telluric current of from 0.2v to 1.75v potential, flowing from south to north on the Earth's surface, due to galvanic reaction. The flow of electricity in the outer core, the generator, creates a magnetic field of 30,000 to 60,000 nano Tesla. At the outer core / mantle interface, resides very hot acids, alkalies and metals, under immense pressures. Ingredients for a giant battery to produce the telluric current. These ingredients appear to flow due to convection currents and the disparity of rotation rates between the outer core and the mantle. This flow of electricity acts on the iron core to create an electro-magnet.

    326. Another source of electricity is a capacitor. It doesn't create electricity, it stores it. This can be formed in nature by layers of conductive metal ore insulated by rock such as sandstone or lava in a dry climate, or simply the oxide on the surface of the metal ore. Two such locations are the Pilbara region in Northwest Australia, where the ground consists of sedimentary iron stone, and Sedona, near Phoenix Arizona, USA. Both are known for their plasma balls. In 2018 three ESA satellites called SWARM, tracked electric fields, produced by lunar induced tides, passing through the Earth's global magnetic field. The magnetic field was 2.5 nano Tesla. Electric discharges have also been seen emanating from volcanoes and the crest of a tsunami wave, where a large agitated mass can strip electrons. Plasma balls can also be found in lightning storms. One such ball seen by Chinese scientists was found to contain the elements silicone, calcium and iron, which presumably originated from the soil it rose from. The most productive location for lightning is Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, due to its topography. This location is in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which is renown for its naturally occurring electrical discharges.

    327. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 Ken Thomas Sedona_Arizona-27527-2.jpg
      WC: Iron Rich Sediments Of Sedona, Arizona, USA

      Wikipedia: Cave of the crystals, Mexico
    328. The Earth's primary electrical source probably consists of the following. The outer core is composed of nickel, iron and silicone. Unlike the iron and nickel rich inner core, it is mainly molten, although the top 150 miles of the inner core is also thought to be a mishmash of soft, sold and liquid elements. However, drifting in the outer core are large crystals. In nature, crystals can get very large, given enough time and space for them to form. The gypsum crystals in the Naica lead zinc mine, Chihuahua, Mexico are up to twelve metres long. It is believed that silicon dioxide crystals in the Earth's outer core are up to 10km long. In my opinion the crystals could also consist of cobalt, a metal used in magnets. Such a crystal was found in the Brazilian interior a few decades ago, although much smaller than the ones suggested here.

    329. I believe that these crystals cluster together at the poles, where turbulence is at a minimum and where friction between the ends of the crystals and the inner core and mantle interfaces is least. The crystals act as a conductor for free electrons emitted from the core. Here, the high temperatures and pressures strip electrons from the nucleus, creating a plasma. An equivalent to lightning will occur between thermals. They are ejected at the poles, but unlike a neutron star or black hole, the electrons are not ejected into space. Instead they are trapped in the magnetic field created by Earth's battery, and the crystals. It is the crystals that create the magnetic lines of force, from pole to pole. Repeated vibration of these crystals probably makes them magnetic, resulting in them hugging together through mutual attraction. Electricity always travels along the line of least resistance. The poles being flattened are the shortest distance from the Earth's centre to the surface. Underground, the pressure is so intense that some insulating materials will act as conductors, enabling the electrons in the magnetic field to move freely. Nearer the surface, these electrons that form the magnetic field, could flow through conducting metals that form part of the downward flowing crust in a subduction zone, in order to reach the surface.

    330. The location of the magnetic poles is indicated by the aurora, or a compass. The magnetic poles are not aligned with the true poles. They are not only misaligned, but there is a mismatch in rotation speed between the core, inner core, mantle and crust. The Earth's battery is therefore wound around the inner core, creating a bar electro-magnet. In addition, local magnetic variation is created by deposits of metals, such as nickel-iron asteroids, possibly floating in subterranean lakes of liquid metal in the mantle. Evidence for this can be seen on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Thousands of craters made by asteroid impacts. Evidence for this has long since been weathered away on Earth, except for a few, such as Barringer Crater, Arizona, USA. Over eons, these asteroids sink through the crust and mantle to the core. Upon reaching the Earth's battery, or the core, they can cause such a disturbance as to reverse the electron flow (battery) or make the weaker polar jet more dominant (core).

    331. As the electrons travel into space along the magnetic lines of force, some are deflected and lost. Others are attracted from the Van Allen radiation belt to replenish the system, after these magnetic belts capture them from the solar wind. This possibly occurs via sprites and elves, names given to super lightning, seen mainly by high flying military aircraft, above thunderstorms, shooting into the stratosphere. It is thought that in our solar system, the solar wind makes up for any loses that would otherwise slow down or stop the process, together with 55 tonnes of cosmic dust and meteorites per day. Conversely, evidence from Cluster, a four satellite system, indicates that the Earth is losing 90 tonnes of plasma per day, especially helium. Is this why the Earth's magnetic field is currently slowing down in strength?

    332. An alternative hypothesis for field reversal is as follows: As the cluster of crystals builds up at the poles, increasing in diameter, the friction increases, eventually causing the cluster to break up. These giant crystals float freely causing mayhem within the outer core, destroying batteries. The Earth's magnetic field dissipates. It's years before this cluster builds up again. A magnetic field reversal has taken place. These happen roughly every two hundred thousand years according to magnetic surveys of ocean floor rocks, by sea vessel survey, and more recently by satellite. The periods are increasing. The last major reversal was 781,000 years ago. Being nature, nothing is however simple and predictable.

    333. Venus and Mars have no magnetic field because they have no molten core, because they have no substantial satellite orbiting them, in order to generate internal heat through tidal forces. As for Mercury's magnetic field, it's assumed that heat from the Sun, conducted by its huge iron core, has slowed down its cooling rate. Is it possible to extract electro-magnetic energy from the Earth's core? Forbidden planet! Do we need to go down that route?

    334. Alien UFO cases

    335. One UFO incident that should get you thinking is this one:

    336. In 1989-1990, over a period of six months, a silent UFO was sighted and photographed at numerous locations in Belgium, by many people. There were 2000 reports, 500 of which were unexplained. The first sighting was by two police officers. They saw two triangular UFO craft hovering over a lake. One of which was bouncing a ball of light between the craft and the water's surface. Months later a UFO was eventually intercepted by two Belgium F16 Fighting Falcon's, and filmed during the 25 minute chase. The UFO flew at below radar height (200ft) most of the time, with speed from zero to Mach two. It was small and triangular, and appeared to be powered by four rocket motors, one at each apex of the triangle, and one in the centre, with exhaust emissions also from the leading edges, which maybe why it flew silently. Most of the photographs taken were of poor quality due to the high infra red emissions and long distance to object. Being silent, it could not have been a conventional rocket.

    337. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 J.S. Henrardi Triangle Belgium1990.jpg
      WC: The Belgium Wave Triangular UFO 1990

    338. How do we know that this UAV was not a UFO?

    339. 1 It is believed that this vehicle only flew over Belgium. Since when do aliens observe international borders here on planet Earth?

    340. 2 This vehicle spent most of its time flying below the defense and air traffic control radars. Being of such superior technology, why would it be afraid to reveal itself, and why was it not invisible to radar anyway?

    341. 3 Why would it spend its time flying over Belgium?

    342. Brussels is of course the headquarters of the European Commission and NATO.

    343. Who and why would anyone want to impress them?

    344. As an ally of the USA, the US administration would no doubt be deeply concerned by the yokel mentality of many EU members, who as now, wish to retain their agrarian lifestyles, to the detriment of science and engineering. Since 1990, EU nations have taken more interest in UAVs.

    345. Finally I will get to the point of this subject, and it is this. This UAV was built at Area 51 / S4, Teledyne Ryan, now owned by Northrop Grumman, or the Lockheed Skunk Works. Due to the highly developed nature of the aircraft, it must have been designed circa 1980. It was probably the TR-3B, if it exists. Reputed to cost three billion dollars. Being financed totally by private enterprise, USG can honestly say that it's not one of theirs. It was a UAV (unmanned air vehicle) with high agility. Not a prototype. It has the ability to manipulate radar, and employ a cloaking device to make it invisible. It is believed to be powered by a magnetic field disruptor. It is triangular, having a red light in the centre and three white lights, one at each corner. It has the ability to drop four thousand feet in less than one second. The UAV is believed to come in two sizes, one of which is the size of two football pitches. I believe that this top secret technology was displayed near EU (European Union) and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) headquarters in an attempt to wake up the European aerospace industries. Rumour has it that alien technology in the USA is fifty years ahead of anything in the EU.

    346. Photos of the TR-3B on the internet, show it over London, Paris and escorting airforce one. Is it a joke? There's no way the president could keep this a secret.

    347. The UK's Royal Air Force uses UAVs but these are American in origin and are designed mainly for reconnaissance. The only highly maneuverable British UAV planned is Taranis, based upon an American design. The UK equivalent to Area 51 is thought to be an underground facility at MOD Rudloe Manor, Defence Digital, Corsham, Wiltshire.

    348. Whilst watching numerous UFO programmes on TV I kept details of these incidents, some of which I now list here. I have absolutely no idea how much of it is lies, distortion, misinformation, and the God's honest truth.

    349. Images Wikimedia Commons/Per Johansson UFO2.jpg
      WC: UFO

    350. There is no firm evidence in the public domain that aliens from extraterrestrial civilisations have visited Earth. But there are plenty of witnesses who claim that they have seen artificial flying machines in our skies, not of this planet. There appears to be at least four possibilities when it comes down to whether UFO's exist, and what they consist of.

    351. I...They are comets. Generally speaking I am talking about cometary debris. This is frozen balls of various gases that burn with different colours and brightness. Acetylene for instance, gives an extremely bright white light that can blind observers. The light can appear similar to a search light or strobe light. Jets of gas can emerge that appear to be light beams. The burning gases heat up the ice from which they came. The burning gases melt at different temperatures, resulting in the conglomeration moving within itself. This creates the impression that the burning object is morphing. Frozen comets are as light as foam, float in the atmosphere, and will be almost impossible to discern and therefore discriminate from clouds during the day.

    352. In the case of Nuremberg, Germany on April 14th, 1561, the detailed description given in Wikipedia.org appears to pertain to a comet. It came from the direction of the Sun at about 4am and exploded, producing a blood red cloud and debris described as rods, spheres and crosses. These could be large crystals. Note that comets seen over Sri Lanka, southern India and Spain produced blood red rain. The debris from this comet fell to Earth smoking. Presumably the frozen gases were subliming into a cocktail of gases. These gases could be a fire or toxicity hazard. It left a black spear shaped cloud in the sky, the spear shaft pointing East and the point pointing west. At the time, people were highly religious, so it was described as a battle between good and evil. A portent of things to come. The lack of scientific words available at the time, can lead readers of today to interpret it too literally.

    353. This phenomena needs to be researched in detail. Detection would be by satellite, followed by sampling by a global quick reaction force on the ground. NASA, JAXA and ESA spend huge amounts sending space probes to asteroids and comets, and yet as a BBC Sky At Night programme showed, minute debris from these objects can be found in the gutters of buildings, here on Earth. Blood rain samples have been seen reproducing apparently without DNA present. They look like blood cells, and may have been the original cell membrane for primordial life. So what does it take to make a genome. Links to info about DNA and the human genome are at the end of this subject.

    354. Looking at samples returned to Earth in December 2020 from JAXA's Hayabusa 2 probe to the one kilometre diameter near Earth crossing comet Ryugu, scientists detected 23 amino acids, the building blocks of life. They were composed of elements found in the Sun's photosphere, which suggests that the basis of life came from space and not by emissions from the Sun received on Earth.

    355. Research into the origins of life on planet Earth, has taken at least half a century, in countless laboratories. Nature on the other hand, has taken over three billion years to develop life. Its origins lie in the creation of the proto-cell. This consisted of RNA molecules and proteins, composed of amino acids, enclosed in a primordial membrane made up of fatty acids. In an environment dominated by amino acids, this assembly is protected from the effects of salt in oceans and lakes. Over eons the RNA and later DNA slowly evolved, but exactly how has still to be worked out.

    356. II...They are plasma balls. Plasma balls maybe created by different processes around the globe. A few of those locations and processes are listed here. Plasma balls come from underground. They emit bright lights. They can hover or move erratically at very high speed, and because of this they appear to be controlled by some alien intelligence. They maybe part of an alien virtual reality computer game one minute and unmanned reconnaissance vehicle the next. They are in fact balls of energy. For its volume it has minimal mass, so they can move, changing direction in an instant. They are associated with geological activity, such as tectonic plates moving in earthquake zones. There are four earthquake fault lines in the USA, the most famous being the San Andreas fault, which is part of the Cascadia subduction zone. Others are Madrid, Ramapo and East Coast. Plasma balls, possibly associated with the release of methane from a fault line on the ocean floor coupled with a boom sound, are visible from the shore off Cape Fear, North Carolina, USA. Normally methane from the ocean floor does not reach the surface in combustible amounts. Even if it did, there is no source of ignition, unless the gas had been heated above its ignition temperature whilst underground and was not cooled below it as it rose through the water. In this case the gas will not float away because it is weighed down by water droplets. So is it a gas or a plasma, or a combination of both?

    357. There are no giant geologic faults in the UK like those in the USA, which is probably why plasma balls and UFO sightings are relatively rare. Another reason is our miserable weather, the skies being overcast. Earthquakes in the UK do not exceed magnitude 4. Since these are associated with fault lines, this could explain why this phenomena appears in localized waves. Plasma balls were researched in the USA by Dr Rutlidge at Missouri State University in 1973 and 1976, around the Madrid fault line / Piedmont area. It was concluded that they maybe intelligent, since they responded to light. 35 scientists studied 158 cases. Alternatively, I hypothesize that these balls of pure energy, are either attracted to local magnetic fields, or are being subjected to the laws of quantum physics. There are at least four areas where electro-magnetic phenomena have been encountered at regular intervals. They are as follows:

    358. Cascade Range / Gifford Pinchot National Forest, USA: Forest rangers have seen these from their watch towers for years. This part of the Rocky Mountains is volcanic.

    359. Canneto di Coronia, Sicily 2004: Is a coastal village on the north shore of the Italian island of Sicily. A series of mysterious fires (300 in 17 months) in the electrical systems of people's homes, leads people to suspect the electricity supply. The grid supply is switched off, but the fire outbreaks continue. Eventually even none electrical components such as furniture, catch fire. Compasses do not work, whilst car door locks open and close, car lights go on and off. It maybe a catalyst for the origin of life, but all the residents want is their life back. Investigators consisting of Italian and US scientists from the National Research Institute and NASA think the source comes from the direction of the sea. The electro-magnetic force emits hundreds of pulses per second at fifteen gigawatts. It is later discovered that this phenomena had occurred before in 1932, when in August of that year the Italian air force published a report, but other sources dispute this. The cause maybe due to volcanism since the village lies between Mount Etna and Stromboli. The problem persists for seventeen months. Plasma balls are seen over the sea and land, whilst some people get burns to their skin. The final report concludes that it may involve the military. Half the homes in the village are abandoned for months.

    360. So, how could it happen naturally. Electro-magnetic radiation requires electricity to power a producer of microwaves, like that in a microwave oven or radar. Being a volcanic region, the electricity is probably produced by a conducting wire moving in a magnetic field, or to be more realistic, hot copper magma moving up and down in a lava tube like a solenoid. The electricity would then interact with a cavity magnetron, or more realistically, the holes in an iron meteorite. Such an object would be similar to the Willamette meteorite which can be seen at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. I only know of one other source of naturally occurring electro-magnetic radiation and it is that which causes the South Atlantic anomaly, which effects the operation of satellites. It is possible that it's caused by a very weak neutron star remnant in the Earth's core. This may also explain the detection of high energy particles eminating out of the Earth at the South Pole by NASA’s Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) and IceCube South Pole Neutrino observatory. The exact location of its source, I believe, is still unknown. Alternatively, this phenomena on Sicily could be caused by sound waves. Stromboli has a large caldera with side vents. Explosions which create lava bombs, are accompanied by infra sound produced by the shape of the crater. The vents act as a resonator, whilst the level of lava in the conduit and throat dictate the frequency of sound produced. In the case of Stromboli a tone as low as 2 to 3 Hertz has been detected.

    361. Images Wikimedia Commons/P199 Moonbeam_UFO.jpg
      WC: Moonbeam UFO

    362. Colares Island, north Brazil 1975 to 1977: Located near the equator, at the mouth of the Amazon river and the city of Belem. The people experience highly active plasma balls, locally called 'chupa chupa', which attack locals. People with electrical burn marks are left weakened for decades. The Brazilian air force investigates. Eventually 9,000 people, 90% of the islands population, abandon the location. These plasma balls are highly reactive, which maybe because they occur within the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This is also a land where native indians used charcoal to improve crop production, and gold miners use mercury to separate out the ore. Both these factors could also be involved, as these materials are used both in batteries and luminaires.

    363. Hessdalen, Norway: Plasma balls appear at the rate of 15 to 20 per week, to the present day. They have been filmed in groups of red, white and green balls of light. The area is a valley with iron and zinc mines to the west, and copper and sulphur mines to the east, with a river in between. Rain water washing sulphur, an electrolyte, through the copper mines into the river, forms a natural battery. This theory was proved by placing some of the river mud in a glass beaker together with a zinc and copper electrode/cathode. The primitive cell generated a voltage. Eight thousand volts of electricity has been measured on a nearby peak, enough to create plasma balls? Ionized gas is created when sulphurous fumes from the river react with humid air. The plasma balls are moved by electromagnetic field lines created in the local area. These balls have the consistency of the Sun, and since it has not set fire to any surrounding trees, is believed to be cold. Plasma balls have been tracked by radar, which has detected energy trails one mile long. The plasma balls appear to be constantly regenerated as they travel over the charged area of the valley. A similar phenomena can be seen occasionally near the ridge of Brown Mountain, South Carolina, above a dense tree covered river valley. The rock composed of quartz and magnetite is electrically conducting. Similar phenomena has been seen on route 67 Mitchell Flat, Marfa, Texas, USA. Do plasma balls also originate from the Earth's outer core, following the lines of least electrical resistance to the surface, generating sprites and elves in the upper atmosphere? Do they also produce energy for the appearance of ghosts, controlled by 'alien' intelligence? There is so much that we don't know about our own planet, never mind exoplanets.

    364. The data from Norway appeared on the BBC 2's 'Chris Packham's - Nature's Weirdest Events. In the programme Chris showed how you can make your own plasma:

    365. Cut one grape almost in half. Place the two hemispheres in a microwave oven with the flat surface resting on turntable. Place upturned glass beaker over it. Close door and switch on for 15 seconds. The electrons are stripped from the atoms due to the constriction between the two grape halves, created by the thin sliver of skin that still joins the two halves. The plasma will rise to form at the top of the beaker.

    366. I have not tried this experiment, as I value my microwave too much. It sparks enough as it is. Don't send me the bill.

    367. St. Elmo's fire is created this way, from the sharp pointed top of a ship's mast.

    368. Although the effects are different, it's probably safe to say that they are all based upon similar fundamental forces. I think it is a great shame that it is still not fully understood by scientists. This is mainly because scientists don't want to have anything to do with plasma balls, with its associated ufology. Science is the investigation of the unknown, not dread of ridicule. It's about time detailed research was done on this subject using UAV's and remote sensing. This could be cold fusion with the ability to power aircraft, including air taxis.

    369. Plasma, which is a state of matter, can be created by heating or subjecting a neutral gas to a strong electromagnetic field producing an ionized gaseous substance, which becomes increasingly electrically conductive. It becomes vulnerable to long-range electromagnetic fields which influence its movement.

    370. The colour of a plasma ball is determined by its chemical composition, namely the soil that it emanates from.

    371. Plasma colours vary according to the density of the gas and its degree of contamination. Links to web sites concerning plasma, are listed at the end of this subject.

    372. When one sees a plasma ball and observes its behaviour with its neighbours, one is immediately convinced that intelligence lies behind it. However, when one looks at the structure of a snowflake, or that of a living cell, one realizes that nature is far more advanced than ideas from the human brain. Plasma balls are basically the fourth state of matter, amongst about seventeen states. It is awe-inspiring, natures firework display, and nothing more. Just spinning electrons and ions inside magnetic fields, produced either by piezo-electric effect created by plate tectonics, or a chemical effect in flooded mines. The chemical reaction's product rises from the ground and when it interacts with the locally produced magnetic field, it lights up, much like a fluorescent tube does under a high tension overhead electricity cable. They eventually dissipate. It has nothing to do with aliens from outer space. Whilst in such a state it may have a collective intelligence, like that of an octopus, making it respond to light and magnetic fields, but it is not life, since it has no reproductive capability. However, witnesses should regard it as a close encounter of the fourth kind, the fourth state of matter, one of the most incredible sights of nature.

    373. 3...It is the TR-3B As previously mentioned, they are top secret military vehicles.

    374. In May 2010 MUFON published in its journal a supposed death bed confession, written in 1995, by Ben Rich, head of Lockheed Martin skunk works from 1975 to 1991. It appears on Youtube and reads:

    375. "United States government knew what was going on. After the Richard Nixon purge in 1969, development was handled by an international corporate board of directors, who turned out to be a bigger problem than our off world visitors. We learned from crash retrievals and hand me downs. UFO visitors are real and US military travel to the stars. The technologies are wrapped up in black projects, and it would take an act of God to ever get them out to benefit humanity."

    376. Why did it take fifteen years to get it published? I remain open minded on the subject. The US president is reputed to be only about the seventeenth on this international conspiracy list, Majestic being at the top. The black budget to finance this organisation is claimed to be costing at least $300 billion per annum. This web site cost the British taxpayer nothing. Don't you think that all these star wonderers, scientists and military, finance their visions themselves? Now just how do you get all those at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research) working on the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particle accelerator, searching for other dimensions used by UFOs, to pay their electricity bill?

    377. images my ideas/shut space large hadron collider
      SHUT: Large Hadron Collider, Switzerland/France

      Images Wikimedia Commons/k16 Reidar Hahn Aerial_view_of_Wilson_Hall,_Fermilab
      Wilson Hall, Fermilab, USA

    378. During my investigations I came across three other suspect sources, John Brandenburg, who promotes the idea that Mars was destroyed by two large nuclear explosions 250 million years ago, Lloyd Pye who claimed to have the skull of an alien, and Boyd Bushman who claimed to have photographs of aliens, that some say are images of toys. Trying to separate fact from fiction in a subject most people regard as the latter, is not easy. One word of advice, to make your death bed confession plausible, it would help if you created your own professional looking video or web site. Whilst I've got no plans to die soon, or be abducted by aliens, you never know, do ya? Statistics however, indicate that likely abductees tend to have RH- blood and green eyes, and end up with meteoritic material embeded beneath their skin by extraterrestrials. RH negative blood emerged 25,000 years ago, but no one knows why or how. It maybe the result of an alien encounter, which is why Aliens show an interest in these people. Here are some biographical hyperlinks on the above three, whilst there are videos on the internet.

    379. IV...They are flying saucers.There is no doubt that UFO's (flying saucers) exist. They flew over the White House in two formations from July 12 to July 29, 1952, in Washington, D.C whilst confirmation by politicians and the military at that time, clearly shows that they exist. If alien spacecraft from other solar systems are visiting Earth, then they have the following capabilities:

    380. 1. The greys (the aliens) can read your mind, whilst in aerial intercepts the UFO's appear to be able to interrogate the mind of fighter pilots. They can jam electronics on all frequencies simultaneously.

    381. 2. The UFO's have very high speed capability. Presumably greater than Earth's escape velocity of 25,020 mph (40,270 kmph).

    382. 3. They are highly agile with no momentum apparent, and can travel in space, our atmosphere and in our seas. A photo exists of a UFO diving into the sea, having been snapped from a US submarine.

    383. 4. They come to Earth to refuel. This is because our solar system is in a relatively remote part of the Milky Way, and because our planet has an abundance of fresh flowing water, together with an abundance of minerals for fuel and repair. There are a dozen minerals in interstellar space, fifty inside stars, and five hundred when planets form. On Earth, with its plate tectonics, oxygen to create oxides and water to create hydroxides, one can find four thousand minerals. Minerals are particularly important for the manufacture of micro-electronics and nuclear propulsion systems. Earth also has an abundance of potential zombie workers. Over one million people disappear each year. Are they sent to the Moon to mine minerals?

    384. 5. UFO's have a close interest in nuclear facilities and earthquake fault lines. It is possible that they may be extracting dark energy from such materials and processes. They appear to be powered by large magnetic fields, or a fifth force. Whilst we know how a magnet works, what causes it to act in a perpetual state remains a mystery. It is possible that power stations emit essential sub atomic particles that can be stored in the alien equivalent of a capacitor.

    385. 6. When taking off from the ground they appear to employ a rocket, possibly steam powered. At this point the UFO creates a crop circle if tall plants are present. Once a certain acceleration has been achieved, propulsion is switched to Direct Fusion Drive or similar. Outside of the Earth's atmosphere another type of drive is employed, possibly akin to magnetic field propulsion. Is this based upon cold fusion employing muons, or is cold fusion employed to start up nuclear fusion reactors? In April 2021 much work is being done at the LHC and Fermilab to uncover the properties of a possible fifth force of nature. Is this research linked to the current potentially unstable military/political situation in the Ukraine and South China Sea?

    386. There are many people out there who fail to understand why USG will not admit the existence of UFOs and aliens from outer space. It is believed by some that the developed governments of the world have handed over the problem of our trespassing aliens to an organisation called Majestic 12. Many of their research centre's locations are top secret and underground. They are attempting to reverse engineer UFOs that have come into their possession, but it's clear from all the research into nuclear fusion reactors at this time (2021) that unlimited energy is still on their to do this. Without it they cannot power their beam weapons. Laser research is still continuing apace. So what's the rush? Denying the existence of UFOs keeps the subject out of mainstream media and parliamentary debate, because Majestic 12 doesn't want the aliens to know their intentions, nor how advanced their technology is. I assume that reports of alien abduction, mind controlling implants in humans, and slaves worked to death on the Moon are all true. These slaves could be mining essential minerals to fuel interstellar space travel. Alternatively they could also be building an alien military force designed to enslave all of us. Clearly action is needed to put a stop to it. The general public would demand it if governments admitted it was true. But will they admit it. Just think of the legal group actions that would take place by the next of kin of abducted. It could even trigger wars against that band of backsliders in congress and the pentagon. Civil war! With similar conflict in other countries. Therefore Majestic 12 has no choice but to develop a means of response. Currently, in 2021, that is seriously lacking. However, when HB11 or similar comes along, the balance of power will tip in our favour and the aliens know it. What will be their response? One only has to look at the evidence for a nuclear explosion at the archeological site at Mohenjo-Daro in India, dating to 2,500 BCE, to realise what the aliens have in store for us. The aliens will want to turn us back into a source of dumb slaves. To do that they will nuke all of our technological, political and military centres. And that's just for starters. They don't have a need for billions of slave miners, just a few thousand. So the vast majority of us will be terminated. Whether we resist and how, will be decided by our elected leaders. If the US/UK withdrawal from Afghanistan is anything to go by, God help us! All important aspects of our civilisation will have to be placed underground, assuming there's time, into WWII and cold war bunkers. This will include process plant and factories to supply small arms to the general population, plus body armour. Since the enemy will no doubt have body armour, our weapons will have to be based upon the use of exploding cannon shells. Just how you turn our whimpish society into Hollywood style 'he men' in time, I simply fail to envisage. Even if we defeat them, will they come back? If the Earth lies say mid way between two very important locations, or if materials mined on the Moon can't be mined just as easily elsewhere, then the chances are that they will return. If not they will cut their loses, but we will still have to find a way to civilize the Milky Way. Our greatest legacy may be the creation of a United Federation of Planets (UFP), backed up by Starfleet.

    387. Project DeepSat Mission to Ganymede

    388. USG continued its denial in 2021 by saying that it simply didn't know what these tic-tacs were off Catalina Island, California and elsewhere which the US Navy intercepted. They have been detected accelerating from 100 to 1000G and to speeds in access of 10,000 km/h in the atmosphere up to an altitude of 100 miles, and at speeds of 500 knots underwater. Some scientists and military personnel believe that their propulsion is based upon the metric engineering of space time, more commonly called warp drive. Tic-tacs do not appear to be plasma balls. They have been seen in areas occupied by underwater UFOs. They could be UAVs powered and controlled remotely by a microwave beam eminating from the underwater UFO. So what is a plasma ball...cold fusion? It may even be the precursor to a black hole. If so it could be a potential source of extreme energy, or a means of storing electricity from say a fusion reactor. So where would we find it? Research in this field is hush hush, so I wrote to the UKSA (United Kingdom Space Agency and the BIS (British Interplanetary Society), the science minister on the subject, and to Rolls-Royce. The gist of the letter, which I call Project DeepSat, is as follows:

    389. Friday, February 19th, 2021

      Dear sir,

    390. During the past few decades I have been creating data for my website. Being a space enthusiast and member of the BIS, I devoted much time to my space research chapter. Whilst doing so I looked into the field of plasma ball research. No one appears to know how they are produced. So I hypothesized.

    391. It appears to me that such phenomena require high energy and pressure, and that this can only come from the Earth's outer core. These spheres of contained energy rise towards the Earth's crust along lines of conductivity or least resistance, near earthquake fault lines and deposits of minerals and water. This creates the impression that the plasma has been created near the Earth's surface.

    392. To investigate the matter deep within our own Earth would clearly be impossible without the use of exotic materials. However, it should be noted that both Mercury and Ganymede have magnetic fields, the latter being one per cent of Earth's. Ganymede being substantially ice, offers the prospect of welcoming a space probe to within 1000 km of this satellites outer core, from where remote sensors could presumably monitor geo-chemical and geo-electrical properties, etc.

    393. Whether Ganymede emits plasma balls may be answered by fitting a powerful sensor to ESA's JUICE, to be launched in June 2022. However there is probably no time to upgrade it. I don't know whether it is possible to even detect a plasma 20 to 1000mm in diameter at a distance of 500 km. If plasma balls were emitted into Ganymede's tenuous atmosphere, that would give some indication of the pressures involved, which may assist laboratory experiments here on Earth.

    394. As I understand it, the structure of Ganymede is as follows:

    395. 1. hexagonal ice crust thickness 150 km

      2. 4 layers of ice & saltwater ocean 725 km

      3. anhydrous silicate rocky mantle & water ice 600 km

      4. iron & iron sulphide outer core 660 km

      5. liquid iron inner core, radius 500 km

    396. The diameter of Ganymede is 5268 km. Such a probe would have to melt its way close to the outer core, take readings, and then transmit its data whilst immediately below the surface ice crust to the lander, thence to orbiter and Earth. This project could also look for evidence of alien life.

    397. Needless to say, I have absolutely no idea of whether what I am proposing makes sense, but I do believe that the idea should be investigated.

    398. Is it cold fusion? Is it intelligent? Does it have a practical and highly commercial use? Should it therefore be a national only project, possibly capable of paying off the national debt? Is this a project for HMG's ARIA (Advanced Research & Invention Agency)?

    399. On another subject please note that I can see no ground penetrating radar scan of the Moon nor Mars which could indicate where rocket landing zones and possible underground bases should be located. Whilst a survey was carried out with Arecibo Observatory, particularly of the lunar south pole, how practical was it. Health & safety is paramount. There needs to be a detailed scan made, possibly by employing Princeton's Direct Fusion Drive, which would generate the necessary electrical power. It could then move on to Mars and other bodies in our solar system.

    400. Yours truly,

      Mr Nigel S Allen


    401. This letter has so far achieved no response. However, I am certain that this mission will one day be carried out. The Core will not be confined to just a movie from Hollywood. Since this letter was written, results from the Horizon mission to Pluto infer that the heart shaped plain on the surface is regenerated by a heat source generated by radioisotope decay in the core. This source is insulated by a layer of methane hydrates, which makes the process last far longer than normal. This reaction is generating an atmosphere on Pluto composed mainly of nitrogen, but including oxygen and carbon dioxide. Long term exposure of this atmosphere to the ultra-violet rays from the Sun is resulting in the formation of radio-nucleotides, which when they reach a certain size, descend, creating a reddish brown surface. A silhouetted image of Pluto shows these layers of particles within its atmosphere. These radio-nucleotides are the precursors to life. Therefore the prospect of life within Pluto's subterranean ocean, the remotest body in our solar system, cannot be ruled out. Whilst the surface of Ganymede is a different colour, the prospect of life there, should not be dismissed therefore.

    402. Whilst some say that UFOs are powered by element 115 which distorts space time into a tunnel along which a flying saucer travels, there maybe another method of propulsion. It has since occurred to me that the ultimate speed of a flying saucer and its payload carrying capacity maybe limited by the size and strength of the stellar magnetic field it is orbiting at the start of its journey. This could be why we have not been invaded by aliens capable of wiping us out. Large black triangles maybe very light, having an airframe only a few atoms thick, whilst the swirling pattern in crop circles maybe caused by the radio frequency stimulation one finds in a Direct Fusion Drive.

    403. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 WC sirk_nala Lucy_Pringle_Aerial_Shot_of_Pi_Crop_Circle.jpg
      WC: Pi Crop Circle

    404. 7. As far as I know, aliens have not communicated with the United Nations, nor any government, although that is not what UFO buffs will tell you. The United Nations has a department for such matters. They remain illusive to SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence). This may be because they have no government of their own, and therefore cannot establish diplomatic relations. They may have no one to communicate with. Alternatively, it maybe because they have lost the ability to speak using vocal chords, making public speaking impossible. Maybe they know that all that our government's want is to grab their weapon's technology. They don't want us to be the next pain in the arse for their federation to deal with. They see us killing our own species in wars, terrorism and crime. They also see us wiping out whole animal species in their thousands, whilst most governments don't give a damn. They see us destroying our planet's atmosphere and seas through pollution, and creating sci-fi movies depicting aliens as villains. The human race consists of numerous tribes, which we call nations, but to them there is no singular leader to deal with. Russia, United States, PRC, UK and France all think that they are super powers, when in reality they are puny compared to their federation. They see us as habitual killers wanting interstellar war, just to give our defence forces the excuse to test their weapons, but in reality, we will be wiped out when they retaliate with a black hole hurtling into the Sun. It's about time our governments faced reality.

    405. images my ideas/shut space octopus.jpg
      SHUT: Alien octopus

    406. In addition these aliens maybe afraid of creating an alien plague on Earth, or of corrupting our DNA with theirs. They may consider us as insignificant as we consider ants. Alternatively, they may not be able to communicate with us because they have to remain inside an eco sphere. By that I mean this. Most inhabited exoplanets are likely either to be super Earths, or water worlds. In which case, a rocky exoplanet twice the size and mass of the Earth would have twice the gravity and therefore twice the atmospheric pressure bearing down on its inhabitants. Alternatively, on a water world, whose seas are one hundred kilometres deep, say, the pressure would again be huge. To exist they would have to be blessed with neutral buoyancy, but to develop an advanced civilisation they would need tentacles, plus an advanced brain similar to that of an octopus. Their atmospheric composition is also likely to be totally different from ours. Like creatures from the abyss on Earth, they cannot exist outside of their own environment. So how do we communicate with them, when we can't even have a complex conversation with a dolphin? There is however a more despondent reason, dictated by the fundamentals of nature itself.

    407. These aliens are time travelers. Using warp drive, they can travel here from their home planet in a relatively short space of time. However, when they return to it, everyone that they knew has long since passed away. This statement ignores immortality. As I write, stem cells are being rejuvenated, so who knows what kind of civilisation they have. Their values are probably totally different from ours. Travelling interstellar would not just be a journey, but a life changing event, that probably few aliens would want to undertake. I can't imagine anything being more lonely. Such an environment would induce withdrawal symptoms, that would discourage communication with us. I do not believe that SETI will find anything whilst searching through the radio wave spectrum. ET, travelling at the speed of light is more likely to use telepathy or quantum physics, over such vast distances. Since it is thought that UFOs are propelled by very intense magnetic fields, it implies that their instrumentation and control must somehow be immune from such forces. In other words, they must use something other than electrons to couple with the magnetosphere or plasmasphere, in order to gain acceleration or deceleration, in much the same way that space probes employ gravity assist when they brush past a planet.

    408. The faster one travels, the slower time passes for the traveler, relative to the people/aliens back home. How do you establish diplomatic relations that would tolerate the inevitable laws of relativity? Over time, these travelers in space will have lost their roots. This makes complete nonsense of movies depicting aliens as invaders. Invasions require huge resources that only an interstellar organisation can accumulate. In a highly advanced society there are probably no governments, because all the problems of life have been solved. They're all off grid, buying their surplus UFO at the local army & space store. Anyway, governments like building empires. How can you have an empire stretching across the galaxy, when it's fragmented by space-time, not just time zones? Wormholes do not exist, or aren't in the right place. Recording the direction these UFOs approach Earth from over years, could indicate where such a wormhole lies. One frightening thought has however occurred to me lately and it's this. Aliens may not be interested in communicating with us until our AI and androids subjugate us or wipe us out. Presumably this view is based upon the fact that all intelligent species destroy themselves in a relatively short space of time, often leaving artificial intelligence behind. This, aliens can communicate with, because they themselves are either androids, or cyborgs. They are like minded intellectuals. It would appear therefore that the human race either transforms itself, or becomes history.

    409. 8. They are equipped with multiple beam capability (sensory/laser/tractor) that can detect location of nuclear weapons, produce holes through bunker walls, and even capture a helicopter in flight, or lift an adult bull or cow into the air. In 2020 at the Higher School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry, Paris, scientists managed to get a sailing ship to sail upside down on a liquid. It was only a small model, suspended there by the force of sound vibrations.

    410. 9. They do not appear to be hostile, not even when fired upon. That policy may change should the Russians, CIA and US military get their way. The quest for glory, honours and territory, may well prove our undoing. Who owns 'our' solar system? Who owns 'our' Moon? Who staked a claim first? Us or the aliens? Nothing should be taken for granted. Ultimately there has to be an interstellar agreement in writing, but how? I do not believe that these aliens are hostile. Analysis of materials found in UFO crashes, etc. indicates that they have gone to extreme lengths to reduce the weight of their vehicles. This is because one needs to reduce the weight to that of an airship in order to go interstellar. This implies that there is little or no capacity to carry weapon systems. In addition, our gravity and atmosphere are incompatible with their biology.

    411. 10. Records indicate that they have visited us over many decades, possibly tens of millennia, possibly influencing our development. Some renaissance works of art depict flying saucers.

    412. 11. Due to the different UFO shapes (disc, double tube, triangle, airship, hat, boomerang, diamond, egg, walnut, etc.) it is reasonable to suppose that they come here from many competing solar systems, and many civilisations. However, since they communicate via telepathy, it is possible that they influence what we see. In other words these UFOs could employ morphing technology, projecting a different image into our brains.

    413. 12. If UFO's from such advanced civilisations exist, why do they crash?

    414. 13. Like plasma balls, they can be attracted to lights, or its associated magnetic field.

    415. 14. It is believed that they are powered by element 115 which was created on Earth in 1995.

    416. 15. If USG really does have live alien colonies in DUMB's (deep underground military bunkers) then they may not be the asset the military think they have. The Roswell incident is reputed to have led to great technical advances like the integrated circuit or silicon chip. However, IC technology is based upon the PCB (printed circuit board) and transistors. The PCB was invented by Austrian Paul Eisler in the UK in 1936, whilst the transistor, which replaced thermionic valves, was invented in 1947 by three scientists at Bell Laboratories, and competitors at Texas Instruments, USA. In 1948 two German scientists Herbert Matare and Heinrich Welker at Compagnie des Freins at Signaux Westinghouse, Aulnay-Sous_Bois, France, applied for a patent in this field. The USA companies Micrologic and competitor Fairchild Semiconductor created the first ICs in 1960. Sixty-five years later, we are still developing them. These technologies were developed to create smaller, safer and more capable control circuits. I well remember the family television catching fire in about 1960. We had to carry it out into the garden. It had caught fire because the control circuits were running at mains voltage, 240v AC, generating a lot of heat. These days its generally at a much safer 3 to 6v DC. There was no quantum leap. Why do these aliens want to live on a planet whose gravity and starlight do not agree with them? And if they can't invent a sun cream for themselves, what makes you think they can invent anything else? Imagine that you were on an exoplanet and the stone age aliens asked you to invent things for them. Could you design and build a chariot, or a crossbow? Are these aliens economic migrants? I don't think so. They are more likely to be troublemakers, gangsters, or worse, alien slaves. Or they could have been bio-engineered to fly a UFO, and know nothing else. Or they are simply out to bankrupt the USA, and the rest of us, by promoting expensive scientific projects that are doomed to failure.

    417. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 NASA Space_Shuttle_Orbiter-Illustration.jpg
      WC: NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter Illustration

    418. 16. Aliens come to our solar system because nearby there is a naturally occurring worm hole, ideal for facilitating interstellar space travel. This maybe associated with the theory that planet nine exists, or something similar.

    419. 17. ET shows a great interest in our nuclear capability. For the moment, they are observing us from a distance, the way a naturalist would. There comes a time however, when our technology will come close to matching theirs. At that moment in time, will we still pose a threat to them? In November 2019, it was announced by VASCO (Vanishing & Appearing Sources During a Century of Observations) that as a result of comparing US Navy Observatory astronomical photographic plates, taken in 1949, with modern data from the PAN-STARRS (Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System) taken betwwen 2010 and 2014, it can be proved that about one hundred stars have disappeared in the last seventy years, amongst 600 million light sources within our galaxy. Some of these M stars brightened up before disappearing. The only possible cause can be that of a collision with a black hole, since a star converting into a black hole gives plenty of warning to astronomers. Was this accidental or deliberate? Are we on the alien federation's observation, or termination list? Or was it home produced AI terminating all carbon units?

    420. 18. You may well ask, that since these aliens have been coming here for thousands of years, why don't they exist here on the surface in large numbers, having made humans extinct. The answer is that most of these flying saucers are unmanned space probes, whilst the manned ones are manned by creatures bio-engineered specifically for space travel, having no reproductive organs. They cannot even speak, relying upon telepathy to communicate with the rest of the crew. This is probably because sound waves do not encourage speech on their home planet since either the atmospheric pressure is too low or their atmosphere is composed of incompatible gases. Sound tests on Mars, using the NASA rover, have shown that high pitch sound travels at 559mph whilst low pitch travels at 537mph, making sentences impossible to comprehend. The atmosphere is largely CO2, whilst ours is Nitrogen and Oxygen, which affects speech in a similar manner to that of a deep sea diver breathing an oxygen-helium mixture. Their home base is now composed solely of AI and androids, since the original carbon units, the creators, are long extinct. The sole purpose of this artificial civilisation is to gather knowledge. It has no interest in socializing or trading with us. These values are totally alien to it, since they were not programmed into it by the carbon units that created them eons ago, who are now extinct. That possibly means that we will never be able to communicate with them on a level playing field. Whilst humans have been able to communicate with these crews using telepathy, it's likely that they know very little about the culture and history of the carbon units that created them. One has to remember that most solar systems in our galaxy have smaller and hence cooler M type stars that can exist for over 560 billion years, whilst our universe is only 14.5 billion years old. Since these solar systems cool down more rapidly than ours, it's highly likely therefore that their intelligent civilisations were created at least one billion years before ours. Having a red dwarf star would explain why their eyes are large. We have a lot of catching up to do.

    421. 19. Of course, as with Neanderthals, Denisovans, Homo Floresiensis, Dragon Man, Nesher Ramla Homo, giants with double rows of teeth in North America, rock apes of Indo China, Yeti of Himalayas, and big foot just about everywhere else, it's just taking some time to find them here on the good old Earth. They don't like being found. Some are thought to be on the ocean floor, in lake Baikal, Russia, or deep underground. Some are thought to be on the far side of the Moon, whilst others are thought to be deep within us, just waiting for the metamorphosis to take place.

    422. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 UFO Rhododendrites Mermaid_Parade_(61042).jpg
      WC: Are Aliens Friendly?

      Images Wikimedia Commons/16 UFO Lasy Aliens_vs_Predators_Experience_Museum_in_Kutna_Hora_01.jpg
      WC: Are Aliens Dangerous?

    423. The sighting of flying saucers goes back thousands of years. They are mentioned by Ezekiel in the bible, book of Enoch in Ethiopic bible, and seen in renaissance paintings of the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The painting by Domenico Ghirlandaio 'The Madonna With Saint Giovannino' on display at the Palazzo Vecchio Museum in Florence, Italy, 'Crucifixion,' in the Visoki Decani Monastery in Kosovo, 'Adoration of the Christ Child,' by Vincenzo Foppa, 'The Baptism of Christ' by Aert de Gelder, and 'The Annunciation,' by Carlo Crivelli. All depict UFOs to some degree. A printing block by Han Glaser shows either a comet or UFO battle in Nuremberg, Germany on April 14, 1561. One year later there was reported a UFO battle over Basle, Switzerland composed of black dots turning red. Some incidents appear in newspapers and magazines, like this one in American Scientific. The date is July third 1882 in Lebanon, Connecticut, USA. Two astronomers see two black triangles back lit by a full moon. The triangles occupy a quarter of the area of the Moon. Some Egyptian hieroglyphs and aboriginal pictographs appear to show aliens or their spacecraft, whilst newspaper reports exist of animal mutilations going back hundreds of years. Then there are the ten thousand year old cave paintings at Chhattisgarh, India. In eastern Japan in 1803 a hollow flying saucer shaped vessel (see Utsuro-bune on Wikipedia) was washed ashore containing a female person of unknown nationality.

    424. 1941 Spring Cape Girardou, Missouri, USA: Reverend William Hufman was called out to give last rites to three aliens, just as the military arrived. Their crashed UFO is believed to have been sent to Purdue University. This was at a time before the USG decided to make all UFO encounters hush-hush.

    425. 1948 One year after the Roswell Incident in which 1 UFO crashed, a UFO was shot down by an air to air at Kapustin Yar, Astrakhan Oblast, Russia, whilst the fighter was brought down by the UFO's beam weapon.

    426. 1949 March 28th Maryland, USA: After touching an alien at an autopsy, First Secretary of Defence James Forrestal becomes ill. Two years later he resigns, believed to be because of the policy of secrecy surrounding extraterrestrials on planet Earth. Five days later he is taken to US Navy Bethesda Hospital, where his dead body is found below a 16th floor window on May 22nd. Being a military establishment, there is no police investigation. A full version of the naval investigation is published in 2004. The doctors treating him regarded his depression as being caused by overwork. There is no proof to this conspiracy theory about aliens, but Zionists tracking his movements, and the fact that the president asked him to resign, shortly after he told two congressmen that he was going to, may have contributed to his poor mental state.

    427. 1954 August 16th Antananarivo, Madagascar: That evening hundreds of people in the French colonial capital, see a bright green light in the sky. It gets larger. It changes course and heads towards them. People panic as it descends to about one hundred metres altitude. Street and cafe lights flicker and eventually go out. It hovers for about ten minutes then shoots off. It is sighted one hundred and fifty kilometres away, just three minutes later, meaning that it must have traveled there at three thousand kilometres per hour. As a result of this incident, when Charles de Gaulle becomes president he orders the creation of GEIPAN, a department of the French space agency CNES, to investigate UFO phenomena.

    428. 1959 June 26th Boianai, Papua New Guinea: Father William Gill, an Anglican missionary, is typing a letter listing details of repeated sightings of UFO's that he and his parishioners have seen, including a UFO and two scout vehicles five hundred feet away. Twenty-five witnesses waved at it, and the crew waved back. When the priest waved a torchlight, the UFO swung side to side in response. The letter was countersigned by many witnesses. This incident occurred two years after the launch of the USSR's Sputnik 1.

    429. 1963 October 21st Trancas, Argentina: There are three women in a remote farmhouse, two sisters and a servant. The servant reports seeing strange lights in the direction of the railway tracks. The three head off towards the lights, at night. They see two discs with a tubular light beam between them, all rotating about a horizontal axis. Two lights rise into the air transforming into a UFO, a minimum of ten metres in diameter. From the UFO a light beam progresses slowly to the ground. One of the women puts her hand into the beam, but it creates no shadow. Another of the women is drawn towards the mist coming from the UFO, which then takes off with a tongue of fire. The women rush back to the farmhouse, which the UFO scans with a light beam before leaving the scene. The entire incident lasts about fifty minutes.

    430. Was this UFO performing an industrial process, producing fuel for instance, or was it materialising?

    431. 1964 Vandenburg airforce base, California. After a missile is launched a UFO intercepts it, firing a beam at the warhead four times 90 degrees apart then departs the way it came.

    432. 1966 January 19th Tully, Australia: Albert has another bad dream about UFO's landing. His dog barks all day long. His neighbour George drives past taking a short cut to his land. It's then that he hears an unbearable high pitched noise coming from Albert's lagoon. He stops to investigate, at which point he sees a UFO take off from the lagoon. The UFO is 10m in diameter and 3m high. Albert and George later investigate the lagoon and find the equivalent of a crop circle floating amongst the rushes.

    433. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 WC Thomas J. Sutter, Jr Crop Circle Swirl.jpg
      WC: Crop Circle Swirl

    434. There are numerous incidents of UFO's seen to be extracting water from lakes, swamps and water tanks. Also incidents of noise, heat or wind being used to stave off inquisitive onlookers. The water is presumably being converted into isotopes of hydrogen, namely deuterium and tritium, for use in nuclear propulsion, or used as a steam jet at initial take-off.

    435. 1967 Maestrom AFB, Montana, USA. ICBM base: This base housed ten minuteman missiles in silos. Each missile had an eight hundred kiloton nuclear warhead. Guards noticed a red light hovering above the main gate. There was no noise from the UFO. Suddenly all buttons on the launch control panels went from green to red, indicating that all the missiles had been disabled. A similar incident had occurred one week before at the same base. There was no electrical power supply failure during these incidents. Only the launch control systems were affected.

    436. 1973 Centre for UFO Studies created.

    437. 1973 October 18th Mansfield, Ohio, USA: A USAF reserve helicopter is flying at night. The four man crew see a bright red light at 9 o'clock, then it reappears at 3 o'clock position. The radio goes dead as the UFO zooms towards them. The pilot puts the helicopter in a dive to avoid the UFO. At that moment the helicopter is held stationary by a traktor beam. The compass and controls do not work. Eventually the helicopter is released and the helicopter starts flying much higher, at 3800 feet altitude. Three people on the ground witness this incident.

    438. On February 4th, 1977 in Broadhaven, Wales, a group of school children witnessed a UFO land, an alien got out of the craft, wandered around and then after returning to the craft it flew off. The alien wore a silver suit and had large pointed ears. The incident lasted about two hours after lunch. The next day they independently wrote down what they had witnessed, including a sketch.
      In 1966 on April 6th, occurred a similar incident at Westall High School/The Grange, Melbourne, Australia. A UFO landed and stayed on the ground 20 minutes. As it took off there appeared to be five light aircraft circling it. This however was not confirmed by air traffic control. It may have been a projected image. The incident was witnessed by at least 200 people. The chemistry teacher's camera was confiscated, whilst the crop circle on the school's lawn was mowed over. Media evidence disappeared also.
      In April 1967 a similar incident took place at Crestview Elementary School in Florida, USA. Here a flying saucer flew into a tree only to emerge from it a split second later. It was seen by over one hundred people over at least two days.
      In 1994 another similar incident occurred at Ariel School, Ruwa, Zimbabwe. The UFO landed and aliens got out. The aliens were grey with large black eyes. They passed on telepathic messages to the 62 school children in the playground, warning them that mankind was about to destroy their planet, as humans were a drain on the planet's natural resources. Clearly, like dolphins, aliens feel safe in the presence of human children.
      Numerous similar encounters have happened around the world. Thus far they have not abducted the world's political leaders and re-educated them in reform school. Until now I thought they could do everything. Saving our planet clearly isn't one of their abilities, whilst their presumptions are presumably based on passed experiences with other civilisations.

    439. In 1978 at the United Nations, New York, USA UFO incidents are recounted in an attempt to create an international committee on the subject.

    440. 1979 November 9th Livingston, West Lothian, Scotland: Robert Taylor, an estate worker, and his dog are inspecting Dechmontford Forest. In a clearing he sees what he perceives as a UFO materialising. Out of it come two spherical drones with spikes, similar to a sea mine. He smells a bad odour and collapses as the drones attack him. He passes out. He regains consciousness after about twenty minutes to find that the UFO has gone. He returns to his landrover and tries to radio in for support, but he has lost his voice. After he regains his voice, he reports the matter to the police, who investigate it as an assault. There are cut marks on his trousers that could have been caused by the drones, whilst two ladder marks and holes in the ground at the clearing show that something heavy had been there.

    441. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 WC William Cho Expo_MRT_Station,_Singapore_-_20110108.jpg
      WC: Expo MRT Station, Singapore

    442. 1980 November Todmorden, Yorkshire, UK: A police officer, PC Godfrey, was called out to investigate some cows seen on a rugby pitch or road in the Burnley Road estate. As he arrives at the scene he is confronted with a diamond shaped spinning UFO measuring 16 foot by 20 foot, five feet above the middle of the road. As he sketches the object he experiences an intense bright light. When he comes around the UFO has gone. Upon arriving back at the police station he realizes that he has experienced forty minutes of lost memory. During that night five police officers see UFO's in the area. They have pulsating blue /white lights and can move twenty miles in just one second. The cows are in a fenced off area, a rugby pitch, with no obvious means of access.

    443. This incident reminds them of the mysterious case, the previous June, of a local Polish man called Jan Adamski, who went missing for five days and was found dead on top of a coal heap, apparently frightened to death, cardiac arythmia. He appeared to have been dropped out of the sky. Electrical burns on his head and neck were covered in a cream which a forensics laboratory was unable to identify. 180,000 people go missing in the UK each year. There are numerous confusing statistics from each country. Some countries don't even register missing children. Are any of them abducted by aliens? The only way to get a clearer picture is to electronically tag everyone at birth.

    444. Maybe we should also tag cattle. Cattle abduction and mutilation has been going on for hundreds of years. Carcasses have been discovered with no udder, ears, eyes and tongue. Have parts of their carcasses been devoured by insects, or decayed naturally? Some farmers believe it is the result of black ops, perhaps a means of intimidation designed to get farmers to leave the area for security reasons, thereby expanding the military zone. Field research shows that it's actually caused by blow flies laying their eggs, to become maggots, in the carcass. Another phenomena is the arrival of men in immaculate black suits and spotless cars soon after a UFO incident, telling witnesses to keep quiet. Statements imply that these people are 'projections' created by aliens. As for human abduction whilst people sleep, it's thought that these are cases of sleep paralysis, which often occurs as a result of tiredness due to jet lag or shift work. However, people abducted at the same time often give identical statements. In addition to their high speed, agility, silence, hover and submerge capability, flying saucers have also been seen to have stealth and morphing capability, as well as being accompanied by small UAV's. However it maybe not as it seems. Aliens are known to read the minds of humans. It is therefore conceivable that they can also manipulate our minds, letting us see flying hats, ships, triangles, cigars, which in reality are completely different. Just to confuse you even further. They may not be aliens at all, but humans travelling back in time. They are under orders not to communicate with us for fear of changing the future. As for our military, they want to keep it a secret in order to prevent a panic. However, when Nicklaus Copernicus announced that the Earth rotates around the Sun, and not the other way around, the only people to panic were in the Vatican. I'm betting that if the whole truth came out, the only ones to panic would be those religious hard liners in the Pentagon.

    445. 1980 December 27th RAF Bentwaters, an American AFB in Suffolk, UK: A UFO was sighted outside the perimeter fence in Rendlesham Forest. 25+ airmen attended the incident, including the duty officer who had a sound cassette recorder with him. As they approached the coniferous forest in the dark, farm animals made noises, whilst some floodlights failed as the UFO's got closer. One UFO had a rotating red eye and dark centre from which emanated a blinking dripping light as it moved between the trees. Another UFO 200ft away, hovers over a field then splits into three, which then make sharp angular turns.

    446. One of these UFO's hovers over the concrete bunkers and scans them with a beam. It hovers over the one containing nuclear weapons reserved for the tactical fighter wing. It burns a hole into the bunker, then leaves the scene.

    447. The UFO in the forest was triangular with 9ft long sides and 6ft high, with non-decipherable symbols on it. It took off when one of the airmen touched it.

    448. The USAF investigation found radioactive scorch marks on the trees. As the incident did not occur on the base, the investigation was handed over to HMG, who apparently did nothing.

    449. 1982 October 4th NW Ukraine, USSR nuclear silos: A three hundred meter diameter UFO appeared, with lights all over it. Missile launch procedure unexpectedly started. Missile launch, targeting USA, could only be stopped from Moscow. Launch stopped a few minutes from zero.

    450. January 1986 Dalnegorsk, E. Siberia, Soviet Union. A UFO crashed on hill 611 overlooking the town. An electrical fire consumed the UFO in about five minutes. Pieces no more than 5mm across were recovered, including balls of metal and fine gold wire encased in quartz that could have been part of a stealth system. No bodies were found. Almost two years later a fleet of UFOs arrived on the scene, one of which had long tentacles hanging from it. They were presumably looking for evidence of the crash. This jellyfish incident led to the creation of a military investigative organisation and a civilian counterpart created by the Academy of Sciences. Premier Gorbachev later ordered all UFO research to be in the open.

    451. 1986 Alaska Japanese Airlines Boeing 747 cargo plane, designation JL 1628 Heavy: Only one in ten pilots report a UFO incident. This pilot had little choice. Flying at 35,000ft, it had to take avoiding action when a UFO came alongside it. The UFO, consisted of a huge sphere with a rim at the 'equator'. The diameter of the sphere was about the length of two aircraft carriers. ATC told pilot to do a full circle, but after doing so the UFO was still there. Radar showed an object immediately behind cargo plane, whilst the UFO was along side, at nine o'clock position. The UFO appears to have been a mother ship. After an FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) presentation in the white house to CIA, military and presidential advisors, the CIA confiscated all evidence. The conversation is reported to have gone like this:

    452. "What do you think it was, a stealth bomber?"

    453. "No, that was a UFO. I don't want to tell the American public that they have more technology than we do. It's bad for business. This event never happened. We were never here. You are sworn to secrecy," said the CIA operative.

    454. The pilot of JL 1628 Heavy was later given a desk job. The other two crew members of this cargo plane presumably said nothing. How do you make a vehicle so large, and still keep it a secret? I concluded that it could have been a comet, with a shape similar to the Saturnian moon Iapetus, which along with at least four other moons of Saturn, collects debri around its equator from Saturn's discs. Having the consistency of candy-floss with a carbonized skin, it could eventually have simply dissipated into thin air. A detailed report can be found on Wikipedia.

    455. July 1987 Czechoslovakia. Military radar detects a UFO approaching from Austria. A military Mi-24 helicopter is sent to intercept it at 3800 metres altitude. When sighted it turns out to be 10 to 15 metres long and silver in colour. It is the first known sighting of a tic-tac.

    456. 1988 March 4th Eastlake, Ohio, USA: Sheila and Henry Baker are driving home one night with their two kids. She notices a strange light over the frozen lake, near the Perry nuclear power plant. They stop the car. They can hear ice breaking as the UFO comes towards them. They then drive home and telephone the police, and then the coastguard. Whilst phoning they can see the UFO with four scout vehicles. They eventually go back to the lake with two coastguard personnel, who then get buzzed by one of the scout vehicles. The UFO's then leave the scene. The event is witnessed by about a dozen other people.

    457. 1988 St Louis to San Francisco Airliner: Airliner is told to divert around the Area 51 proving ground. As it does so the co-pilot sees numerous lights, like plasma balls, moving independently across the sky. They then appear to land on a brightly lit runway. The pilot tells him to ignore the incident.

    458. 1989 In the Russian city of Voronezh, 2 three eyed aliens in silvery suits and a robot, got out of their UFO, wandered around a park to the astonishment of witnesses, then departed.

    459. The Belgium Wave Triangular UFO Incidents 1989 to 1990

    460. 1991 USSR missile range: In order to test presence of UFO's at nuclear weapons sites, a military exercise was arranged. The Academy of Sciences and the Soviet MOD agreed that UFO's did indeed turn up.

    461. 1991 Geologists discovered metallic remains of what appears to be nanotechnology at 10 to 40 foot depth in the Ural Mountains. In layers 100,000 years old, the enigma has yet to be solved.

    462. 1993 March 31st Rugeley, Staffordshire, UK: Two adult males and a woman track a UFO, which was seen hovering at 100 to 300ft altitude above woman's house late one night as she walked the dog. They lose track of it eventually. That same evening the meteorology officer, about 25 miles away, at RAF Shawbury, Shropshire, picks up a UFO on radar. The triangular UFO closes in on the air force base and is seen using a sensory beam of light, as if it was looking for something. The light then slowly retracts and the UFO disappears. 40 UFO cases are reported that night.

    463. 1996 April 4th Maryborough, Australia: Salesman Ron Sullivan is driving along a country road at Bucksflat when he sees a light. The car's headlights are refracted, causing the driver to stop the vehicle, due to disorientation. It's then that he sees two rotating lights vertically displaced, with a light tunnel in between. In the light tunnel there are columns of light. The entire assembly rotates around a vertical axis. The top disc then descends to the bottom one, whereupon everything goes dark. Two days later a car hits a tree, killing the driver. This incident is similar to that at Trancas, Argentina in 1963, witnessed by three women, except that that axis was horizontal.

    464. In 2002 at Paintsville, Kentucky a freight train collided with one of three UFOs straddling the track ahead, after the train had rounded a bend. The train was badly damaged, whilst the UFOs sped off. The train was moved into a siding from where apparently government officials quickly removed it elsewhere. There is no evidence of this incident other than the detailed report. How could a UFO possibly survive such an impact and fly off? In August 2021 scientists at Yanshan University, PRC, announced that they had developed a material harder than diamond. Called AMIII, it has a hardness of 113GPa, whilst diamond has a hardness of 70 GPa.

    465. 2006 November 7th Gate C17, Chicago Airport, Illinois, USA: A UFO was seen hovering above the airport during daylight, in clear weather. It was seen by about twelve ground crew, one of whom reported the incident to the control tower. After about five minutes the UFO suddenly shot off vertically, punching a hole in the clouds. Details only emerged after a freedom of information request.

    466. In 2006, under the Freedom of Information Act, a UK Ministry of Defence report was released relating to Project Condign, which operated from 1997 to 2000. Its conclusion was that, 'black triangles are formations of electrical plasma, due to atmospheric gaseous electrically charged buoyant plasma, with the capability to induce vivid hallucinations.

    467. 2010 October 23rd Warren AFB, Wyoming, USA: Cigar shaped UFO sighted. Five computers go offline, resulting in fifty missiles out of one hundred and fifty going offline. Out of a total of four hundred and fifty that make up the USA's ICBM force. It took days to get the systems back online due to an electro- magnetic interference.

    468. Crew from the USS Roosevelt aircraft carrier task force detected such UFOs in 2015, between Cape Cod and Florida, whilst air crews flying F-18 Hornets from the USS Nimitz task force detected them off the west coast of the USA in 2004 over a period of at least four days in the dormant volcanic Guadalupe Island, Baja California area, another well known hot spot for UFOs. They were also sighted by the same task force when it later went to the Persian Gulf. Under the freedom of information act, videos of these encounters, were later released to the public domain by the Pentagon. The UFOs were nicknamed tic-tacs, as the shape was similar to a sweet. These objects are estimated to be forty feet in length, and can cruise at 100 knots at 28,000 feet, then descend to sea level in 0.785 seconds. They have been seen to travel underwater at a speed of 70 knots.

    469. In August 2015 a US maritime patrol aircraft off the coast of Puerto Rico, detected with its radar and infra-red camera, a small UFO travelling at 80mph at low altitude. After skimming through the sea it eventually split in two. After seeing the recording I could only ask myself the question, is it natural or alien? Was it the remains of a comet?

    470. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 UFO Clarity 654456 A_Fake_UFO_picture.jpg
      WC: A Fake UFO Picture

    471. 1985 Colorado, USA: Perhaps the most compelling UFO incident was seen by a couple driving a car. The UFO took off between two horizontal rows of lights, and as it did so it ejected a conical slug of aluminium, which also contained a small percentage of silver and other elements. This slug was recovered and placed ultimately in three hotel safes, causing each to lock up, requiring a safe cracker to open them. Analysis of photographic film wrapped around it for a day, indicated that unknown rays were being emitted in two jets at the broader end. Isotope analysis suggested that the slug could not have come from Earth.
      Go to https://www.youtube.com > Artifact "Made In Zero G" Falls From UFO?

    472. Another artifact that appears to have come from a UFO is a heavy sphere found by the Betz family who investigated a forest fire in 1974 near Jacksonville, Florida, USA. When x-rayed the sphere was found to contain about three smaller spheres made from an element with the atomic number 140. Occasionally it would click and move of its own accord. Some people regarded it as an example of artificial intelligence. Being so robust, they can survive entry through our atmosphere. They appear to be sophisticated gyroscopes, or more accurately parts of an initial navigation system. Such objects do more than make a motor bike stand up unassisted. Being spherical they would maintain their attitude in space, even when parts of the UFO are revolving in opposite directions, which they would do in order to maintain stability as the vehicle traversed a planetary magnetic field during its acceleration or deceleration phase, in much the same way as an arrow or bullet rotates in flight. However, some spheres are obviously man made, being titanium spheres wrapped over with carbon fibre and used to contain hydrazine or helium at high pressure to power reaction control or pneumatic systems on satellites. In 2016 three spheres were found in Vietnam. Many other countries have similar experiences. As for the Betz sphere. Is it a ball check valve?

    473. A one off artifact that has left everyone baffled is the wedge of Aiud, found by men working on a river improvement at a depth of thirty-five feet amongst two mammoth bones in 1974. It's now located in the Museum of Istorie, Transylvania, Romania. Made from an aluminium alloy, it appears to be the landing pad of a UFO. However, it is nowhere near as sophisticated as the pads for NASA's Apollo Lunar Excursion Module. Its patina suggests that it is very ancient, possibly as old as the mammoth bones, 11,000 years. On the other hand it could just be the tooth from an excavator bucket designed to be used in the coal industry.

    474. The story of the Dogon of Mali is interesting mainly because there is proof in the form of dolls made of various materials and of a blue stone. Whether this stone is part of a meteorite or the heat shield of a spaceship has yet to be determined. Are the 'technological' hieroglyphs from ancient Egypt simply a product of plaster falling off a wall? And how were those large stone blocks at Baalbek moved? From where did the Chachapoya, the Peruvian cloud people come from? When you look at human pre-history you realise how little we know about our ancestors and any possible links with alien cultures from exoplanets. Modern humans have existed for at least 100,000 years. They travelled all over the globe. DNA evidence from a tribe in the Amazon puts their origins in Indonesia. It's thought that a mission from ancient Egypt collected copper from eastern Australia, where they dug a canal from a quarry to the coast. Stonework at Puma Punku is similar to what Persians constructed at Persepolis' Palace of Darius, whilst a pot that appears to come from the middle east was found nearby. The history of the global economy may go back tens of thousands of years. Evidence from such periods lies tens of metres below ground, where only mining, tunneling and landscaping for roads is likely to expose it. Just because the evidence has not been found does not mean it does not exist. Its absence does not mean that such advanced human ventures could only have been made with the assistance of aliens.

    475. US Government UFO Policy

    476. 1933 to 1945 US President Franklin D Roosevelt

    477. Foo fighters seen during world war II. They thought it was ours. We thought it was theirs. PM Winston Churchill covered it up.

    478. Nazis work on flying saucer 'Die Glocke' (the bell) at Wellsberg Castle, after UFO crash in Black Forrest in 1936.

    479. 1945 to 1953 US President Harry S Truman

    480. Harry Truman was the first and possibly last person who could have created a world technocracy, through the threat of using the atomic bomb on any nation that did not comply. Unfortunately, he not only failed in this task, but by sanctioning the use of the atomic bomb against Japan, he inadvertently advertised the existence of our species to just about every advanced civilisation in our galaxy.

    481. Images Wikimedia Commons/Kimble Young Gray_Aliens_with_Saucer_UFO_Museum,_Roswell.jpg
      WC: Aliens at UFO Museum, Roswell, USA

    482. 1947 Roswell Incident in which 1 UFO crashed. 3 aliens were killed but 1 survived and later died. Alien autopsy. Military cover-up. The video of autopsy is later thought to be a fake, made in UK. In 1947 Truman restructures USG's security departments, including the creation of Majestic (MJ12), designed to keep UFO incidents top secret. Analysis of alien materials from UFO crashes, which are ultra thin and cannot be dented nor bent, indicate that they are alloys of isotopes, and not common elements. Whilst our civilisation works with about 118 elements, plus at least 285 isotopes, an alien civilisation could be working with 10,000. It's thought that these special alloys convert to common elements when heated, so just how were they created in the first place?

    483. 1951 Flying Saucer Working Party

    484. 1952 Washington DC. About ten UFO's overfly the White House, over two weekends. USAF jets fail to shoot them down. Film evidence and statements by the president and military prove that this incident took place and that UFOs exist. After this incident a policy of denial was followed to this day.

    485. 1952 to 1969 Project Blue Book. USAF database of UFO incidents.

    486. 1953 CIA Robertson Panel created, designed to downplay UFO incidents.

    487. 1953 to 1961 US President Dwight D Eisenhower

    488. President makes unaccompanied secret trip to Muroc AFB (aka Edwards Airforce Base) from Palm Springs. Base shut down for 3 days. President given briefing by Majestic 12. President reputed to have met aliens and agreed a deal with them. In 1957 the president met an alien called Valiant Thor, whose task was to warn governments about the danger of nuclear war. This alien was on the White House payroll for 3 years. Attempts by the president to get Valiant Thor to give a speech at the UN were thwarted by the DoD and CIA. Alien technology in return for permanent UFO base. The DUMB (deep underground military base) is believed to be at Dulce, New Mexico on Southern Newt Indian Reservation. It is underground on seven levels. Reports also that in 1978 this was the location for conflict between large greys and humans. USG does not control this base. It is controlled by aliens. There is no actual proof that this base exists. The president is reputed to have become disillusioned with Majestic and the US military-industrial complex, when he realizes that important data is being withheld from him, and tells Kennedy that during hand over of power.

17...Asteroid, Comet And Space Debris Impact (Nuclear Satellites)

      Images Wikimedia Commons/17 Pablo Carlos Budassi Halleys_comet_black_background.jpg
      WC: Halley's Comet

    1. Over the millennia our planet has been hit several times by asteroids and comets. There are hundreds of asteroids in the inner solar system, many of which cross the Earth's orbit. There are still many that have not been detected. The orbit of these bodies changes with time, as they are affected by the gravitational pull of other bodies and by sunlight. One day a big one will have our name on it. To destroy or deflect such a body far out in space requires resources that currently are not available, because there is no Global Space Command.

    2. Many of the problems facing the human race are man made. As technology advances, so does the complexity of the problems. Our political systems have become hopelessly archaic, unfit for purpose. One such problem is that of space debris. There are thousands of satellites orbiting the Earth, more than half of which are no longer used. There is half a million pieces of space junk orbiting Earth, of which 20,000 are larger than a tennis ball travelling at 27 kilometres per hour. Ultimately their orbits degrade and they fall to Earth, but not fast enough. There is a growing realization that space debris hitting these satellites will create more debris, which in turn will collide and create more. This cascade of satellite and rocket parts will ultimately hit satellites containing radioactive components, which will ultimately shower down upon us all, presenting a huge health problem. There are a number of Soviet era radar satellites that fit that description.

    3. It has become obvious for some time that almost all space debris should be de-orbited, whilst some satellites particularly large expensive ones in geostationary Earth orbit should be given an extended lifespan through refueling, but the complexity of the problem, plus the cost, has prevented few successful missions being undertaken. I have slowly realised that this is a materials science and political problem. Materials such as aerogel, used to collect cometary material in space, are very light since they are almost completely hollow. Boeing has recently announced the existence of a material similar in structure to human bone, over 99.9% void. To create a satellite de-orbit system, it would be necessary to launch a material in liquid form and squirt it into space so that it became a honeycomb in the rough shape of a sphere of say 5km diameter. It would have to be big enough to stop space debris and satellites, without disintegrating and creating more debris. Impacts would gradually reduce its orbital speed and altitude. Being so large, atmospheric drag would encourage the descent. Most of the debris and satellites embedded in it would burn up in the atmosphere during re-entry. Some could be dissolved through the use of chemicals coating the honeycomb. Such a method would require international agreement since working satellites would inevitably be brought down. With the launching of internet webs, this proposal remains an impossibility.

    4. An alternative method is to design all spacecraft to be bio-degradable. The satellite, rocket stage or space station would be made from materials that would degrade when submitted to the enormous temperature fluctuations and radiation in space over time. Alternatively its materials would dissolve in released acid, or burn in released flammable gases, leaving little to return to Earth. As a failsafe, the body could automatically de-orbit once it had lost contact with ground control, either by firing its reaction control system, or deploying a solar sail to increase drag. The satellite would have to be fitted with independent anti-collision sensors and software. Firing a harpoon into a satellite that contains hypergolic fuels is not a good idea, and neither is firing a net at a rolling, tumbling body that will only make the firing satellite do the same and go out of control. There plainly needs to be an internationally recognised standard for spacecraft construction.

    5. In March 2021 two satellites called Elsa-d owned by Astroscale, were launched by a Russian Soyuz rocket, designed to demonstrate how a defunct satellite could be located and retrieved from space using magnetic coupling. The mission was controlled from the 'In-Orbit Servicing Control Centre National Facility' at the Satellite Applications Catapult, Harwell, near Oxford, UK. In addition an ESA satellite called ClearSpace-1 will be launched in 2025 to intercept and retrieve a defunct satellite.

    6. The following is a paper written by me in 2013-02-22.

    7. --== Skylon, An Ideology Too Soon? ==---

    8. This paper concerns the political aspects of space research and why if present trends continue space research will become a dirty word. BIS's Spaceflight magazines US politics section is an admission that politics and space research are inseparable in these 'troubled times.'

    9. Like Concorde, Skylon generates its own problem. Concorde generated a sonic boom that no one at the design stage took seriously, whilst nobody wanted to hear it over their territory. It was too small to carry enough passengers and fuel for long haul Pacific flights. To put it bluntly, too many people ignored reality. We have the same disease today within the British aerospace industry. REL (Reaction Engines Limited) are proposing to build 30 to 200 Skylons. Each Skylon will have the capability to operate at least one mission per day. Assuming 30 operate just one mission per week, that represents about 1500 in a year to low Earth orbit. It can be reasonably assumed that each mission will release on average one satellite into that orbit, and no doubt larger payloads into higher orbits. I understand that the PRC intends to launch at least one hundred payloads into space over the next three years. Some of these payloads will be part of the Chinese Beidou (Compass) Global Positioning System to be operational by 2020. The USA has 31 Navstar II GPS satellites in operation with nine more in reserve, whilst the EU has 4 Galileo navigation satellites in orbit and growing. Along with Russia's Glonass-K GPS constellation of 24 satellites, one wonders whether all these satellites are really necessary.

    10. According to the video on Youtube 'How many satellites are currently in orbit video', the answer is (dated November 2010):

    11. In orbit 13,000; functioning correctly only 3,500.

    12. This means that about 10,000 satellites up there are now classed as space junk. Further depressing details can be found on the esa.int website and Wikipedia.com For instance there are now thought to be 130 million pieces of space debris in low Earth orbit.

    13. You may think that bringing space junk back to Earth is a most intractable problem, but you would be wrong. The hardest problem of all is how to get our governments to think and act as one. By ignoring this problem the spectre of global financial collapse becomes more realistic, whilst the spectre of manned interplanetary travel unlikely.

    14. images my ideas/shut asteroid ISS & soyuz.jpg
      SHUT: ISS & soyuz
    15. Left to the unrestricted laws of capitalism, the amount of space junk will inevitably reach a point where the ISS (International Space Station) is taken out, probably with the loss of all of its personnel. Recently the gloves of astronauts working on the ISS were found to be leaking. The cause was due to abrasive action between finger tips and craters made by micrometeorites on the ISS structure. The ISS coupled to Skylon presents a potentially large explosive target, since the spaceplane will retain some cryogenics in its main tanks to act as a coolant during re-entry. This could be mitigated by transferring oxygen and hydrogen to an orbital fuel dump upon reaching orbit or venting it off into space. Active cooling during re-entry could then be attained from the tankage used by the OMS (orbital manoeuvring system) which would be better protected. Probability and size of such impacts could be gleaned from the examination of data from the US space shuttle programme. The development of airframes and tankage that can survive impact by micro-meteorites and space debris, such as self repairing graphene, is essential if lengthy manned missions on space stations and to the planets are to become a reality. Realistic testing would be necessary as part of the certification process. A disaster similar to what befell the R101 airship in 1930 is not something Britain's aerospace industry needs during this period of growth in the space sector. This beggars the question, 'will Skylon operators receive the necessary insurance cover for missions to the ISS?' If the ISS is taken out do not expect the US Government to blame itself. If the BP Deepwater Horizon rig disaster is anything to go by one can expect big business to be sued left, right and centre. (BP litigation cost $9.5, clean up $37.2bn, fines $21bn approx, total $65 billion as of 2019.) First there's the junk owner, and then there's the junk manufacturer followed by the junk launch company, all of whom must share some responsibility for what has happened. In the background there are the insurance companies. The effects of this $100bn+ disaster will have implications for the space sector and insurance industry, including nation's economies in general for years to come. No government will have the courage to take on the US Government over this, any more than HMG could support BP who are still being hammered for tens of billions of dollars of compensation. After reading two sentences in the Aftermath section of this disaster on Wikipedia, I came up with my own space version.

    16. 1...Cost of litigation and damage, plus amount that can be recovered from others, are as yet impossible to determine.

    17. 2...The damage is of an apocalyptic scale, and is still on going, through a cascading effect. There is no way of determining how this incident will develop further.

    18. 3...This incident is highly complex involving hundreds (possibly millions) of satellite owners, satellite operators, and satellite users.

    19. 4...Assuming further launches are suspended, including those to higher orbits, it is likely to take at least ten years for all debris to fall to Earth. Litigation from launch companies, space ports and governments should therefore be anticipated.

    20. 5...Showers of debris will jam the signals from DRSS, ERS, TV sat, etc., resulting in further litigation.

    21. 6...This is likely to result in other competing technologies (fibre optic, aerostats, etc.) taking over, thereby making undamaged satellites in higher orbits redundant, resulting in further litigation.

    22. 7...The effect on the insurance companies involved, is as yet indeterminable.

    23. It is thought that 30% of the global economy relies in some way upon space satellites, the loss of which will have a major impact upon stock market indices. It may well bring an end to the global economy, capitalism, democracy, as we now know it.

    24. On the sixth of July 1988, one of the largest oil production platforms in the North Sea, namely Piper Alpha, exploded in flames killing 167 oil workers, including two rescuers. 61 survived. The disaster was caused by failed safety procedures during long term maintenance. The operator was Occidental Petroleum (Caledonia) Limited. No individual nor company was brought to court. The insurance cost was $3.4 billion (1.7 billion pounds). This is much less than the Deepwater Horizon incident, even though there was far greater loss of life, and the rig was a key oil and gas production platform pumping ten per cent of North Sea output. It clearly shows that over time, compensation culture has become more severe. It infers that next time the costs could be in the trillions.

    25. LET THIS BE A WARNING TO ALL COMPANIES AND GOVERNMENTS OPERATING IN THE SPACE SECTOR THAT DOING NOTHING ABOUT SPACE JUNK IS NO LONGER AN OPTION. SpaceX, OneWeb and other satellite constellation launchers and operators, take note. In July 2021 the RMS (Remote Manipulating System) mounted on the ISS (International Space Station) was hit, creating a 5mm hole in the arm.

    26. It is only a matter of time before collisions between satellites and space junk create a self perpetuating cascade that makes all operations in Earth orbit so dangerous as to be impossible. By then there will be so much junk that it will be impossible to remove it. As a result all space related ventures will cease. There will be no global mobile communications, no GPS for guided munitions and autonomous road vehicles, no TV /internet for remote regions, no new Earth resources data, no monitoring of volcanic and earthquake zones, no military intelligence and most important of all, there will be a marked drop off in international co-operation.

    27. Politicians are doing what they like doing best, namely burying their heads in the sand to the problem. This ensures that the predictions here will become a reality. Who does what and who pays for it aren't even on the table, because the problem is being ignored. These problems would not exist if the human race was governed by a world technocracy. There would be no duplication of GPS constellations and no shame attached to paying for the removal of space junk. Since the collapse of the Berlin Wall, a generation of peace has seen precious little advancement towards a world order. Instead we still see sabre rattling from armed forces supported by armaments industries who plainly don't want change, so if they can't find an enemy then they will create one, motivated by job security and profit. Governments on both sides of the wall have failed to re-educate the 'masses', and whilst these petty squabbles continue the serious problems like human overpopulation exacerbated by extended life span, global warming, terrorism and proxy wars, depletion of marine life, self replicating nano-technology and of course increasing levels of space junk, all get ignored.

    28. That however is no excuse for not putting forward recommendations.

    29. Images Wikimedia Commons/17 Sebastian Kaulitzki Asteroid-Earth.jpg
      WC: Asteroid & Earth

    30. De-orbit of large space junk such as spent satellites and rocket stages would be carried out by an orbital transfer vehicle whose normal duties would be to service operational satellites, including their transfer to higher orbits as required. An OTV would also have the ability to repair and refuel satellites. OTV's would employ Gecko's. Gecko's would be mass produced in their thousands and supplied to the OTV in pallets in low Earth orbit from space shuttles. For large rogue satellites it would be necessary to use more than one Gecko for de-orbit purposes.

    31. 1...OTV's would be fuelled from surplus fuel dumped at depots by space shuttles. OTV's employ Geckos, a massed produced micro satellite with sophisticated rendezvous and latching abilities, incorporating a retro rocket that is attached inside the throat of the satellite's main thruster for de-orbit purposes. The latching ability would consist of fast reacting spider like arms similar in technology to smart prosthetics. De-orbit is achieved by direct initiation from Space Command. Satellites can be de-orbited to atmosphere. At additional cost, de-orbit via shuttle could be initiated for security, safety, insurance, reuse or heritage reasons. Remember, under international law every piece of space junk is owned by someone, whilst every satellite is a potential swarm of space junk.

    32. 2...An OTV employing a magnetic field to stop tumbling and spinning of rogue satellites is 'locked' onto defunct satellite, and then using RCS thrusters to achieve 'docking' the pairs orbit is stabilized. This would only work on satellites that were small, with no long aerials or large PVA or dish arrays and had material that would couple to a magnetic field. A Gecko is then transferred from the OTV's pallet to the satellites main thruster for de-orbiting purposes.
      Another method, in the case of tumbling satellites, is to employ a web which would be shot out by the Gecko and drawn in to the target satellite as it wrapped the net around itself. Once attached to the side of the satellite it would release itself from the web, orientate itself, operate its RCS to stabilize satellite, then migrate down to the main thruster and attach itself prior to rocket motor ignition. Algorithms and sensors would be as advanced as that found on anti-aircraft missiles, if not more so.

    33. 3...Whilst the use of ground based and space based chemical lasers have been proposed for the de-orbit of space junk, they are expensive, whilst the effective range of lasers is less than five miles through the atmosphere. International agreements forbid the use of space based beam 'weapons', which is why these satellites have thus far not been launched. A satellite employing a gas jet, may have the ability to slow down or even vaporize an orbiting screw, strut or fleck of paint, but such a procedure would be too time consuming. This operation would be carried out outside the altitude of most working satellites in order to prevent collateral damage. The exact orbit of these items would need to be known, probably by space based radar. The more infrastructure that is put into space, the more likelihood of generating more space debris, whilst increasing cost.

    34. 4...A series of inflatable spheres a few kilometres in diameter probably made of graphene employing a sticky outer surface or net to decelerate and ensnare small junk, possibly made of vectran. Placed in 600 to 1100km and 1400 to 1600km orbits, where space junk is numerous, they would theoretically mop up all small pieces of debris. Over time impacts would cause the spheres orbit to degrade, necessitating an attached retro rocket de-orbit the sphere in order to avoid collateral damage with working satellites.

    35. 5...If all else fails, nature in the form of a close encounter by a comet will rid Earth orbit of satellites and space junk, to be replaced by cometary debris.

    36. 6...Of course it would be great if these satellites could withstand high velocity impacts. In the UK Synbiosys has developed a ceramic sandwich designed to convert such an impact into thermodynamic energy which can be quickly dissipated. Such a material could protect the huge structure of Skylon in space, as well as space stations.

    37. There are many ideas like these on Wikipedia. Harpoons could not be used on dead satellites as they may cause explosion of pressurized tanks, creating more debris. 240 explosions have already occurred in space creating 50% of space debris. The use of a sling-sat sounds appealing because it requires minimal fuel for de-orbit, however, satellites are not designed to be slung around particularly at orbital speeds which are likely to lead to break-up and hence more space debris.

    38. Whilst a limited international agreement exists designed to reduce the production of space debris, it is limited. Currently satellites should be de-orbited within 25 years of end of life. However this UN agreement makes no allowance for all the satellites that could be launched by vehicles such as Skylon within those 25 years. The destruction of Feng Yung 1C weather satellite by its owner, the PRC, in January 2007 at an altitude of 862 km by a surface launched missile, clearly shows just how respected this agreement is. At least 2500 pieces of space debris was generated, much of it posing a threat to China's manned space programme for decades to come. With no explanation and no apology, one wonders when and from where the next blunder will come from. As many nations have learned to their cost, space research works best under an umbrella of international co-operation, unless of course one requires a space race.

    39. Images Wikimedia Commons/0 Hitachi Rail HS2_train_design_image_-_Hitachi-Bomb.jpg
      WC: Hitachi Rail HS2 Train

    40. With the PRC determined to plant its flag on the Moon and probably on Mars, can western governments afford to ignore this issue? It's plainly obvious that capitalism needs a real boost, and for the UK that won't come from the proposed 140 mile long, 106 billion pound, HS2 railway from London to Manchester and Leeds, plus the 24.5 billion pound operating costs and subsidies over 67 years. Living in Birmingham I can't even afford to use Virgin Trains to get to London, which I have not visited for over thirty years. I seem to recall the Reaction Engines Limited website estimating their Project Troy manned mission to Mars costing around 75 billion pounds. That's chicken feed compared to the 375 billion pounds handed out by the Bank of England in quantitative easing, and where has it got us? Even HS2, London to Birmingham high speed rail link, is estimated to cost more, and what green shoots will come out of that? Of course once the main lines have been built, the feeder tracks will have to be upgraded also, at additional expense. By which time it will all be regarded as a museum piece. The only reason HS2 is being built, is because most developed countries have their high speed trains, and the British establishment wants to be part of the club. Well it won't be part of the club because the goal posts are moving. Japan's Chuo Shikansen maglev line from Tokyo to Osaka will be 178 miles long and initially cost £63.9 billion. The train will travel at 600kn/h. Now that will compete with air taxis.

    41. With the PRC being constantly accused of hacking US computer centres it's unlikely that Skylon will find a market there. And would Skylon be sold to say India if it appeared likely that the nation would use it to launch Russian military payloads? The market for Skylon appears very limited in the present political and economic climate. However, its basic design does lend itself to being scaled up to handle larger payloads, something which an aircraft launched Skylon would not. Since NASA is going for a 70 to 140 ton payload capability with its SLS (Space Launch System), the latter presumably to carry nuclear reactors to power the ion thrusters of a manned interplanetary vehicle or base on the Moon or Mars. It beggars the question, can Skylon be scaled up to do something similar. It's likely that the oxygen and hydrogen tanks would not require active cooling during re-entry were they to be made from carbon nano-tube material or similar. Such a carbon based airframe/thermal protection system could be made employing 3D printing machines, with the main axis of the spaceplane being of vertical orientation during manufacture. The hull could consist of three layers, like that of the Airlander 10 airship, with sealant on the inside, structural layer in the middle and thermal protection on the outside. This technology would be required to build large commercial airliners especially of blended wing design, and would therefore qualify for government grants. This technology could also be employed to build a lighter pre-cooler for the SABRE (Synergetic Air Breathing Rocket Engine), plus honeycomb structures in areas such as compressor, undercarriage struts, brackets and fastenings.

    42. Images Wikimedia Commons/16 NASA Space_Shuttle_Orbiter-Illustration.jpg
      WC: NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter Illustration

      Images Wikimedia Commons/16 Steve Jurvetson Space_Shuttle_Endeavour's_Control_Panels.jpg
      WC: NASA Space Shuttle Flight Deck

      Images Wikimedia Commons/16 Steve Jurvetson Space_Shuttle_Endeavour's_Flight_Deck.jpg
      WC: NASA Space Shuttle Cargo Handling Controls

    43. It's likely that large payloads like those for the SLS would still require assembly in space. Hence the need for an advanced remote manipulator system and space-dock.

    44. I do not subscribe to the idea that Skylon is being developed at a reasonable rate. Sir Frank Whittle took fourteen years with the jet engine, from patent to active service. That was an age before CAD/CAM, parameterization, BOM (Bill of Materials from attributes), FEA (Finite Element Analysis of materials), CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics of gases and liquids), dedicated heat exchanger thermodynamics design software, 3D printing and advanced materials research. Having worked as an engineering design draughtsman at Serck Heat Transfer's Tubular Cooler Division, I am sure it will not take much effort for the USA, PRC and Russia to come up with their own Skylons, initially for military purposes. If that were allowed to happen, where would LAPCAT and the European Airbus consortium be then? Most profits from any project usually go to those who bring it to market first, although the De Havilland Comet is an exception. HMG and REL must instil a sense of urgency into this venture. Designing SABRE to the nth degree is not desirable in the early phase, since to do so holds back progress in areas of OTV, SUS, space-dock, RMS and robotics, all of which should be tested during the x-spaceplane phase (boilerplate), which itself will not be perfect.

    45. As REL now looks around for the $500 million it needs to cover the cost of testing the nacelle and a scaled down SABRE engine in the atmosphere, plus further development of the Skylon Upper Stage (SUS), deep thought should be devoted to the details of the next stage. Namely, how to gainfully employ Skylon during the 200 to 300 missions that the two x-spaceplanes will be devoted to. Every mission should have a public relations slant. These missions will fall into three areas of use:

    46. 1...Satellite launch into Low Earth Orbit, and Geostationary Transfer Orbit using SUS.

    47. 2...Space station support, sixteen missions by Skylon are scheduled to go to the ISS.
      Further missions could be devoted to the support of an REL inspired space hotel or support for Excalibur Almaz (capsule & space module) or Bigelow Aerospace (inflated modules). Such a space hotel complex should have a truss for the attachment of long stay payloads, in order to reduce the number of individual satellites in LEO. The supply of two accommodation modules to the ISS as a means of the UK paying for manned missions has already been proposed by REL. Based upon criticism by cosmonauts, it is clear that shower facilities should be included. Ideally, toilets, showers, filtration, recycling and hydroponics should all co-exist in the same module. Skylon's 4.6m diameter x 12.3m long payload bay could also demonstrate its manned orbital capabilities through ESA's Spacelab.

    48. 3...The recovery of space debris. As with the handling of nuclear waste, disposal will not be easy nor cheap, but it will be far more cost effective by employing a reusable space shuttle. It is time for REL to bite the bullet where no space agency has had the guts to. This is how to make friends and influence people. The long term returns could be substantial.

    49. These should be high profile missions in order to get as much publicity as possible, in order to attract future investment when the time comes. The thought of building a mock-up of the ISS, in cheap materials, so that prospective customers could compare construction times, did occur to me, but the conclusions might prove too embarrassing to some. A mock-up of Project Troy in LEO would certainly inspire the young, but no doubt be regarded as a frivolous waste of resources by others. It could however be incorporated into a British sci-fi movie. It would however pose a serious test of Remote Manipulator System (RMS) assembly techniques, the hardware presumably from Canada. I do however feel that cryogenics should give way to plasma drive for two reasons. The latter is faster thereby reducing mission time to Mars and hence less bio-degradation of the crew, whilst being compact with less volatiles, it is easier to shield against space junk and micro-meteorites.

    50. Publicity and a public relations manager are pre-requisites to running a successful business. They require an up to date web site and a portfolio of proof read scientific papers on this project in all main languages for prospective investors and customers to read, before they are likely to take REL and other seed companies seriously.

    51. images my ideas/shut asteroid two astronauts eva.jpg
      SHUT: Two astronauts EVA at ISS
    52. According to the data in Spaceflight, there were 146 satellites/missions launched from October 2012 to September 2013 editions, of which 12 missions were to the ISS, whilst 75 I considered likely to be launched by Skylon. There were 11 Russian, 11 USA and 16 PRC satellites likely to be launched indigenously due to security and prestige reasons. The total includes about 30 mainly American micro-satellites (cubesats) which I regard as satellites of opportunity and of little financial reward to Skylon operators. Some rockets launched more than one satellite making the total number for Skylon contentious. With higher data rates likely in a future fibre optic internet, plus advances in solar powered UAV relay stations, it is likely that we will see a reduced number of communications satellites launched in the future. There is currently an insufficient number of civilian payloads to justify the development of Skylon. Without ESA members embracing manned missions into space I can see ESA becoming a has-been space agency representing a stagnant economic backwater of the global economy, with REL ultimately relocating to the United States, rather than face nationalization, as happened to Sir Frank Whittle's Power Jets.

    53. Meanwhile, competition from ESA's Vega, Ariane 5/6, Space Adventures (spaceflights to ISS), Space-X (Dragon space capsule), Sierra Nevada Corp. (Dreamchaser space shuttle), Boeing (X-37 OTV), Xcor Aerospace (Space Expedition Corporation Lynx spaceplane), Virgin Galactic (Spaceship Two), NASA's Orion and Russia's Soyuz is not likely to go away, for prestige reasons, not to mention the replacement Soyuz (Energia 4 man capsule), Swiss Space Systems Dassault Vehra air launched lifting body and finally the Japanese JAXA space agencies Epsilon satellite launcher which was first launched in September 2013, are likely to remain a thorn in Skylon's side for years to come. Change in mindset does not come swiftly. Space agencies and their associated launch systems are status symbols first and security agencies second. Their operations have little or nothing to do with the laws of economics.

    54. I can therefore see a market for no more that five Skylon's. However, there appears to be a market in the military field as a replacement for the Trident SLBM system. As a launcher of smart munitions, targets could be taken out with little or no warning by a combination of conventional and nuclear warheads, the latter being sub-orbital so as not to violate SALT agreements. The Skylons could be commercially owned and operated, thereby dramatically reducing costs. The 1kt say nuclear missiles, would be kept in military bunkers right up until the moment of use, whilst the delivery system can be kept in variable orbit whilst carrying conventional weapons. This is plainly not MAD, since collateral damage would be far less than that from a Trident system. Communications and hence reaction times would be swifter, supported by a plethora of military intelligence/communications satellites also launched by Skylon. Such a system could be used to take out terrorist groups, drug gangs, and pirates in countries where the police and military are ineffective, for a fee. This system is more politically acceptable to the times in which we are living. Nuclear SLBM submarines on the other hand are very large and slow, and dedicated to one type of mission only, that of global thermonuclear war. They are susceptible to detection from advanced sonar and radarsats, whilst these methods of detection limit them to a small area of ocean (Sargasso Sea and polar ice cap), as demonstrated by the near apocalyptic collision between two UK and French vessels in February 2009. Communications with such vessels by ELF and VLF is slow and one way only, whilst using a near surface buoy for higher frequencies risks detection by satellite.

    55. It is my bet that Skylon's forte lies in the support of manned missions. HMG's UK Space Agency could use Project Troy as a catalyst designed to stimulate the minds of British management, seed companies and ultimately the economy via a higher and hence more competitive technology base, enhancing the UK's reputation abroad. Develop an idea for this project and you will receive sponsorship, government contracts, R&D support and tax breaks. Don't support this project and large companies will pay a one off levy based upon their turnover to finance it anyway. As for multi-nationals operating through the internet, they should be taxed on their sales turnover in this country and no other way. As for income tax, it should be set at a realistic level. Back in the 1960's it was at 90%, you went to bed with a hot water bottle (no central heating), slept between damp sheets and woke up to windows frozen on the inside. Then of course there was the outside loo, full of spiders. This was not austerity, as the prime minister would remind you 'you've never had it so good'. The alternative is to go beyond capitalism.

    56. Without a doubt Skylon is an ideology too soon. To make it work in a responsible way one needs a world technocracy, but unfortunately there is no way of creating one. The UK needed a technocracy in the 1930's to stand up to fascism. Today we have politicians that don't even want reform of the House Of Lords and an electorate that doesn't even want US style mayors in order to get things done faster. Too many jobs rely on conflict. There appears to be no incentive to create a world order and a science based society. As for interstellar missions, JBIS contributors, you have a very long wait indeed. Such missions await a new form of propulsion and of course a confirmed destination to go to. The latter is likely to be provided by huge space based telescopes launched and assembled by Skylon? I cannot help thinking that Alan Bond & co. would be better employed if they launched themselves into politics as independent technocrats. Employing a majority of such members, a surgical strike could be inflicted upon our outdated unwritten constitution, replacing it with a technocracy.

    57. Currently the Skylon project is under review by ESA, who wish to know who will buy 100 to 300 Skylons. The answer to this question will be largely irrelevant. At stake is ESA, not just Skylon. Its members have to decide whether ESA is to embrace a long term manned space program using the most affordable space transportation system they are ever likely to have, namely Skylon, or become a third rate agency. It needs to justify the huge investment needed. It is plainly not just a satellite launcher. For those working in the launcher business it is a harbinger of doom. Thousands of people will lose their jobs, particularly in France and Germany. So what is the solution. The solution is for ESA to boldly go where ESA hasn't gone before. With NASA hell bent upon going to Mars, for ESA to stay at home would be an ignominy too far. Clearly there would be work for all of its members, particularly in the areas of OTV and space-dock, not to mention the interplanetary spacecraft itself, rather than waste resources on more expendable launch vehicles. It's time for those in the mollycoddled launcher business to visualize the new and embrace it.

    58. Skylon of course would also be the test bed for the EU's LAPCAT hypersonic four Scimitar engined airliner. LAPCAT is a derivative of Skylon and its two SABRE engines. Without Skylon it is unlikely that the EU will ever build a follow-on from Concorde. What future then for the European Airbus consortium?

    59. Skylon is one of HMG's advanced projects designed to boost the economy, but then so was Black Arrow and its satellite Prospero in 1971. Symbolically, Prospero is now a piece of orbiting space junk. Will Skylon go the same ignominious way as UK based research into the jet engine, radar, 3D colour television in 1944 and more recently TFT's (thin film technology)? It's now time to support Skylon. I've bought mine from the BIS. It's time you bought yours.

    60. I've also got my free Skylon shoulder bag from REL at the Farnborough Airshow. It's a great time to be a space enthusiast. Incidentally, the word Skylon comes from the fuselage shaped 100m tall modern art displayed at the Festival of Britain, on the banks of the River Thames, London in 1951. The joke then was that like the economy it had no visible means of support. This nation has endured monetarism for over 30 years in which one government after another has agreed to import products rather than manufacture them here. To make things appears to be totally alien thinking to many in HMG these days. This is what happens when a nation doesn't make anything important anymore.

    61. References:

    62. 1...wikipedia.org/wiki/Deepwater_Horizon

    63. 2...www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Operations/Space_Debris

    64. 3...www.ft.com HS2 costs

    65. 4...JBIS Vol. 63 No 4 Skylon Infrastructure

    66. 5...Spaceflight Vol. 52 No 11 Spotlight on Skylon

    67. 6...JBIS Vol 61 No 10 The Skylon Spaceplane: Progress to Realization...The Habitation Extension Module (for ISS)

    68. 7...wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_junk

    69. 8...wikipedia.org/wiki/Spacelab

    70. 9...wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Vanguard_and_Le_Tiomphant_submarine_collision

    71. 10..www.reactionengines.co.uk

    72. 11..wikipedia.org/wiki/Potential_applications_of_carbon_nanotubes

18...Mega Tsunami - Canary Islands

      Images Wikimedia Commons/18 ISO_7010_W056_warning;_tsunami_hazard_zone.jpg
      WC: Tsunami Hazard Zone Warning

    1. The eruption of a volcano on the Spanish Island of La Palma, part of the Canary Islands off West Africa, about fifty years ago, resulted in a landslide along the western flank that created a fissure about four meters wide and four kilometres long. A volume of five hundred cubic kilometres. This fault line could result in a major landslide from mountain top to ocean floor involving the movement of a million tonnes of earth. This would create a mega tsunami travelling at the speed of an airliner, 600 knots, and about two hundred metres high. This would have the capability to wipe out the entire eastern seaboard of north and central America with a wave height of ten to twenty-five metres. A shift in so much mass could trigger earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and even super volcanic eruptions. Another volcanic eruption on La Palma could well result in this taking place. Because we do not have a world technocracy, nothing is being done to mitigate such an occurrence. The Canary Islands is also one of forty-three potential super volcanic hot spots or mantle plumes around the world.

    2. images my ideas/shut tsunami san antonio volcano las palma.jpg
      SHUT: San Antonio volcano Las Palma, Canary Islands
    3. So what should be done? As usual the democracies involved are burying their heads in the sand to the problem. There are a number of alternatives. One scheme is to remove the offending unstable material. This would be almost impossible to do since most of this material is hundreds, if not thousands, of metres below sea level. Removing this material could make the entire island unstable since it consists of vertical seams of alternating volcanic rock and water. Alternatively, the island could be stabilized by pumping cement into the seams of water, from the base upwards. However, any work on the existing structure could destabilize it. The entire seamount would have to be closely monitored, with strain gauges and lasers, for any movement caused by this rectification. The resources needed to do this would be vast, whilst the cost in a capitalist world, unaffordable. As with global warming, the cost of doing nothing is far greater than putting things right. Despite its intelligence, the human race suffers from a major flaw, it often does not act on warnings.

    4. Images Wikimedia Commons/18 Katsushika Hokusai Tsunami_by_hokusai_19th_century.jpg
      WC: Tsunami by Hokusai

    5. The relatively small Indian Ocean tsunami that occurred off Sumatra on boxing day 2004, killed at least two hundred and twenty thousand people in at least four countries, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand.
      Fifteen thousand people were killed by the Japanese tsunami in March 2011.
      When the movie Day After Tomorrow was seen by New Yorkers, they failed to take appropriate action to save their city from a storm surge. It is time to ensure that all these people did not die in vain. Should this incident take place then the only bright light on the horizon is the prospect that, in addition to killing tens of millions of innocent people, the Canary Islands tsunami would probably kill most of the prevaricating politicians responsible for this disaster.

    6. Images Wikimedia Commons/18 NOAA Tsunami-dart-system3.jpg
      WC: NOAA Tsunami Dart System

    7. It is now September 21st, 2021 and guess what, the Cumbre Vieja volcano at the southern end of La Palma is erupting for the first time since 1971. It has already destroyed 166 homes on the western slope and covered one square kilometres with lava. 6,000 people have left the area whilst 85,000 live on the island. The local hotels are filling with tourists eager to witness the spectacle.

    8. November 5th Guy Fawkes Day...The volcano is still erupting. 7000 people have been evacuated with 1000 hectares covered in lava and 2000 buildings destroyed. The media has finally issued a warning of the likely impact of a mega tsunami should the west flank of the island slide into the Atlantic Ocean. There is a crack 9 miles long, along the main ridge of the island, which formed during the last eruption in 1971. If that gave way, then the tsunami wave, originally hundreds of feet high, would take about 9 hours to travel the 4000 miles to the west coast of the Americas, travelling at a speed of at least 220 miles per hour. It would take 3 hours to reach the UK. Actually, in a tsunami it's not the water that moves but the energy, until it reaches a land mass. There appears to be no plans by the USG to move its seat of government, nor the Pentagon, the Department of Defense headquarters inland from Washington DC.

    9. Having been inactive for about ten days, the volcanic eruption on the island of Las Palma was finally declared over on Christmas Day 2021...for the moment at least.

19...Ecology - Greenhouse effect - Climate Change

      images my ideas/shut ecology geodesic dome.jpg
      SHUT: Geodesic dome
    1. Global warming has been going on ever since the last ice age came to an end. The most obvious evidence of this lies in the region between the Black sea and Afghanistan, which was once flooded with melt water from the north polar ice cap, and was used by traders to sail along part of the silk road to China. Evidence from the Bible suggests that the terrain the Israelites walked through following the exodus from Egypt three and a half thousand years ago, was anything but as climatically harsh as it is today. Humans have in fact been influencing the Earth's climate for at least twenty thousand years, firstly and more recently through slash and burn agriculture, originally to destroy impenetrable forests of fallen trees containing poisonous snakes, scorpions and spiders.

    2. In addition there have been a series of industrial revolutions starting in the UK, Europe, USA, Japan, South Korea, PRC, etc. Whilst ash from coal fired power stations have been converted into breeze blocks to make walls, and sulphur dioxide has been removed with scrubbers to stop the formation of acid rain, the treatment of carbon dioxide using carbon capture and storage appears to be too expensive a solution. In the UK HMG is attempting to build another generation of nuclear fission power stations employing the French company EDF. The high subsidies for this will ensure that the electricity overheads for UK based companies will likely make them uncompetitive in the global economy. The opposite actions appear to be the case in the PRC where the government appears not to give a damn about the smog in Beijing and their other cities. I get the impression that they want other governments to subsidize their anti-pollution policy. Ash filters and gas scrubber systems cost money, but then so does the long term health treatment of Chinese citizens with lung disorders. The present savings in order to reduce company overheads are unlikely to make sense in the long term. An estimated 5.5 million people die from air pollution each year worldwide, mainly in the PRC and India. In the UK air pollution is monitored automatically, at ground level, in cities, but anyone living in a high rise apartment will have probably seen a band of different coloured aerosols in the air on a still sunny day at about the seventh to tenth floor level, and these don't appear to be monitored.

    3. Whilst the primary source of electricity in a utopia would be from photo-voltaic, wind, wave, tidal, geothermal, and aqua-thermal (heat pump) sources, this would have to be backed up by nuclear, either fission or fusion, to cover for events such as El Nino, volcanic eruption or encounter with a comet or asteroid, which would cloud the atmosphere for years. In a capitalist world these may not make economic sense, but in a world technocracy they would be mass produced, as a contribution to a cleaner world that people in the near future will expect.

    4. images my ideas/shut Bucketwheel Excavator.jpg
      SHUT: Bucketwheel Excavator in Australia
    5. In 2020 Amazonia and thirty per cent of the Pantanal tropical wetland burned freely, with smoke drifting as far south as the city of Sao Paulo. 17 million animals are estimated to have died in the Pantanal as a result of the fires. Thanks to the Brazilian government's prompting, thousands of fires have lit up the Amazon. Who started them? Perhaps we should be asking ourselves,'who is going to put them out?' I suspect that many of these fires have been started by lightning. The Amazon is in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), renowned for its lightning. This tropical rain forest is drying out. Normally rain falls onto leaves and evaporates. Alternatively the ground water is taken up by the trees and evaporates, known as transpiration. Transpiring forests create rising air which enhances this effect. The winds created carry the moisture inland, a process known as a biotic pump. It is carried by the wind and falls elsewhere in the jungle, only to evaporate again. But now the rain is falling on the scorched ground, then sinking into the thin sandy soil. With so many land plots already destroyed by fire, the water cycle is now haphazard, causing the rain forest to dry out, becoming susceptible to fire. So who is going to put out fires covering thousands of square kilometres, and then plant new seedlings? Amazonia is based upon sand. Once the humus has burned into the atmosphere, all you are left with is sand. The river basin will become a huge desert, like the sand dunes along the coast. When this happens there may well be a knock-on effect in the Congo. All of this is plainly beyond the human races' ability to rectify. The only way to protect these jungles is to place them in the hands of the United Nations, and turn them into Global Ecological Zones, banning both agriculture, mining, hydro-electric schemes and all other development. Will it happen....no. Only a WT can save the human race from itself.

    6. It is known that the Australian outback became a desert about 45,000 years ago when large trees were destroyed, presumably by Aboriginal burn back. Lake Eyre was once a huge lake, that is now a salt pan. And all because the biotic pump action was terminated. Elsewhere, in northern PRC, it is now realised that this area gets its water from Europe, the rain going through half a dozen cycles before it gets there. The rainfall in this area is falling, possibly due to human activity in Europe, or simply due to global warming. Should the Greenland ice cap collapse and freeze dry northern Europe, this river in the sky would cease flowing. Transpiration is responsible for half of all precipitation around the globe, whilst the air movements that they create are probably interconnected. This means that water management should not be confined to individual basins, but to the entire world, that only a world order, such as a WT, can manage. Places like California and Australia burn because their keystone species are extinct. Such species would eat the grass thereby preventing forest fires when lightning or overhead power lines arc. A WT would override local concerns and get species (wilderbeast or equivalent) in, in sufficient numbers to solve this problem.

    7. Power generation and slash and burn agriculture like that in Amazonia and Indonesia are not the only causes of pollution. Inefficient and often unnecessary transportation is also a major cause of air pollution. This is why in a WT people will live in biomes, where they will produce their own healthy food, instead of going to a supermarket to buy unhealthy junk food and even flowers imported from another continent. In a leisure orientated society you will also need something, like food production, to keep you occupied and out of trouble. Won't you? Humans will occupy the biomes. Nature will exist outside, in the wilderness, and hopefully never the twain will meet, except for snapshots. Biomes also ensure a more pleasant computer controlled atmosphere, far from the overcast wind swept and soaked UK climate outside. They will accommodate the extended family, where one supports the other. This is how it used to be for thousands of years before the needs of capitalism took over.

    8. images my ideas/shut ecology geodesic home.jpg
      SHUT: Geodesic home
    9. Carbon dioxide from power stations and vehicles is not the only greenhouse gas. Far more reactive is methane, which comes from melting permafrost in tundra regions of Siberia and Alaska for instance. As the world warms up, so do these regions, releasing more methane gas, causing roads to buckle as the underground ice turns to water. Methane also originates from council rubbish tips. Some tips are covered with a plastic membrane which collects the gas which is then burnt off, forming carbon dioxide, sometimes for industrial purposes in green industrial estates or community heating schemes. In its wisdom, here in the UK, HMG decided to create more tips, supported by about fifty million plastic wheelie bins for segregated rubbish, instead of burning the nation's trash in plasma furnaces, which would be hot enough to destroy harmful gases. The cost of such facilities would be reduced by replacing bin men with bin lorries that pick up the dustbin and empty it into the lorry, remotely operated by the driver. Both of these technologies have been available in the United States since at least 2010. Living creatures including humans and farm animals produce methane and body heat. The more humans there are on this planet, then presumably the more farm animals are needed to support them. The factory production of synthetic foods, such as Quorn from fungi, is one environmentally friendly way to reduce greenhouse emissions, but ultimately reducing the human population is the best solution.

    10. Plastic is of course another pollutant. In a world technocracy all plastic would be outlawed, all transport vehicles would be taxis vans driven by AI and all electric, and of course there would be no rubbish tips producing methane for decades. Gradually the level of CO² in our atmosphere would decline, whilst the nightmare of the Greenland ice cap melting producing an armada of icebergs off the UK's west approaches causing huge temperature fluctuations and ultimately sea level rise, would become a distant memory.

    11. images my ideas/wtn ecology 1966-11 Asprella Pernis oil refinery Rotterdam.jpg
      WTN: Asprella Pernis Oil Refinery, Rotterdam
    12. With thirty per cent of the Greenland ice cap currently melting, it is only a matter of time before that melt water undermines the ice cap, causing it to break up and create millions of icebergs in the North Atlantic Ocean, whose presence over one hundred years or more will plunge much of the northern hemisphere into a mini ice age, the secondary repercussions are likely to be apocalyptic. Vegetation found in Greenland ice cores proves that the ice cap has melted before from 450,000 to 800,000 years ago, allowing forests to grow, and moths and butterflies to prosper. It is estimated that to rid the atmosphere of the greenhouse gasses that have entered the Earth's atmosphere in the last forty years would take thousands of years. To extract it artificially would require enormous amounts of energy that only a world technocracy would be prepared to do. The alternative is the complete melting of the Earth's heat sinks, the polar ice caps, plus radiant heat being trapped in clouds, leading to a runaway greenhouse effect similar to that on the planet Venus.

    13. Most environmentalists would agree that the failure of the human race to act on this issue, is primarily caused by governments. We need a world technocracy managing a world meritocracy, with a global economy where ecologically minded import controls would reduce product ranges, unnecessary transportation and ensure the use of recycled products. The human race would limit its meat consumption to rabbit, chicken and farmed fish, until meat could be produced artificially. It would also have to conform to population control.

    14. Currently sea levels are rising 3.3 mm per annum, whilst the Earth's atmospheric temperature has risen 0.75°C to 1°C above the long term average. At the United Nations COP 21 conference in Paris, France, it was agreed to limit global warming to 2°C maximum. The Earth's atmospheric temperature during the last ice age was on average just 5°C lower than it is today. There are many causes for global warming, some of which such as El Nino, the eleven year solar cycle, the Earth's elliptical orbit, precession of axis and inclination are beyond our control. The next ice age will be in twelve thousand years time, after this one. Multi-party democracies can only bang so many heads together, a WT can re-educate everyone, who wants to be re-educated that is.

    15. The following paper on the effects of global warming was written in 2009:

    16. At the time of writing, there are moves to make the next prime minister accountable for the effects of global warming, assuming that this is not some pre-election gimmick. I am moved to know that the PM will definitely fall on his sword the moment the Greenland ice cap starts to break up. Her Majesty's Government (HMG) will no longer run away from its responsibilities, like it did over the BCCI banking collapse. With the world consuming 78 million barrels of oil per day, CO² in our atmosphere increasing by 2 parts per million per annum, 20% reduction in Antarctic sea ice over the last twenty years, global mean air temperature risen 0.6°C in last thirty years and 4°C rise in west Alaska, with a predicted 2°C rise in Greenland in the next 25 years, 40% of Arctic sea ice already melted, flash floods in the UKGB, more powerful hurricanes in Florida, plus others in the south Atlantic and off Baja California Peninsula, roads buckling and homes sinking by metres in west Alaska as the permafrost melts, icebergs sighted off New Zealand, sea level risen 30cm off Florida Keys, flooding gardens, in 2019 as increased Gulf Stream expansion brings continuous cloud and rain to the UK, seriously inhibiting plant growth and flowering, and just how do you stop most of Florida going beneath the waves when rising seas cannot be stopped by barriers, because the sea water will percolate through the limestone's sink hole structure? And of course we only hear about the bush fires in Australia and California, when in reality there are thousands of them across the globe at any one time, and becoming more numerous. There are many scientists who believe that the next mass extinction is already underway, caused by the human race itself. Insurance costs due to global warming in the 1980s were $27 billion, with a predicted 500% increase over the next twenty years, it beggars the question, when will the public executions take place, and what good would it do anyway? Of course the death penalty is banned under part 3 article 1 of the Human Rights Act 1998, except in times of war. Is this war? It is certainly more important a problem than the troubles in the Middle East.

    17. Images Wikimedia Commons/19 The wub RRS_Sir_David_Attenborough_in_Greenwich.jpg
      WC: UK Oceanographic Research Ship RRS Sir David Attenborough, Greenwich
    18. The Australian Great Barrier Reef is bleaching due to rising sea temperatures depleting algae that coral feeds on. 1400 miles of dead white coral, ultimately. Of course deep sea coral is unaffected at present, whilst coral reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba emit visible light immediately they intercept ultra-violet light from the Sun, as a means of self preservation. Other creatures are less adaptable, as seen by the ever longer list of endangered species. When they're gone they're gone. I wish I could say that about politicians.

    19. There are many things that governments can do, and here are a few suggestions:

    20. In January 2005 edition of Focus magazine, is a photographic montage taken by ESA's environmental monitoring satellite ENVISAT, showing nitrogen dioxide emissions from industrialized areas of the world. It shows what a right mess our planet is in. It occurred to me that it would make a good invitation card, sent to all politicians in the red areas, with the words, 'thinking of you,' as an invitation to a summit in London on the subject of global warming perhaps. In the photograph the air pollution in north east PRC and north east USA stands out a mile, with a red area from the Thames valley to the Ruhr, via Europort (Rotterdam), plus the Po valley, northern Italy. The only red area in the southern hemisphere is around the mining city of Johannesburg, South Africa. The pollution in China appears to be greater than all other areas put together.

    21. Apart from ridding the UK of much of its polluting heavy industry, 'minor' CO² emission restrictions have been ignored. It should consist of the following:

    22. 1 Switch off street lighting from 7pm to 7am.

    23. 2 Ban attendance to all public events, which could be watched on television.

    24. 3 Ban motor sports that use fossil fuel burning engines.

    25. 4 Ban import, manufacture, sale and use of fireworks (Nov. 5th, New Year).

    26. 5 Ban import, manufacture, sale and use of illuminations (Xmas, Blackpool, Walsall).

    27. 6 Ban import, manufacture, sale and use of floodlighting, except for sport venues.

    28. 7 Ban barbecues.

    29. 8 Impose 1000 pounds customs charge on each person going abroad on holiday.

    30. 9 Ban plasma TFT televisions, and all TV sizes over 47 inch.

    31. 10 Make compulsory, time or human sensor light switches in work places.

    32. 11 Ban the use of radiant heaters outside pubs and restaurants, etc.

    33. 12 Ban halogen lighting, in addition to GLS.

    34. 13 Ban cryptocurrency mining.

    35. The implementation of these measures is long overdue. Of course much of this would go against HMG's policy towards promoting the global economy. In my opinion the two are not compatible. In September 2021 the PRC announced that cryptocurrencies are illegal, sighting pyramid schemes, money laundering, gambling, financial disorder, etc. No doubt as a prelude to the introduction of an electronic currency. Cryptocurrency mining also consumes a significant amount of electricity in the PRC, which will now be better used elsewhere. Coupled with an announcement banning the sale and construction of coal fired power stations abroad, the PRC appears to be finally taking the problem of global warming very seriously. Well who's next? As for those that use cryptocurrencies, they should consider that earning them by whatever means may well get your bank account frozen for two years whilst your bank investigates whether it was initially obtained legally and whether sufficient taxes had been paid. Even then, buying a house with it may well trigger estate agents and solicitors to carry out a similar investigation. Sellers are unlikely to be prepared to wait two years. For many however, the wait could be eternal. In March 2022 it was announced that 615 million dollars worth of ethereum had been stolen in a hack on the computer game Axie Infinity, making it the second largest cryptocurrency theft.

    36. images my ideas/1967-6-2 Hemifusus Singapore Bukom Island.jpg
      WTN: 1967-6-2 Hemifusus Singapore Bukom Island
    37. HMG could also win over other governments through influencing their local governments around the world. Since 1999 the central US government has been engaged in a legal battle on the subject with twelve US states and three cities, who feel that the Environment Protection Agency is not doing enough to regulate emissions under the Clean Air Act. The location of important international meetings such as the European Commission, G8, environment and the World Economic Forum should be considered relevant. Might I suggest the following:

    38. 1 The Greenland ice cap, to witness the effects of global warming.

    39. 2 Inside the hold of a supertanker. This is no joke, as they are bigger than St. Paul's cathedral. Here you will get some idea of the size of the problem, that the burning of fossil fuels presents.

    40. 3 Yellowstone National Park, a source of green energy for the USA.

    41. 4 The shores of the drying Aral Sea, the proposed recipient of diverted Siberian rivers.

    42. 5 The cliff edge of the Dead Sea valley, created by global warming, and a potential carbon depository.

    43. 6 West Alaska, to witness damage to property caused by permafrost melting, since temperatures have risen here by four degrees Celsius in the last thirty years.

    44. 7 Manchuria, to witness the state of China's coal deposits, much of which is burning underground.

    45. 8 Area 51, where the US president can personally provide a guided tour of the facilities, including a demonstration of US Earth saving technology.

    46. Legal action is not the only way to counter global warming. Here are listed a few ideas, that require substantial funding now.

    47. One way to establish trust, prosperity and ultimately peace in the middle east, would involve the building of a siphon generator across the Holy Land from the Levant to the Dead Sea valley. As originally conceived by Israeli scientists and engineers, it could generate hydro-electricity, but it could also create fresh water by pressurized filtration. The water not diverted for irrigation, would vaporize into the atmosphere, falling as rain in the region. There would have to be several pipes, following lines of latitude, equally spaced across the Holy Land, taking full advantage of the thermal effects that the Dead Sea valley has to offer. The Dead Sea, being one of the lowest points on Earth, has a very dense atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, which is beneficial to plant life. The huge amounts of fresh water generated could be used to irrigate forests of fast growing plants, such as bamboo. This would soak up some of the atmosphere's CO², and hence become part of the carbon trading market, generating wealth for Israel, Palestine and Jordan. It is suggested that this huge construction project be financed by the World Bank. In addition, there exists a plan to construct a desalination plant in Jordan and pump the saline water to the Dead Sea to feed the existing chemical works there. What the resultant chemical reaction would be when sea water is added to the Dead Sea is still questionable.

    48. As the Earth heats up, this would create a mini ice age across northern Europe, due to a huge influx of northward flowing fresh water from Siberian rivers into the Arctic Ocean, and thence into the north Atlantic Ocean. This influx would cool, disperse and eventually stop the warm northward flowing Gulf Stream, which originates from the Caribbean Sea. In normal times, this conveyor is kept going by cold dense sea water which sinks, as fresh water sea ice is created. But the north polar ice cap is now melting, not freezing. Proposed decades ago by Soviet scientists, was a scheme to divert fresh water from these rivers to the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea region for irrigation purposes. This would be a mammoth construction undertaking, comparable to the building of the great wall of China, which could only be financed by the World Bank or EU. It would provide a huge number of jobs for construction workers across Europe. It would also encourage the Russian Federation to join the European Union, and hopefully put an end to unrest in three regions of that accursed land. Once in operation, it would extend the amount of time available for the extraction of excess CO² from the atmosphere.

    49. images my ideas/shut ecology power station at night.jpg
      SHUT: Power station at night
    50. These measures alone may not be enough to prevent northern Europe turning into an ice sheet with associated tundra, extending as far south as the Pyrenees Mountains, Swiss Alps and Transylvanian Alps. The expansion of the EU to north Africa, to provide refuge for northern Europeans in the event of a Gulf Stream conveyor failure, should be considered.

    51. Carbon dioxide has to be stored in a liquid under high pressure, to prevent it floating off into the atmosphere. Ideally it should be converted into a solid by fast chemical means. Nature converts it into chalk or limestone, after the minute crustaceans that absorb it, die. CO² has been pumped underground to bring crude oil to the surface in Texas since the 1970s. CO² will readily attach itself to microscopic holes in sedimentary rocks. This makes it impossible to pump it to the surface. The main problem with carbon capture and storage is the cost of the electricity consumed by these fossil fuel burning power stations. A detailed article on the subject can be found in 'Scientific American' magazine Vol. 19 No 2 Summer 2009, pages 52-59.

    52. Bearing in mind that the annual global emission of CO² amounts to 25 giga tonnes, equal to an area the size of the British Isles to a depth of ten metres, makes one realize that prevention is better than cure. Some companies in the oil industry already pump CO² underground, having first extracted it from natural gas to increase its hydrogen content (Norwegian part of North Sea). CO² is also pumped into saline aquifers. In my view pumping CO² down oil wells will merely delay the abandonment of fossil fuel use, whilst the building of so called green coal fired power stations based upon fluidized bed combustion, better scrubbers and underground storage, would mean importing cheap coal from Australia, exacerbating our balance of payment's problems, that will become acute once our fossil fuel exports become insignificant. Greenhouse gases are given off during the mining and storage of coal, whilst more energy will be required to pump the CO² underground. If the growing world population switches to this technology, in a centuries time the planet will be in no better shape, with a run away greenhouse effect assured.

    53. The PRC's recent announcement of the construction of forty nuclear power stations is a step which we should emulate. Their intention to construct two hundred coal fired power stations certainly is not.

    54. Meanwhile unregulated capitalism, continues its unrelenting attack upon the Greenland ice cap. 378 parts per million of carbon dioxide and counting. In my opinion it is already too late to stop the trend. Just a couple of decades ago the Greenland ice cap was increasing in height at the rate of three metres per annum. Now the ice is melting at a net rate of one and a half metres per annum. With black soot precipitating out onto the surface, the amount of sun light absorption will increase, increasing the rate of melt. Cracks in the ice, will no longer be filled with snow, but with relatively warm water. Ultimately the water accumulating at the base could sweep away the moraine, causing an ice slide into the North Atlantic Ocean, and a possible tsunami. Millions of icebergs will be created, making navigation for large ships impossible. The wall of ice and cold fresh water from the melt will stop the Gulf Stream from flowing north and fresh water from rivers flowing south, creating a mini ice age across northern Europe lasting centuries, as the Greenland ice cap slowly disintegrates. Ultimately sea levels will rise seven meters, if the runaway greenhouse effect goes unchecked. Some of these icebergs will be three kilometres deep, having the capability to rip open deposits of frozen methane hydrates located on the edge of continental shelves. This would exacerbate global warming even further. This could also happen when the weight of increasing sea levels causes underwater landslides.

    55. Do not let any prime minister convince you that a drastic change in lifestyle is unnecessary in order to create an ecologically friendly society. Drastic change is necessary. Government legislation is needed to enable the installation of battery recharging points at petrol stations, car parks and pavements outside homes, assuming of course that photo-voltaic technology cannot be incorporated into such vehicles. Numerous other measures would be needed, if HMG is to lead by example, as follows:

    56. images my ideas/1967-5 Hemifusus At Sea Foredeck From Mast Top.jpg
      WTN: 1967-5 Hemifusus At Sea Foredeck From Mast Top

      ---===000 Global Warming, Runaway Greenhouse Effect, Limitations Act 000===---

    57. HMG hereby offers companies the right to tender for the contract to construct enough prefabricated nuclear power stations, to satisfy the entire need of the UKGB and NI for the next quarter of a century, replacing all existing nuclear and fossil fuelled power stations. This project will be open to tender from abroad, including Japan, USA, South Africa, PRC, Russia and France, and will include any reprocessing and decommissioning costs. Fast breeder and conventional nuclear fission will not be allowed, but pebble, Small Modular Reactor, Travelling Wave Reactor, Tokamak and focus fusion reactors will.

    58. In order to facilitate the possible construction of an evacuation fleet, in the event of a mini ice age, it is hereby illegal to demolish and scrap heavy industry, including power stations, ship construction yards, coal mines, engineering factories and their machines. It is also illegal to export old machinery without a license to do so. All such plant will be secured and moth balled. A government grant will be available to cover all costs.

    59. All existing active industrial units will be converted to symbiotic energy + industrial estates.

    60. Manufacturing processes, or parts thereof, considered not environmentally friendly will require dispensation from the secretary of state, before they can be performed repetitively.

    61. All presently imported food, will be replaced by indigenously grown, using waste heat from power stations, in order to reduce CO² emissions from inefficient global logistics, and to ensure that the knowledge and skill to be self sufficient in food production, is already there when the need to relocate the masses arises.

    62. All new construction will be prefabricated, should it become necessary to transfer these facilities, in the event of the evacuation of the nation.

    63. All new homes will comply with the latest building regulations for environmentally friendly construction, incorporating electricity generating photo-voltaic arrays, hot water producing solar panels, geothermal heat pump system where it makes commercial sense, passive heat recoverable air conditioning incorporating underground air inlet at floor level and venturi outlet on roof, heat retentive triple glazing, self cleaning glazing with water farming capability, TV Internet and telephone communications by both land line and satellite, vehicle battery recharging and electrical inverter home supply capability, electronic locks, burglar and fire proof capability. Three months fresh water tank. Each dwelling must be capable of being assembled and dismantled by the occupants, using an illustrated set of instructions, plus a training course lasting no longer than one week. When dismantled, the parts must fit into no more than three shipping containers, including inflatable furniture, etc.

    64. Images Wikimedia Commons/19 Niels Johannes Esperanza_(IMO_8404599).jpg
      WC: Environmental Greenpeace Protest Ship Niels Johannes Esperanza
    65. All road vehicles to be zero emission, by enabling hydrogen fuel cell, lithium ion, Stirling engine/generator or other efficient process. Automobile manufacturers have twelve months to convert their existing designs. A ban on the import of none zero emission vehicles will come into force after three months. Existing garages will introduce recharging points immediately, with recharging under road surfaces at road junctions and certain parking areas. Traditional fuel systems (hydrocarbons) will be replaced within five years. Does not apply to 100% biofuels. Existing road vehicles that have not been converted to green fuels, will be banned from the roads in five years time. In five years time new automobiles will be limited to 400kg weight and must be driven by artificial intelligence, to reduce fuel consumption, and accident costs, which presumably will be covered by the Ministry for Insurance, due to the anticipated collapse of the private insurance industry. All new cars will be hired vehicles using Internet Zip car technology.

    66. Commuters living within two miles of their place of work will either walk or use bicycles.

    67. Commuters living more than two miles from their place of work will use Zip cars (vehicles hired via the Internet, using GPRS and RFID technology), except where exempt.

    68. Car owners will be required to have a full set of approved wheel chains, Arctic clothing, compass, lamp, first aid kit, citizens band radio, maps, heat source independent of vehicle engine, emergency food and drink rations to MOT compliance. Owners must also have a cold weather survival course certificate.

    69. people working for major employers will have their working hours determined by the Ministry for Environment, to reduce traffic congestion and improve fuel efficiency of commuting vehicles.

    70. All homes and businesses will have broadband communication.

    71. All office workers will work at home, communicating with colleagues via Internet Relay Chat (video conferencing), such as Skype and Zoom.

    72. All sales and marketing will be via the Internet, only using sites approved by HMG.

    73. There will be no street lighting and no entertainment centres (public houses, night clubs, brothels, theatres, concert halls, etc.) will be open between the hours of 1900 and 0600, each day.

    74. Like GLS, halogen light bulbs will be banned from UK production and sale.

    75. Television will be reduced to four channels, news, movies, sport and theatre /concerts. These channels will be state supported. There will be no advertising industry and no TV license.

    76. Standby power use on domestic appliances is now illegal, enforced with an automatic 1000 pound fine, except for refrigerators and alarm clocks. This applies to all DVD, television and computer equipment, including that connected to broadband. An estimated 10% of generated electricity is wasted by appliances on standby. Battery powered computer keyboard and mice is also illegal.

    77. All publications will henceforth be on the internet only, and down loadable onto portable e-INK (Librie digital electronic paper) units and computers. Public access to councils, libraries, museums and hospital visits to patients, will be via the internet only. This is partly to conserve energy (building & transportation) but also because it will eventually be necessary to move the state archives, possibly to Australasia or Africa. It will also enable hospitals to be kept cleaner, reducing risk of MRSA infection. To encourage the take up of E-INK HMG will promote the creation and porting of data via an open source foundation. Volunteers should contact the Department for Information Technology. This will apply to world archives, plus education and training material.

    78. images my ideas/shut ecology home charged by photo voltaics or car.jpg
      SHUT: A home charged by photo voltaics or car
    79. (This file was produced on open sourced, and therefore free, Open Office, supported by Apache Software Foundation, the commercial equivalent being Microsoft Office, provides technical back up for a small fee.)

    80. All retailing will be from approved web sites, with warehouse to door delivery. All delivery companies would be part of a consortium. This way delivery companies would not compete against one another in the same area, thereby reducing pollution through inefficient logistics. This monopoly would be limited to 5% profit pa, being monitored by a government body.

    81. Competing products will be limited to no more than three, each approved by the Ministry for Environment.

    82. There will be a total ban on the import of timber and timber products, including that from the EU.

    83. Utility companies will be required to install energy saving technology to the homes of their clients, as follows:

    84. Electricity suppliers will install photo-voltaic arrays, 5kWhr (kilo Watt hours)per home.

    85. Gas suppliers will install solar panels, for the generation of hot water.

    86. Water suppliers will install atmospheric condenser panels, and water conserving measures to existing toilets, of all customers.

    87. Utility suppliers will fit meters at all branches of their networks, and monitor for leaks automatically.

    88. Local Authorities will fit thermal insulation materials to all existing domestic properties, to ensure an overall U value of less than 1.5.

    89. A water national grid, linking the nation's reservoirs, will be built to compensate for the expected fall in precipitation as atmospheric temperatures fall. Power stations will use cooling water from these reservoirs in order to prevent the nation's water supply from freezing up, as overall temperatures fall.

    90. The electricity national grid will become super conducting, the moment the technology becomes available, to reduce transmission loses.

    91. Since it will be impossible to predict what state the global economy will be in once the expected global economic collapse takes place, it is only prudent to make society as self sufficient as possible:

    92. There will be no import of anything except essential materials.

    93. The design and manufacture of all items using integrated circuits or software, will require the approval of the Ministry for Information Technology. Self sufficiency and standardization are paramount.

    94. Of course, if these measures are not implemented by major polluters, as seems likely, then the next step is a foregone conclusion, or is it? With increasing fresh water in the north Atlantic flowing south, the increasingly warm water from the Caribbean could also end up flowing south, possibly resulting in global current reversal, causing Antarctica to melt faster.

    95. Alternatively with the Arctic ice cap gone by 2038, warm current from the Pacific Ocean could stray as far as the west coast of Greenland, sending millions of icebergs down the Davis Strait into the North Atlantic, heating the Greenland ice cap on the way.

    96. Either event could create the expected mini ice age across the northern latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Due to a redistribution of mass (snow and ice) across the Earth's surface, the planet's tilt could change. NASA noted this on the planet Mars recently, due to sublimation of water ice at the equator. On Earth, an increase in tilt would result in a change to sea currents and atmospheric distribution. The weather patterns could change so much that they would be detrimental to agricultural output, resulting in the deaths of millions of people.

    97. Redistribution of mass, namely water from the Greenland ice cap into the Atlantic Ocean, would create uneven pressure on the world's tectonic plates. This could result in massive earthquakes along subduction zones creating tsunamis and numerous volcanic eruptions. Recent research suggests that such melt waters would remain in the Atlantic Ocean for ten to thirty years, before distributing around the globe, due to the effect of ocean currents. The rapid creation of a large fissure in the Earth's crust in northern Ethiopia in 2006 shows that geological events can be massive and rapid. The earthquakes off western Sumatra in Xmas 2005 and Sichuan 2008 may well be examples of such events.

    98. A British satellite detected radio waves from the Sichuan earthquake. Maybe the fitting of this equipment to the ESA Galileo global positioning system would provide a better understanding of the movement of tectonic plates and warn of associated earthquakes.

    99. Clearly, rising sea levels and their flooding effects, upon Bangladesh and Oceania, are not the only factors that governments should consider.

    100. ---===000===---

    101. Extreme measures would then be called for:

    102. images my ideas/1967-5 Hemifusus At Sea Aft Accomodation From Mast Top.jpg
      WTN: 1966-11 Asprella Hurricane mid Atlantic Ocean

      ---===000 General Public Evacuation Procedures, Emergency Powers Act 000===---

    103. HMG formerly declares that the Ministry of Survival (MOS) is hereby created.

    104. Following the implementation of martial law, a twelve hour six day working week will be enforced. The restrictions imposed by the EU Working Time Directive will no longer apply.

    105. Young people presently working in education and the nursing of the elderly, will be transferred to manufacturing (the elderly will be looked after by the elderly), as will all the unemployed, civil servants in the barycentre's and benefits agency, CSA, etc., plus 'volunteers'.

    106. The MOS will be responsible for:

    107. The creation of the evacuation fleet, its maintenance and crewing.

    108. Due to the inevitable sequence of events, HMG will authorize the acquisition or construction of 400 x 250 million tonne ships. Half will be used as people carriers, transporting 100,000 people at a time. The only furniture will be hammocks, with tables and chairs in the canteen. The other ships will transport homes and places of work, desalination plants, nuclear power stations, etc. All ship construction must be completed within three years.

    109. The construction and installation of prefabricated harbours, similar to that used on D-Day 1944, Mulberry.

    110. The dismantling, transportation and erection of utilities, factories, hospitals and other prefabricated buildings.

    111. The dismantling, transportation and erection of dwellings.

    112. The transportation of UKGB citizens, including feeding and health needs.

    113. The MOD will be responsible for relocating all defence systems, including buildings. Twenty extra aircraft / commando carriers will be built for the task.

    114. The National Trust will be responsible for relocating national treasures, using the world's merchant fleet.

    115. The Department for the Environment will be responsible for the plugging of all oil and gas wells, and the dumping at sea, off the continental shelf, of all nuclear waste, since no other country will take it, and there is insufficient time to put it underground.

    116. The relocation of Windsor Castle, Buckingham Palace, Whitehall, Westminster, Tower of London, Tower Bridge, etc. have low priority, as it is not expected that the glacier will extend that far south. They will however, all have to be removed, for the sake of tradition, and also because it is extremely unlikely that UKGB citizens will want to return. Rising or falling sea levels however, may make the recovery of some of these buildings impossible.

    117. Negotiations through the Foreign Office, in partnership with our Scandinavian allies, with prospective recipient nations regarding the acceptance of ethnic minorities, economic migrants, asylum seekers, those with long term medical needs, those of no economic worth (the elderly) and people with serious criminal records (30% of adult males have criminal records), will be on going.

    118. ---===000===---

      images my ideas/1967-5 Hemifusus At Sea Aft Accommodation From Mast Top.jpg
      WTN: 1967-5 Hemifusus At Sea Aft Accommodation From Mast Top
    119. Scientists worldwide now admit that the situation is worse than first thought, having realized that the plethora of jet vapour trails in the sky is resulting in global dimming, which has reduced solar energy to the surface by 10 to 30% in various parts of the planet, thereby reducing the full effect of greenhouse gases thus far. Meanwhile, as American scientists admit that the Earth is radiating out into space less heat than it is receiving, an indisputable indication of global warming, the price of petrol goes beyond 85p per litre. Bad news for motorists. Rising sea levels could produce a similar outcome, particularly as their increased weight is likely to generate earthquakes and resultant tsunamis, undersea landslides caused by melting methane hydrates. Maybe turbulent nature is the reason why homo sapiens have advanced appreciably during the last three millennia. The ultimate triumph of the will.

    120. Recently, a report has been published about the ecology of the UK, titled 'State of Nature Report. This reports the state of 7000 species found in the UK. Compiled by 70 organisations, it states that one in seven species are facing extinction, with 41 per cent having experienced decline since 1970. Most people and organisations within the UK are environmentally aware, so this comes as a damning shock to us all. If we can't get it right, then who can? It's clear that we need consultants, but where are they going to come from; outer space?